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3 2044 097 055 263 


i;»titt S>e^ool S>ttUi, 










lUfrtaeb €bttion. 






< f 

Ynci.3 iJUtuy )^aa4. 

Entered, according to Aci of CongresB, In the year 1873, 


In the Offlce of the Librarian of Congrees, at WashingtoD» 


19 Spring Lraae. 


In presenting to the public the second yolume of 
the ^ Latin School Series," the Editors wish to express 
the gratification they have experienced at the recep- 
tion of its predecessor. 

To what was said in the preface of the first volume 
it seems necessary to add, simply, that the best edi- 
tions and the best texts of the various authors have 
been employed, aud that orthograpby adopted which 
receives the sanction of the most eminent classical 
Bcholars of the present day. 

It is hoped that the Dictionary which is appended found to be a valuable addition to the text, 
as no pains have been spared to select an appropriate 
meaning for the words as they occur in each particular 
passage. Especial attention has been given to the 
derivation of the words by inserting all that would 
be profitable to stndenta at this period of their clasai- 
cal studies. 

BosTON, September 25, 1873. 




OvTD^s Metamobphosbs, 1 

QUINTUS CUBTIUS, . . . • . . 103 

CiCEBO, Db Sbnectute, 163 

CiCEBO, Db Amicitia, • • • • • 227 


Pababigms of Gbbeb: Nouns, • i • 448 



PuBLius OviDius Naso, from whose writings w« 
derive the principal details of his life, was born in the 
country of the Peligni, March 20, A. U. C. 711 (R C. 
43), at Sulrao, now Sulmona, a small provincial town 
about ninety miles in an easterly direction from Rome. 
He belonged to an ancient and wealthy equestrian fam- 
ily, and, in accordance with the custom of the times, 
was at an early age taken to Rome, to prepare himsel^ 
by the usual course of rhetorical arid forensic studies, 
for the political career to which his father had destined 
him. Here he received the best instructions which the 
capital afforded, to which were added several years of 
travel and study in the Greek cities of Sicily, Attica, 
and Asia Minor. After his retum to Rome he held 
some minor offices ; but for the severer duties of political 
service he had neither taste nor sufficient energy of 
will, while his poetic genius, which had already been 
exhibited during the period of his youthful studies, was 
developed and stimulated by intercourse with many -of 
the poets of his day, and by the successes which had 
been realized by the great writers of the Augustan age, 
of which he was to be a shining light. His first pub- 


Hshed work was the Amores, This was followed hy 
the Medicamina Faciei^ descrihing the various arts of 
the toilet then in use, a part only of which is extant, 
and by the Heroides^ in which the legendary love sto- 
ries are reproduced in the form of Epistles. Xater ap- 
peared, more perfect in form and richer in contents, the 
Ars Amandi^ or Amatoria^ and about two years after- 
wards the Hemedia Amoris. Of MedeOy a tragedy, 
which was praised as a masterpiece, nothing remains. 
But more important than all the rest are two works of 
a widely different character, the Fastiy a summary of 
the religion, history, and civil institutions of Rome, and 
the Metamorphoses, in which the poet treats with mas- 
terly skill and luxuriant fancy of those transformations 
which formed so large an element in the ancient ray- 
thology, and for the materials of which he was mainly 
indebted to the Greeks. 

But the Metamorphoses lacked the finishing touches, 
and the JFasti was but half completed, when, by a spe- 
cial decree of Augustus, about 7 A. D., Ovid was ban- 
ished to Tomi, a city of Thrace, on the Black Sea. The 
real canse of this misfortune has never been discovered. 
Ovid admits an error, and refers to the Ars Amandi 
as an ostensible reason. But whatever it was, no lara- 
entations, no entreaties, could effect a revocation of the 
decree. Yet even in banishment — for it was not a 
foi-mal exile, as he lost neither property nor citizenship 
— his poetic genius was still active in the production 
of the Tristia, and the Epistulae ex Ponto^ and some 
minor works ; but solitude, despair, and advancing age 
gradually chilled the poet's spirits, and at length death 
ended his hardships, 17 A. D., three years after the 
decease of Augustus. 





AuBEA prima sata est aetas, quae vindlce nulloi 
Sponte sua, sine lege fidem rectumque colebat. 
Poena metusque aberant, nec verba minacia fixo 
Aere legebantur, nec supplex turba timebat 
ludicis ora sui, sed eraut sine iudice tnti. 5 

Nondum caesa suis, peregrinum ut viseret orbemy 
Montibus in liquidas pinns descenderat undas, 
NuUaque mortales praeter sua litora norant. 
Nondum praecipites cingebant oppida fossae : 
Non tuba directi, non aeris cornua flexi, 10 

1. Aurea] The emphatic word and their friends, who wcre wont 

Btands at the beginning of the with appeals, tokens of grief, and 

sentence. Hesiod reckons five entreaties, to try to obtain a favor- 

iiges; Ovid, four; Aratus, three; able verdict firom the judges. 

"Virgil and Tibullus, two. — vin- 5. erant] Sc. homines. 

dice nulld] * Without any avenger 6. Nondum] Belongs to deseei^ 

(of wrong) ' — the ablative abso- derat, — suis] * Its native,' opposed 

lute. to peregrinum. 

3. minacia] Beferring to the 7. pinus] By synecdoche, the 
edicts of the praetors and cen- material for the thing made of it. 
sors. — Jixdaere] The ablative of 8. norant] The pluperfect of 
place without in, as often in the this verb has the force of an im<i 
poets. In early times the laws perfect. Cf. II. v. 192. 

were set up for public view on tab- 10. directi] Sc. aeria, the geni* 
lets of bronze. tive of characteristic and of ma* 

4. wpplex turba] The accnsed terial at the same time. 


4 P. OVIDII NASONIS [99-115. 

Non galeae^ non ensis erant Sine militis nsn 
Mollia securae peragebant otia gentes. 
Ipsa quoque iinmunis rastroque intacta, nec ullis 
Saucia vomeribus pcr se dabat omnia tellus : 
Contentique cibis, nullo cogente, creatis, 15 

Arbuteos fetus montanaque fraga legebant, 
Cornaque et in duris haerentia mora rubetis, 
Et quae deciderant patula lovis arbore glandes. 
Ver erat aetemum, placidique tepentibus auris 
Mulcebant zepbyri natos sine semine flores. 20 

Mox etiam fruges tellus inarata ferebat, 
Nec renovatns ager gravidis canebat aristis : 
Flumina iam lactis, iam flumina nectaris ibant, 
Flavaque de viridi stillabant ilice mella. 

Postquam, Saturno tenebrosa in Tart^ra misso, 25 
Sub love mundus erat, subiit argentea proles, 
Auro deterior, fulvo pretiosior aere. 

12. MoOia — oHa] 'Eojoyed etic for <wine.' Ct. pcusim rivii 
calm repose.' eurrentia vina repressii. Yerg. Q. 

13. immunis] Explained by nu^ I. 132. 

h cogentey v. 15. 24. mella] According to the 

14. per8e]i,Q,8ud8ponte,*8j^n- ancients, honey was an ethereal 
taneously.' dew, which dropped pure and 

15. Contenti] Sc. hominee. — abandant from the ledvcs of trces. 
nuUo — crectti8]\,Q.quo8creaverat Cf. aerii melUe caelestia dona, 
tellus, nuUo eam cogente. Yerg. G. lY . 1. 

18. lomearbore] The oak. Cf. 25. Poetquam — erat] The im- 

Phaedrus, Fab. XXXIl. 2, quer- perfect aftcr poetquam here de- 

CU8 lovi placuit. notes a state of things coextensive 

22. Nec renovatue] * And the withthcactionoftbeleadingyerb. 
nnfallowed.' The negativis ele- -^miseo] Equivalcnt to deiecto, 
ment in nec belongs to renovatus, Saturnus is here the Greek Kro- 
— canebat] The quantity of the nos, who was dethroned by Zeos 
first syUable shows that the verb and cast into the lower world. 

is caneo. . ^ 26. subiit] The last syllable in 

23. Fhimina] Cf. Exodus 'iii. iit and compounds is always long. 
8, «A land flowing with milk 2:1. deterior] * Less good/ in 
and honey.* — nec^ons] Herepo- comparison with good; peior. 


luppiter antiqai contraxit tempora veris, 

Perque hiemes aestusque et inaequales automnos 

Et breve ver spatiis exegit quattuor annum. 30 

Tum primum siccis aer fervorihus ustus 

Canduit, et ventis glacies adstricta pependit. 

Tum prinmm subiere domus: domus antra fuerunt 

Et densi frutices et vinctae cortice virgae. 

Semina tum primum longis Cerealia sulcis 35 

Obruta sunt, pressique iugo gemuere iuvenci. 

Tertia post illas successit aenea proles, 
Saevior ingeniis, et ad horrida promptior arma, 
Non scelerata tamen. De duro est ultima ferro. 
ProtinuB inrupit venae peioris in aevum 40 

Omne nefas: fugere pudor verumque fidesque: 
In quorum subiere locum fraudesque dolique 
Insidiaeque et vis et amor sceleratus habendi. 
Vela dabant ventis, nec adhuc bene noverat illos 
Navita, quaeque diu steterant in montibus allis, 45 

Fluctibus ignotis insultavere carinae. 
Communemque prius, ceu lumina solis et auras, 

< woTse/ !n comparison with bad. 38. ingeniis] The ablatiye of 

— aere] For aeredf sc. aetate, as spccification. 

(turo for attrea. 40. venae] A term transferred 

28. contraxit] Before this ver from the haman bodj to miningy 
erat aetemumy v. 19. as wc say a * vein of metal.' 

29. Perque-^utumnos] Aspon- 41. -^ue — que] Often usedthns 
daic verse, so call6d from the in poctry for et — et, in combiuing 
fifth foot. single tcrms ; seldom in prose. 

30. spatiis] The ablative of 45. qitaeque — altis] Constme: 
cause, manner, ctc. et (-que) carinae, quae steterant {tU 

33. domus] Observe the quan- arbores). 

tity of the ultimate of the second 46. insultavere] Here means 

domus. * bounded upon/ without the ac- 

35. Cerealia] Ccres first taught ccssory notion of contempt. 

mcn agricuUuro and tho usc of 47. lumina — auras] Accusa- 

corn as food. — s^ilcis] The abla- tivcs, ty attraction, for ceu lumiiM 

MvG of placc without »«. aolia et aurae communea sunt. 




Oaatas hamum longo signavit limite mensor. 
Nec tantum segetes alimentaque debita dives 
Poscebatur humus, sed itum est in viscera terrae, 50 
Quasque recondiderat Stygiisque admoverat umbris, 
Effodiuntur opes, inritamenta malorum, 
lamque nocens ferrum, ferroquc nocentius aurum 
Prodierat : prodit bellum, quod pugnat utroque, 
Sanguineaque manu crcpitantia coiicutit arma. 55 

Vivitur ex rapto : non hospes ab hospite tutus, 
Non socer a genero : fratrum quoque gratia rara est : 
Imminet exitio vir coniugis, illa mariti : 
Lurida terribiles miscent aconita novercae : 
Filius ante diem patrios inquirit in annos. 60 

Victa iacet pietas : et virgo caede madentes, 
Ultima caelestum, terras Astraea reliquit. 

49. tantum] *Only;' literally 
' so mach/ i. e. * so mucb and no 
more; often strengthcned hy mo- 
do. — aegetea] As poaco takes two 
accnsatives in the active voice, it 
retains one in the passive. — de- 
hita\ L e. to the tillers of the 


50. itum eaf] 8(5. ah hominibua ; 

* men penetr.ited,' or * a way was 
made.' Cf. tnvt^, y. 56, *men 
live,* or * life is sapported.' 

51. recondiderai'] The Bubject 
is terra, — Stygiis umbris] The 
realms of the dead, in whleh 
flowed the river Styx, here de- 
note extreme depth and inacces- 

52. mahrum'] The objective 

54. utroque] i. e. ferro et auro, 

* the instrumcuts aiid sinews of 
war.' Philip of Mac6don used to 
say that he deemed no fortress im- 

pregn:ible, wliere there was a gate 
Lirge enough to admit a camel la- 
den witli gold. 

55. concutit] Rcfcrs to clash- 
ing tbe shield and spear. 

56. hoapea — hospite] Obscrve 
the twosenses implying mutoal 

57. aocer a genero] Probably' 
an allusion to Cacsar and Pompey. 

59. Lurida] The poets often 
transfer properties of the effect to 
the cause. 

60. inqtdrit] i. e. of the astrol- 
ogers; an impiety common in 
Ovid's time. 

62. caeleatum] The poets are 
often constrained by the exigcn- 
cies of metre to contract ium into 
um, — Astraea] The goddess of 
justice becomes Virgo in the zodi- 
ac. — reliquit] The gods once 
d welt among men . Cf. patiena cum 
terra deorum eaaet, Fasti, I., 247. 


T. 151. 

Neve foret terris securior arduus aether, 
Adfectasse ferunt regnum caeleste gigantas, 
Altaque congestos struxisse ad sidera montes. 65 

Tura pater omnipotens misso perfregit Olympum 
Fulmine, et excussit subiecto Pelion Ossae. 
Obruta mole sua cum corpora dira iacerent, 
Perfusam multo natorum sanguine Terram 
Inmaduisse ferunt calidumque animasse cruorem, 70 
Et, ne nulla suae stirpis monimenta manerenti 
In faciem vertisse hominum : sed et illa propago 
Contemptrix superum saevaeque avidissima caedis 
Et violenta fuit : scires e sanguine natos. 


T. 244. 
Dicta lovis pars voce probant stimulosque frementi 75 
Adiciunt, alii partes adsensibus inplent. 

63. Neve\ Eqnivalent to et ne, clnsion, tbe condition of whfch 
the c« serving as connective ; * and can easily be snpplied. — m»^o# 
lest.' — sectirior] Hereequivalent {essey] Sc. eo«, implied in propo- 
to tiUior. go : in the poets a pronoan is often 

64. fenm(\ The subject is in- omitted as subject of an infinitiye, 
definite.— ^^071^0«] A Greek ac- when it is unemphatic and easily 
cnsatiye for gigantes. supplied from the context. 

65. congestos] < Brought togeth- 

er and piled np.' Jnpiter has told the assembled 

68. mole sua] i. e. the monn- gods of the wickedness of man- 

tains which they had themselves kind, and declared his intention 

piled np. of inflicting due punishment. 

71. n«nt<Z2a] Thatat leasttfom^, 16. fremefOi] Agrees with et' 

the two n^gatiyes making a strong {lovi) nnderstood. 

afflrmative. 76. Adiciunt] Tobepronounced 

74. scires] The second person adyiciunt. — alit] Corresponds to 

here denotes an indefinite subject ; pars ; so sometimes in prose. — 

the subjunctive ezpresses a con- adsetuibtu] <By (signs of) ap* 

8 P. OVIDII NASONIS [240-265. 

Est tamen humani generis iactura dolori 

Omnibus, et, quae sit terrae mortalibus orbae 

Forma futura, rogant; quis sit laturus in aras 

Tura ; ferisne paret populandas tradere terras. 80 

Talia quaerentes, sibi enim fore cetera cnrae, 

Rex superum trepidare vetat, subolemque priori 

Dissimilem populo promittit origine mira. 

lamque erat in totas sparsurus fulmina terras: 
Sed timuit, ne foite sacer tot ab ignibus aether' 85 

Conciperet flammas, longusque ardesceret axis : 
Esse quoque in fatis reminiscitur, adfore tempus, 
Quo mare, quo tellus, correptaque regia caeli 
Ardeat et mundi moles operosa laboret. 
Tela reponuntur manibus fabricata Cyclopum : 90 

Poena placet diversa, genus mortale sub undis 
Perdere et ex omni nimbos demittere caelo. 
Proiinus Aeoliis aquilonem claudit in antris, 
Et quaecumque fugant inductas flamina nubes, 
Emittitque notum. Madidis notus eVolat alis, 95 

Terribilem picea tectus caligine vultum : 

proval,* silently expressed, as op- 90. Teld] i. e. thunderbolts. — 

posed to voce, tnanibus — Cyclopuni] According 

81. aibi] Is emphatic ; with ctt- to the poetSi nnder the directioa 

rae, two datives. •—fore] Depends of Vulcan. 

on a verbum dicendi implied in 92. Perdere] Appositive to 

vetat. poena. 

83. origine mira] An ablative 93. aquilonem] This wind brings 

of characteristic. dry and clear weathcr in Italy and 

85. sacer] As the dwelling- Greece. — anf m] The Lipari is- 
place of the gods. lands were considered the abode 

86. axis] Here, the heavens of the winds and the seat of Aed- 
from pole to pole. Ins, their king. 

89. Ardeat] The subjiinctive of 95. notum] Thls wind brings 

result. The Stoics held that the rain to the Italians and Greeks. 

world would be consnmed with 96. vuUum] The accusative of 

fire. — operosa] 'Constructedwith specification, denoting the part af- 

toU and skill,' fepted. 


Barba gravis nimbis, canis fluit anda capillis, 

Fronte sedent nebulae, rorant pennaeque sinusque. 

TJtque manu late pendentia nubila pressit, 

Fit fragor, inclusi funduntur ab aethere nimbi. 100 

Nuntia lunonis varios induta colores 

Concipit Iris aquas, alimentaque nubibus adfert. 

Stemuntur segetes et deplorata colonis 

Vota iacent, longique perit labor inritus anni. 

Nec caelo contenta suo est lovis ira, sed illum 106 

Caeruleus frater iuvat auxiliaribus undis. 

Convocat hio amnes : qui postquam tecta tyranni 

Intravere sui, " Non est hortamine longo 

Nunc " ait " utendum : vires effundite vestras, 

Sic opus est: aperite domos, ac mole remota 110 

Fluminibus veslris totas inmittite habenas." 

lusserat. Hi redeunt, ao fontibus ora relaxant, 

Et defrenato volvuntur in aequora cuvsu. 

Ipse tridente suo terram percussit : at illa 

Intremuit motuque vias patefecit aquarum. 115 

97. Barba] Sc. est, which in de- iratus, the attribute bemg thus 
scriptions is often omitted. made prominent. 

98. simta] * The folds of his 106. frater'] Neptune. 

robe.' 107. tecta] i. e. the depths of 

101. induta colores] A poetic the sea. 

constmction, imitated from the 110. domos] i. e. the fountains 
Greek. or sonrces in the interior of the 

102. Concipit Iris] Therainbow earth. 

was conceived to attmct water, \\\. inmittite hahenas] A met- 

and to discharge it in rain. Cf. aphor borrowed from the chariot- 

bibit ingens arctiSf Verg. G. 1. 380. eer. So ora relaxant and defre- 

imbrifer arcus. Stat. Th. IX. 405. nato cursu. 

103. deplorata] Bclongs to the 112. fontibus] The dative after 
verb ; so inritus below ; colonis is the vcrb, fur the genitive after the 
dative of disadvantage. nonn. H. 398, 5. 

104. Vota] Here objects of de- 113. volvuntur] In a refiexlve 
sire, * hopes,* the concrete for the sense, 1. e. volyunt ae. Here the 
abstract, by metonymy, personal character of the river- 

lOo. lovia ira] For luppiter gods is woating. 

10 P. OVIDII NASONIS [286-806. 

Exspatiata ruunt per apertos flumina campos, 

Cumque satis arbusta simul pecudesque virosque 

Tectaque, cumque suis rapiunt penetralia sacris. 

Si qua domus mansit, potuitque resistere tanto 

Indeiecta malo, culmen tamen altior huius 120 

Unda tegit, pressaeque latent sub gurgite turres. 

lamque mare et tellus nullum discrimen habebant: 

Omnia pontus erat : deerant quoque litora ponto. 

Occupat hic coUem : cymba sedet alter adunca 

Et ducit remos illic, ubi nuper ararat. 125 

IUe super segetes aut mersae culmina villae 

Navigat : hic summa piscem deprendit in ulmo. 

Figitur in viridi, si fors tulit, ancora prato, 

Aut subiecta terunt curvae vineta carinae. 

Et, modo qua graciles gramen carpsere capellae, 130 

Nunc ibi deforraes ponunt sua corpora phocae. 

Mirantur sub aqua hicos urbesque domosque 

Nereldes : silvasque tenent delphines, et altis 

Incursant ramis agitataque robora pulsant. 

Nat lupus inter oves, fulvos vehit unda leones, 135 

XJnda vehit tigres: nec vires fulminis apro, 

Crura neo ablato prosunt velocia cervo. 

117. Cum—satis] Equivalcnt 128. siforstulit] *Ifchancedi- 
to et sataf a common constraction rected.' 

in Ovid ; * crops and all/ 130. modo] * Just now,' anti- 

118. penetraUcC] Tho aa^a, or tbetic to nunc. 

images of the household gods, 134. agitatd] Perhaps by anti- 

stood in the inner apartments. cipation (prolepsis) for ut agita- 

121. turres] Equivalent to aedi- rentur; but others nnderstand wti- 

JlciaaUiora. Cf.*Tower'of Lon- dis, 

don. 136. virea fulminis] Sitnatcd in 

123. erat] Theverbagreeswith his tusks, a frcquent comparison 

tlie predicate. Haupt reads erant, in the Latin poets. 

— quioque] Belongs to fc^ora, after 137. Cruranec] The poets not 

whlch it would stand in prose. unfrequently place et, * and,' nec^ 

127. wmma] Is partitivc in sig- fmd aed after a word of the sea- 

nlfication, * on the top of.* tence. — abkUo] Sc. undia. 


Quaesitisque diu terris, ubi sistere detur, 
In mare lassatis volucris vaga decidit alis. 
Obruerat tumulos inmensa licentia ponti, 140 

Pulsabantque novi montana cacumina fluctus. 
Maxima pars unda rapitur : quibus unda pepercit, 
Illos longa domant inopi ieiunia victu. 

V. 313. 

Separat Aonios Oetaeis Phocis ab arvis, 
Terra ferax, dum terra fuit : sed tempore in illo 145 
^ars maris et latus subitamm campus aquarum. 
Mons ibi verticibus petit arduus astra duobus, 
Nomine Pamasus, superantque cacumina nubes. 
Hic ubi Deucalion, nam cetera texerat aequor, 
Cum consorte tori parva rate vectus adhaesit, 150 

Coryc!das nymphas et numina montis adorant, 
Fatidicamque Themin, quae tunc oracla tenebat. 
Non illo melior quisquam nec amantior aequi 
Vir fuit, aut illa metuentior ulla deorum. 
lupplter ut liquidis stagnare paludibus orbem, 156 

Et superesse virum de tot modo milibus unum, 

141. novi] lu the sense of in- mit is above clght thonsand feet 

8ueti. high, towers above all others, 

143. inopi — victu] Nearly the though a second rises to a con- 
same as inopia victus, *by want siderable hcight. In the use of 
of food.' verticibus duotua, the poets prob- 

144. Aonios] An old name for ably have reference to the two 
Boeotoa.— Oetaeis] i. e. ThessaM- peaks through which the Castalia 
«*, as the mountain chain of Oeta flows. 

formed the boundary. 151. numina monHs] i. e. cete^ 

145. tempore in iVo] Cf. IIoc in ra numina montia. 

<«n/>ortf, Nepos.Milt.v.init.,where 152. Themin] A Greek accusa- 

clrcumstances are denoted in ad- tive. — tunc] At a later period it 

dition to the notion of time. became the oracle of Apollo. — 

147. duofyua] Of the peaks of oracla] By syncope, for oracttto; 

Fanuissns, only one, whoso sum- the Delphic oracle is meant. 

12 P. OVIDII NASONIS [326-846. 

Et superesse videt de tot modo milibus unam, 

Innocuos ambos, cultores numinis ambos, 

Nubila disiecit, nimbisque aquilone remotis 

Et caelo terras ostendit, et aethera teiTis. 160 

Nec maris ira manet, positoque tricuspide telo 

Mulcet aquas rector pelagi, supraque profundum 

Exstantem atque humeros innato murice tectum 

Caeruleum Tritona vocat, conchaeque sonanti 

Inspirare iubet, fluctusque et flumina signo 165 

lam revocare dato. Cava bucina sumitur illi 

Tortilis, in latum quae turbine crescit ab imo, 

Bncina, quae medio conccpit ubi aera ponto, 

Litora voce replet sub utroque iacentia Phoebo. 

Tunc quoque, ut ora dei madida rorantia barba 170 

Contigit, et cecinit iussos inflata receptus, 

Omnibus audita est telluris et aequoris undis, 

Et quibus est undis audita, coercuit oranes. 

Flumiria subsidunt, coUesque exire videntur: 

lam mare litus habet : plenos capit alveus amnes : 175 

Surgit humus : crescunt loca decrescentibus undis. 

Postque diem longam nudata cacumina silvae 

169. aquilone] Cf. note, v. 93. ' 169. stib uiroqtte Phoeho] * Un- 

161. tricuspide telo] Cf. v. 114. der the rising and the setting sun.* 

Thetridentservedbothasaweap- 171. Contigit] The snbject is 

on and a sceptre. bucina^ as also of coercuit. — ce^ 

163. humeros] Accusative of cinit receptus] The usual prose 

specification. Cf. v. 96. — innato ejL^YQ&aiovi U canere receptui. 

murice] * With purple-fish grow- 112, undis] Cf. »7/t, v. 166. 

ing on them ; * innato is here a par- 174. videntur] Here used pas- 

titiple, and murice a collective. sively ; * are seen.* 

166. tV/t] Tlie dative of the 115. plenos] The rivers are stlU 
agent, with the passive, is quite *full,'*swollcn,'thoughtheyhave 
common in the poets. retumed to tlieir wontcd channels. 

167. t» /aft/m — tmo] * Increases 177. diem] In the sense of 
in width from the lowest twist.' * space of timc,* dies is always fem- 

168. aera] Here, the breath of inine in the prose of the best pe- 
Triton. x\ii6.. — nudaia] Sc. uru^w. 


Ostendunt, limuraque tenent in fronde relictum. 
Redditus orbis erat. Quem postquam vidit inanem 
Et desolatas agere alta silentia terras, 180 

Deucalion lacrimis ita Pyrrham adfatur obortis : 
" O soror, o coniunx, o femina sola superstes, 
Quam commune mihi genus et patruelis origo, 
Deinde torus iunxit, nuno ipsa pericula iungunt : 
Terrarum, quascumque vident occasus et ortus, 185 
Nos duo turba sumus : possedit cetera pontus. 
Haec quoque adhuc vitae non est fiducia nostrae 
Certa satis: terrent etiam nunc nubila mentem. 
Quid tibi, si sine me fatis erepta fuisses, 
Nunc animi, miseranda, foret ? quo sola timorem 190 
Ferre modo posses ? quo consolante doleres ? 
Namque ego, crede mihi, si te quoque pontus haberet, 
Te sequerer, coniunx, et me quoque pontus haberet. 
O utinam possim populos reparare patemis 
Artibus, atque animas formatae infundere terrae ! 195 
Nunc genus in nobis restat mortale duobus : 
Sic visum superis : bominumque exempla manemus." 
Dixerat, et Hebant. Placuit caeleste precari 
Numen, et auxilium per sacras quaerere sortes. 

183. commune — penus] Iap€tns the ablative absolute containing 
was the grandfather of both. — the leading idea. 

patruelia origd] * Descent from a 194. O utinam'] The hiatus mnst 

father's brother.' be tolerated, as such inteijections 

184. Deinde'] Two syllables, as cannot be elided. — possim] Im- 
always in the classic pocts. plies the possibility of realizing 

187. Haec quoque] * Even this the wish ; possem wonld exclude 

(that wc still survive) is not yet,' it. — pateniis Artibua] Those.of 

etc, oc^Ai^— Ttonbeingequivalent his father, Prometheus. 

to nondum, 195. formcUcte'] i. e. infigxxram 

189. Quid tibi—foret] «What hominis, 

would be your feelings now ? ' — 198. Placuit] Sc. eis ; * they 

fatis'] *Fromdestruction.' resolved.' 

191, quo—dolerea] Equivalent 199, Numen"] Le,Themin. Cf. 

to quis te dolentem consolaretur, Dic, Themi, v. 210. 


Nulla mora est : adeunt pariter CephisKdas undas, 200 

TJt nondum liquidas, sic iam vada nota secantes. 

Inde ubi libatos inroravere liquores 

Vestibus et capiti, flectunt vestigia sanctae 

Ad delubra deae, quorum fastigia turpi 

Pallebant musco, stabantque sine ignibns arae. 205 

Ut templi tetigere gradus, procumbit uterque 

Pronus humi, gelidoque pavens dedit oscula saxo. 

Atque ita " Si precibus '' dixemnt " numina iustis 

Victa remollescunt, si fleotitur ira deorum : 

Dic, Themi, qua generis damnum reparabile nostri 210 

Arte sit, et mersis fer opem, mitissima, rebus." 

Mota dea est, sortemque dedit, "Discedite templo, 

Et velate caput, cinctasque resolvite vestes, 

Ossaque post tergum magnae iactate parentis." 

Obstupuere diu, rumpitque silentia voce 215 

Pyrrha prior, iussisque deae parere recusat, 

Detque sibi veniam, pavido rogat ore, pavetque 

Laedere iactatis maternas ossibus nmbras. 

Interea repetunt caecis obscnra latebris 

Verba datae sortis secam, inter seque volutant. 220 

201. Ut — 8ic] * Although — 213. velate — resolvite] These • 
yet ; ' ao ut — ita, — veula notd] acts were intended to signify the 

* Their wonted chanliels.' absence of disturbance and con- 

202. Inde] Modifies libatos ; straint. 

* drawn thence,* i. e. ex Cephiso, 216. recusat] To distnrb the re- 
Washing or sprinkling was prac- pose of the dead was deemed one 
tised as a preparation for religious of the worst forms of impiety. 
acts. 217. Det] Sc. dea ; ttt is omitted 

207. humt] Thongh commonly after rogat. 

called the genitive, is really the 218. umbras] In the sensc of 

locative, which, however, is iden- manes; hence, perhaps, in the 

tical in form with the genitive in plural. 

the first and second declensions 219. caecis obscura] * Yeiled in 

smgular. dark mystery.' 

211. mersia — rebus] 'To the 220. secum] Belongs to repe- 

drowned world.' tunt, — segue] Metricalexigencies 


Inde Promethides placidis Epimetblda dietis 
Mulcet et *' Aut fallax " ait " est sollertia nobis, 
Aut pia sunt, nullumque nefas oracula suadent. 
Magna parens terra est: lapides in corpore terrae 
Ossa reor dici: iacere hos post terga iubemur." 225 
Coniugis augurio quamquam Titania mota est, 
Spes tamen in dubio est: adeo caelestibus ambo 
Diffidunt monitis. Sed quid temptare nocebit ? 
Descendunt, velantque caput, tunicasque recingunt, 
Et inssos lapides sua post vestigia mittunt. 230 

Saxa (quis hoc credat, nisi sit pro teste vetustas?) 
Ponere duritiem coepere suumque rigorem, 
Mollinque mora, mollitaque ducere formam. 
Mox, ubi creverunt, naturaque mitior illis 
Contigit, ut quaedam, sic non manifesta, videri 235 

Forma potest hominis, sed uti de marmore coepto, 
Non exacta satis, rudibusque simillima signis. 
Quae tamen ex illis aliquo pars humida suco 
Et terrena fuit, versa est in corporis usum ; 
Quod solidum est flectique nequit, mutatur in ossa: 240 
Quae modo vena fuit, sub eodem nomine mansit : 
Inque brevi spatio superorum numine saxa 

sometimes remove -■qtie from the 229. Descendunf] i. e. de tem^ 

first to the second or third word pli grctdibw. Cf. v. 206. 

of the clause. 233. mora] * By delay/ 1. e. ' in 

221. Thepatronymics imply that time/ * gradually.* 

the charactcristics of Prometheus 23.5. vt—sic] Cf.v.201; *though 

andEpimetheus(Forethoughtand some, yet not a distinct hnman 

Afterthought) are seen in their form/ ctc. 

children. 238. Qtuie tamen] Arrange: 

222. nobie] For mihi. pars ex iUiay quae fuit humida, etc. 

223. pia] * Consistent with filial 239. in corporis usum] i. e. to 
affection.' serve as flesh or mnscles, in oppo- 

226. THtania] i. e. Pyrrha, who sition to oaaa, 
was the granddaughter of the Ti- 242. numine] The ablatiTe of 
taa lapetus. Cf. v. 183. cause, after traxere. 

16 P. OVIDII NASONIS [412-11. 

Missa viri manibus faciem traxere virorum, 

Et de femineo reparata est femina iactu. 

Inde genus durum suraus experiensque laborura, 245 

Et doGumenta damus, qua simus origine nati. 


V. 1. 

Reoia Solis erat sublimibus alta columnis, 
Clara micante aurb flamraasque imitante pyropo, 
Cuius ebur nitidum fastigia summa tegebat, 
Argenti bifores radiabant lumine valvae : 
Materiam superabat opus : nam Mulciber illio 6 

Aequora caelarat medias cingentia terras, 
^Terrarumque orbem, caelumque, quod imminet orbi. 
Caeruleos habet unda deos, Tritona canorum, 
Proteaque ambiguum, balaenarumque prementem 
Aegaeona snis inmania terga lacertis, 10 

Doridaque et natas, quarum pars nare videtur, 

243. trcizere] * Assumed/ Cf. 6. mediaa'] * Lying in the midst 

dwere, v. 233. thereof.' 

244. /<?mtna] « Woman,* collec- 8. Caerttleoa] A standard epl- 

tively, fbr the sex. thet of the sea gods, talven from 

the color of the sea. 

LIBEB II. 9 ambiguum] Proteus conld 

2. pyropo] A mixture composed change himself into many forms. 
of three parts of copper and four — premerUem—terga] i. e. sitting 
of gold. on and clinging to, etc. 

3. Cmus] Limits fasHgia, and 10. Aegaeona] According to 
refers to regia. Homer, a hundred-handed giant, 

4. Argentt] Limits htmine. whom men call Aegaeon, and the 

5. MtUciber] An appellation of gods Briareus. 

Vulcan, derived from mulcere, * to 11. Dorida] The wife of Ne- 

soften,' with reference to the in- reus, to whom she bore fifty 

flnence of fire on metals. — ilHc] daughters, the Nereids. — vide^ 

L e. in vahis» tur] Is here passive. 


Pars in mole sedens virides siccare capillos, 

Pisce vehi qnaedam : facies non omnibos ana, 

Nec diversa tamen : qualem decet esse sororanu 

Terra viros urbesque gerit silvasque ferasque 15 

Fluminaque et nymphas et cetera numina mris. 

Haec super inposita est caeli fulgentis imago, 

Signaque sex foribus dextris, totidemque sinistrifl. y ' 

Quo simul adclivo Clymenefa limite proles 

Veni^ et intravit dubitati tecta parentis, 20 

Protinns ad patrios sua fert vestigia vultns, 

Consistitque procul : neque enim propiora ferebat 

Lumina. Purpurea velatus veste sedebat 

In solio Phoebus claris lucente smaragdis. 

A dextra laevaque Dies et Mensis et Annns 25 

Saeculaque et positae spatiis aequalibus Horae, 

Verque novum stabat dnctum florente corona, 

Stabat nuda Aestas et spicea serta gerebat, 

Stabat et Autumnus, calcatis sordidus uvis, 

Et glacialis Hiems, canos hirsuta capillos. 30 

12. moW^ M0U9 denotes any 22. mque —ferebail * Coald 

large, solid mass or pile ; here not bear.* Cf. v. 40, sq. 

•rock.' 23. Lumina] 'Rays of light' 

IZ. Pisce] Collectiyely forp»«- or*beams.* 

cibtu. / 25. Dies et Mensis] Mere per- 

14. ease] The sabject is/act«m sonifications of the diyisions of 

nnderstood. time. 

17. Haecsuper] This position, 26. Horae] « The Hours ; * they 
anastrophe, is restricted mainly to were the daughters of Zeus and 
dissyliabic prepositions after hic Themis. 

and 91M, without a substantive. 27. Fiprnopiim] *Youngspring.* 

18. Signa] The signs of the The year began with spring ; cf. 
zodiac. *September,' the seventh m(Tnth, 

19. nmul] Here equivalent to the year having formerly begun 
timul atque. with March. 

TXi.dubitatq His patemity had 2&. nuda] « Lightly clad.' 
been called in question by Epa- 30. canos — capiUoe] The ao- 
phus, the son of Juplter and lo. cusative of specification. Cf. * Hy- 


18 P. OVIDII NASONIS [31^0. 

Inde loco medius, reram novitate paventem 
Sol oculis iuvenem, qulKus adspicit omnia, vidit, 
*' Quae " que " viae tibi causa? quid hac " ait " arce petisti, 
Progenies, Phaethon, haud infitianda parenti ? 
Ille refert " O lux inmensi publica mundi, 85 

Phoebe pater, si das huius mihi nominis usum, 
Nec falsa Clymene culpam sub imagine celat : 
Pignora da, genitor, per quae tua vera propago 
Credar, et hunc animis errorem detrahe nostris.'* 
Dixerat. At genitor circum caput omne micantes 40 
Deposuit radios, propiusque accedere iussit, 
Amplexuqne dato "Nec tu meus esse negari 
Dignus es, et Clymene veros" ait "edidit ortus. 
Quoque minus dubites, quodvis pete munus, ut illud 
Me tribuente feras : promissi testis adesto 45 

Dis iuranda palus, oculis incognita nostris." 
Vix bene desierat, cun*us rogat ille patemos, 
Inque diem alipedum ius et moderamen equorum. ' 
Paenituit iurasse patrem: qui terquequaterque 
Concutiens inhistre caput, " Temeraria " dixit 50 

em*s chin and icy crown.' Shake- and later prose writers. Madvig, 

speare. Mid. Niglifs Dr,, II. 2. 363, obs. 1. 

31. Inde] i. e. ez solio^ to be 43. veros — orhts'] ■ ' Has dc- 

joined with vidit, — loco medius'] clarcd yoiir real ori^n.* 

Literally, * central in position,* i. e. 44. Qudqtie] Observe that the 

* sitting in the midst of theni.' qtte is tho enclitic ; * and that.' 

^. paretiti] The dative of the 46. iurandapctlus'] Le.theStyx, 

agent. Cf. v. 101, below. — incogmta'] 

35. pubUcd] * Common ; ' so The omission of the copulative 

publica munera, said of water. often occars in animated dis< 

37. imagine] *Pretext.' course. 

39. animis] i. e. animo/ As in 47- currus'] Cf. note v. 39, for 

many such cases, the plui-al is not thc piural. 

in sense perceptibly different from 48. alipedum'] Modifies equo- 

the singular. rum ; litcrally * wing-footed ;' here 

42. negari dignus] A Greek * swift-footed,' cf. v. 169 ; a puiely 

constmction, used by the pocts poeticul word. 


" Vox mea facta tua est: ntinam promissa liceret 

Non dare ! confiteor, solum lioo tibi, nate, negarem. 

Dissuadere licet. Non est tua tuta voluntas. 

Mcigna petis, Phaethon, et quae nec viribus istis 

Munera conveniant, nec tam puerilibus annis. 55 

Sora tua moi-talis : non est mortale, quod optas. 

PIus etiam, quam quod superis contingere fas est, 

Kescius adfectas. Placeat sibi quisque licebit : 

Non tamen ignifero- quisquam consistere in axe 

Me valet excepto. Vasti quoque rector Olympi, 60 

Qui fera terribili iaculatur fulmina dextra, 

Kon agat hos currus : et quid love maius habemos ? 

Ardua prima via est, et qua vix mane recentes 

Enituntur equi : medio est altissima caelo, 

Tlnde mare et terras ipsi niihi saepe videre 65 

Fit timor, et payida trepidat formidine pectos : 

Ultima prona via est et eget moderamine certo: 

Tnnc etiam quae me subiectis excipit undis, 

Ne ferar in praeceps, Tethys solet ipsa vererL 

Adde quod adsidua rapitur vertigine caelum, 70 

51. tua] Sc. voce, *by thy re- 62. agat'] The potential sub- 
qaest' — tUinam — Kceref] Cf. I. junctive. 

T. 194. 63. prima'] Is partltive. So 

52. negarem'] i. e. if it^ere al- Vltima in v. 67, —et qua] * And 
lowed. the one (i. e. part) where.* 

54. quae — conveniani] Equiv- 66. Fit] The subject isvidere; 

alent to et toMa munera, ut non timor is a predicate noun, signify- 

conreniant. — iatis] Is the de- ing here * a soarce of fear.' — pec' 

monstrative of the second pcrson. tus] Sc. meum, 

56. mortale] Equivalent to 67. moderamine certo"] * A flrm 

mortaUum ; with non, * belongs rein.* • 

not to mortals.' 68. etiam'] Belongs to Tethys : 

58. Planeat — licebit] Strictly she was Phn6thon'8 grandmother, 

Kcebit i^ith an impcrative force) andhererepresentstheoceaiiitself. 

utpJ<iceat: *Letcach think as he 70. vertigine'] According to the 

pleases of himself.* doctrine of Anaxagonis, Ovid con- 

SQ.inaxe] L q. in curru, ceived that the spherc of the heav- 

20 P. OVmn NASONIS [71-«S. 

Sideraqne alta trahit celeriqne volnmine torqnet. 

Nitor in adversum, nec me, qui cetera, vincit 

Impetns, et rapido contrarius evehor orbi. 

Finge datos currus. Quid ages? poterisne rotatis 

Obvins ire polis, ne te citus auferat axis ? 75 

Forsitan et lucos illic urbesque deornm 

Concipias anitno, delubraque ditia donis 

Esse? Per insidias iter est formasque fcramm. 

TJtque viam teneas nulloque errore truharis, 

Per tamen adversi gradieris cornna Tauri, 80 

Haemoniosque arcns, violentique ora Leonis, 

Saevaque circuitn curvantem bracchia longo 

Scorpion, atque aliter curvantem bracchia Cancmm. 

Neo tibi quadrupedes animosos ignibus illis, 

Quos in pectore habent, quos ore et naribns efflant, 85 

In promptu regere est : vix me patiuntur, ubi acres 

Incaluere animi, cervixqne repugnat habenis. 

At tn, funesti ne sim tibi muneiis auctor, 

ens, with the fixed stars attachcd, * snppose that/ concessiye, and 

TeYoIved from east to west, while theretore followed hy the subjano- 

the sun and planets moved in the tive. 

opposite direction (Cf. nitor in ad- 80. adverai] The constellation 

versum) through the signs of the Tanms faces the east, while Pha&- 

eodiac. thon is moving from west to east. 

72. jw] Refers to tmpetiu; Cf. note v. 70. 

Gupply vincit and eidera. 81. Haemonios] The Archer 

74. Finffe'] * Imagine,' * sup- (Sagittarius) is by some consid- 
pose ; ' with datos sapply esse. ered a Centanr, and as the Cen- 

75. poUs] Sc. c<ieU ; so axis in taurs had their seat in Thessaly 
the following clause, by synecdo- (Haemonia), the bow is callcd 

, ehe, for caelum ; ne is here equiv- Haemonian. 
alent to ita ut non. 83. Scorpion] Has the nsnal 

76. illic] Join with esse. ending of Greek nonns in -os of 

78. formas ferarum] The con- the second declension. — aUter] 
stellations of the zodiac ; as if * In another direction * 
PhaSthon were going to make the 84. tibi] The dative after in 
annual ronnd in a day. promptu, which is used like a pred« 

79. Utgue] * Aud even though,* icate ac^ective. 



Nate, cave, dum resque sinit, tua corrige vota. 
Scilicet ut nostro genitum te sanguine credas, 90 

Pignora certa petis : do pignora certa timendo, 
Et patrio pater esse metu probor. Adspice vultus 
Ecce meos : utinamque oculos in pectora posses 
Inserere, et patrias intus deprendere curas I 
Denique quidquid habet dives, circumspice, mundus, 95 
Eque tot ac tantis caeli terraeque marisque 
Posce bonis aliquid : nullam patiere repulsam. 
Deprecor boc unum, quod vero nomine poena, 
Non honor est. Poenam, Phaethon, pro munere poscis. 
Quid mea coUa tenes blandis, ignare, lacertis ? 100 

Ne dubita, dabitur . • . Stygias iuravimus undas I • • • 
Quodcuraque o£t^0 : sed tu sapientius opta.'' 
Finierat monitus : dictis tamen ille repugnat, 
Propositumque premit, flagratque cupidine curras^ 
Ergo qua licuit genitor cunctatus, ad altos 105 

Deducit iuvenem, Vulcania munera, currus. 
Aureus axis erat, temo aureus, aurea summae 
Curvatura rotae, radiorum argenteus ordo : 
Per iuga chrysolithi positaeque ex ordine gemmae 
Clara repercusso reddebant lumina Phoebo. 110 

Duinque ea magnanimus Phaethon miratur opusque 
Perspicit, ecce vigil rutilo patefecit ab ortu 
Purpureas Aurora fores et plena rosarum 

89. dutn reaqite] For dumque 101. tmdcu] Accusativeaftcrtw- 
rea, Cf. I. v. 220. ravimtiSy ia imitation of the Oreck. 

91. timendo] Sc. tibi; * hj my 104. premit] * Stands fast by.' 
anxiety for yoa.* 105. qua] Eqaiyalent to quate- 

92. Afispice — ecce] Cf. en ad- ' nuSf * as far as.' 

tpice, II. V. 283. 107. aummae — rotae] i. e. the 

96. Eqtte] Exy the original form rim of the wheel. 

of the prcposition, often drops x 109. gemmae] ^ioewoaldhaye 

t>efore consonants, but oftener re- been expected. 

tains it. 111. magnanimtu] * Ambitions •' 


22 P. OVIDII NASONIS [114-18i. 

'Atria. Diffugiunt stcllae, qnaram agniina cogit 
Lucifer, et caeli statione novissimus exit. 115 

Quae petere ut terras, munduraque rubescere vidit, 
Cornuaque extreuiae velut evanosceie Innae, 
lungere equos Titan velocibus inpernt Iloris. 
lussa deae celeres peragunt, ignemque vomentes, 
Ambrosiae suco saturos, praesepibus altis 120 

Quadrapedes ducunt, addnntque sonantia frena. 
Tum pater ora sni sacro medicamine nati 
Gontigit et rapidae fecit patientia fiammae, 
Inposuitque comae radios, praesngaque luctus 
Pectore soUicito repetens suspiria dixit : 125 

** Si potes his saltem monitis parere paternis, 
Parce, puer, stimulis, et fortius utere loris. 
Sponte sua properant : labor est inhibere volentes. 
Nec tibi directos placeat via quinque per arcus. 
Sectus in obliquum est lato curvamine limes, 130 

Zonarumque trium contentus fine polumque 
Effugit australem, iunctamque aquilonibus Arcton : 

IH. agmina coffU] 'Bringsnp 123, patientia] < Capable of en- 

Ihe rear,' a milltary expression ; daring.* 

BO eaeU atatione — exity ' is the last 124. radioa] Cf. t. 40. 

togoforthfl-omhispostinthesky.' 125, repetena] * Heaying/ or 

115. Lucifer'] Ovid dcscribes «fetching.* 

him elscwhere as one Qul vocat 129. A>c] Stands somctimes 

Aurdram caeloque notissimus exit. for et ne or neve. — directoa] Op- 

The term is a literal translation of posed to ohliquum, The five direct 

the Greek ♦oMr^/Jpoj. circles are the equator, the tropics, 

116. Quae] Refers to /igmina; and the polar circles ; the oblique 
translate, * Now, as Titim saw thcm path is the ecliptic, which cuts the 
dircctlng their course to the eartli.' equator and touches the tropics on 

118. Titan] Helios or Sol is ^ither side. 

hcre called thus as the son of the 130. in obUquum] • Obllquely/ 

Tii;m Hyperlon. — Horis] Cf. v. L e. to the equator. 

26 and note. 131. Zonarum trium] i. e. the 

119. cel^es] For celeriter, the torrid and the two temperate 
a4icctive for tho adverb. soues. — conteniua] * Bonnded.' 

133-164.] METAMORPHOSEON LIBEE 11. 25 

Hac 81 1 iter : manifesta rotae vestigia cernes. 

Utque ferant ^equos et caelum et terra calores, 

Nec preme, nec suramum molire per aethera currum. 135 

Altiiis egressus caelestia tecta cremabis, 

Inferius terras: medio tutissimus ibis, 

Neu te dexterior tortum declinet ad Anguem, 

Neve sinisterior pressam rota ducat ad Aram, 

Inter utrumque tene. Fortunae cetera mando, . 140 

Quae iuvet et melius quam tu tibi consulat opto. 

Dum loquor, Hesperio positas in litore metas 

Huraida nox tetigit : non est mora libera nobis : 

Poscimur. Effulget tenebris Aurora fugatis. 

Corripe lora manu : vel, si mutabile pectus 145 

Est tibi, consiliis, non curribus utcre nostris, 

Dum potes, et solidis etiainnunc sedibus adstas, 

Duraque male optatos nondum premis inscius axes. 

Quae tutus spectes, sine me dare lumina terris." 

Occupat ille levem iuvenili corpore currum, 150 

Statque super, manibusque datas contingere habenas 

Gaudet, et invito grates agit inde parenti. 

Interea volucres Pyrois Eous et Aethon, 

Solis equi, quartusque Phlegon, hinnitibus auras 

136. Aliius] * Too high ; * 80 the shores of the westem ocean, 

inferiuSf * too low.' where Night, having finislied her 

138. dexterior] Sc. rota. — Aiv- course, sinks into the deep, to be 
guem] The Dra^on, a constclla- followed by tlie Sun. 

tion between ttie two Bears. 148. axes] For the singnlar, 

139. Aram] Tbe Altar, asonth- as the chariot was two-whecled. 
em coiistelhition, called /wcasrtm, 149. Quae] Equivalenttou^ea; 
•dcpressed,' because the southem aine is the imperative. 
hemisphcre sinks below onr hori- 150. corpore] The ablative of 
zon. . canse after ievem. 

140. tene] Sc. cursumt or, per- 152. grates agit] Used particu- 
haps, used absolutely. ial^Iy of thanks given to the gods ; 

141. iuvet] Supply tU after opto. the common expression is gratttu 

142. Uesperio — litore] i. e. on agere, — inde] i. e. de curru. 

24 P. OVIDII NASONIS [155-176. 

Flammiferis inplent, pedibusqiie repagala pulsant. 155 
Quae postquam Tethys, fatorum ignara nepotis, 
Reppulit, et facta est inmensi copiu niundi, 
Corripuere viam, pedibusque per aera motis 
Obstantes scindunt nebulas, pennisque levati 
Praetereunt ortos isdem de partibus euros. 160 

Sed leve pondus erat, nec quod cognoscere possent 
Solis equi, solitaque iugum g]*avitate carebat. 
Utque labant curvae iusto sine pondere naves, 
Perque mare instabiles nimia levitate feruntur : 
Sic onere adsueto vacuus dat in aere saltus, 165 

Succutiturque alte, similisque est currus inanL 
Quod simulac sensere, ruunt tritumque relinquunt 
Quadiiiugi spatium, nec quo prius ordine currunt. 
Ipse pavet : nec qua commissas flectat habenas, 
Nec scit qua sit iter, nec, si sciat, inperet illis. 170 

Tum primum radiis gelidi caluere triones, 
Et vetito frustra temptarunt aequore tingui : 
Quaeque polo posita est glaciali proxima serpens, 
Frigore pigra prius, nec formidabilis uUi, 
Incaluit sumpsitque novas fervoribus iras. 175 

156. nepoHa] Clymene» the 166. inam] Sc. cumd. 
mother of Phaethoii, was the 170, siaciat] This form of snp- 
danghter of Tethys. position assumes the possibility of 

157. facia est — copia] * Fall the act implled in the condition. 
scope was given.' n\, triones] i,e,aeptemtrione3, 

158. Corripuere viarn] 'They IbAat septerUrio, 

hastily sped on their way.' — aera] 172. veiito — aequore] The two 

Is the more common form of the Bears are always above the hori- 

accusative in the older period of zon to those livins? not lowcr than 

the language ; cf. aethera, v. 135. the thu-ty-sixth degree of north 

161. nee gttod] *Andsachthat la.titudQ.-rtingut] Reflexive for 
they could not.' Cf. v. 54. tinguere ae. 

162. iugutn] Bj synecdoche, 173. Quaeqw ^ aerpena] *And 
for cunrua. the Dragon which.' 

164. kvUate] The ablative of 174. uUi] Thesubstantiveoseof 
canse aiter instabtlea. the datives ulH and nuBi is rare. 

170-194.] METAMORPHOSEON LIBEE 11. 25 

Te quoque turbatum methorant fugisse, Boote, 
Quamvis tardus eras et te tua plaustra tenebant. 
TJt vero summo despexit ab aethere terras 
Infelix Phaethon, penitus j^enitusque iaceutes, 
Palluit et subito genua intremuere timore, 180 

Suntque oculis tenebrae per tantum lumen obortae. 
Et iam mallet equos numqnam tetigisse paternos : 
lam cognosse genus piget, et valuisse rogando : 
lam Mer5pis dici cupiens, ita fertur, ut acta 
Praecipiti pinus borea, cui victa remisit 185 

Frena suus rector, quam dis votisque reliquit. 
Quid faciat? Multum caeli post terga relictum, 
Ante oculos plus est : animo metitur utrumque. 
Et modo quos illi fatum contingere non est, 
Prospicit occasus, interdum respicit ortus, 190 

Quidque agat, ignarus stupet, et nec frena. remittit, 
Neo retinere valet, nec nomina novit equorum. 
Sparsa quoque in vario passim miracula caelo 
Vastarumque videt trepidus simulacra ferarum. 

176. Bodie] Literally *Herd8- rived trom the driving of the 
man/ here • Oxen-driver,' a con- chariot. — guam] Rcfers topintw, 
stellation 80 called from its posi- *and which.' — votia] i. e. vows 
tion behind the Wain, which Boo- which the pilot malces to the gods 
tes is represented as driving. for the safcty of thc ship. 

177. Quamvia] Taltes the in- 187. Quid faciatf] A delibera- 
dicative, in the poets and later tive qncstion gcnerally implies a 
writers, when it has thc meaning ncgative answer, and takes the 
of quamqtiam. — tardus] Hc is subjunctive. 

callcd by Homer the ' late-setting 190. occasus] The plural im- 

BoOtes.' plics the region rathcr than a mere 

179. penitus] The repctition point or direction ; so orttu. 

strcngthcns the idca. Cf. etiam 191. Quidque] For the -que^ cf. 

atque etiamf * asrain and again.' I. 45. — agat] The subjnnctive 

183. piget] Sc. eum. of indirect question. 

184. Mer^a] ^c.filiua. 194. simulacra /erarum] The 

185. pinus] Navia, Cf. I. v. 7. animals represcnting the constel- 

186. Frena] A metaphor de- lations in the heavens. 

26 ^. OVIDII NASONIS [195-218. 

Est locus, in geminos ubi braccbia concavat arcns 195 
Scorpios, et cauda flexisque utrimque lacertis 
Porrigit in spatium signorum membra duorum. 
Hmic puer ut nigii madidum sudore veneni 
Vulnera cui-vata minitantem cuspide vidit, 
Mentis inops gelida formidine lora remisit. 200 

Quae postquam summo tetigere iacentia tergo, 
Exspatiantur equi, nulloque inhibente per auras 
Ignotae regionis eunt, quaque impetus egit, 
Hac sine lege ruunt, altoque sub aethere fixis 
Incursant stellis, rapiuntque per avia currum, 205 

Et modo summa petunt, modo per declive viasqae 
Praecipites apatio ten*ae propiore feruntur. 
Infeiiusque suis fraternos currere Luna 
Admiratur equos, ambustaque nubila fumant. 
Conipitur flammis, ut quaeque altissima, tellus, 210 
Fissaque agit limas et sucis aret ademptis. 
Pabula canescunt, cum frondibus uritur arbor, 
Materiamque suo praebet seges arida damno. 
Parva queror : magnae pereunt cum moenibus urbes, 
Cumque suis totas populis incendia gentes 215 

In cinerem vertunt. Silvae cum montibus ardent : 
Ardet Athos Taurusque Cilix et Tmolus et Oete 
Et tum sicca, prius celeberrima fontibus, Ide, 

197. aignorum — duorum] i. e. hnd also her chariot, but coursed 

Scorpio and Libra. round the earth in a smailcr circle. 

199. cu8pide\ Sc. caudae, 210. lU quaeqiie] * According as 

200. gelida] * Chilling.* Cf. I. each (part) is highest.' 

V. 58. 211. agit rifnas'] * It forms 

202. nullo] Thc ablative of ne- clefts.* 

mo was scarcely used by the best 215. popuUs — gentes] The lat- 

writers of the classic period. ter is here the more comprehen- 

207. Praecipites] Belongs to sive (the generic), the former the 
vias, and heightens the idea ex- morerestricted(thespecific),term. 
pressed by per declive. 218. celeherrima] * Abounding 

208. Luna} The sister of Sol in ; ' the absolute superlative. 


Virgineusqne Helicon et nondum Oeagrius Haemos. 
Ardet in inmensam geminatis ignibua Aetne, 220 

Paraasnsque biceps et Eryx et Cynthus ct Othrys, 
Et tandem nivibus RhodSpe caritura, Mimasqiie 
Dindymaque et Mycrde natusque ad sacra Cithaeron. 
Nec prosunt Scy thiae sua frigora : Caucrisus ardet, 
Ossaque cum Pindo, maiorque ambobus Olympus, 225 
Aeriaeqne Alpes, et nubifer Apenninus. 
Tum vero Phaethon cunctis e partibus orbem 
Adspicit accensum, nec tantos sustinet aestus, 
Ferventesque auras velut e fornace profunda 
Ore trahit, currusque suos candescere sentit. 230 

Et neque iam cineres eiectatamque favillam 
Ferre potest, calidoque involvitur undique fumo, 
Quoque eat, aut ubi sit, picea caligine tectus 
Nescit, et arbitrio volucrum raptatur equorum. 
Sanguine tunc credunt in corpora summa vocato 235 
AethiCpum populos nigrum traxisse colorem. 
Tum facta est Libye raptis humoribus aestu 
Arida. Tum nyraphae passis fontesque lacusque 
Deflevere comis : quaerit Boeotia Dircen, 

219. Virgineua] * The rcsort of times refers to the object, durect 
the vu-gins.* HclTcon Is thus or indirect, of a sentence. 
Ciilled because it was sacred to 228. austinet] * Can he bear.' 
the Muses. — nondum Oeagrius] 231. Et neque fam] *And no 
Because Oeflgros, thc father of longer ; * neque is correlative to the 
Orpheus, from whom the monn- -que in caUdoque, — cineres] Are 
tain was called Oeagrian, had not simply * ashcs ; * favillae, * liot 
yet bcen bom. ashes/ * embers.* 

220. in inmensum] * Farious- 235. credunt] The snlgcct is 
\y ; ' literally, * boundlessly. ' indefinitc. — in corpora aumma vo- 

222. tandem — caritura] • Des- cato] ' Drawn to the surtiace of 
tined at Icngth to be free from.' their bodies.' 

223. natua ad sacra] Bccause 237. Libye] 1. e. Africa ; per- 
it was consecrated to the worship haps the African dcscrt is meant. 
of Bacchus. 239. quaerit] In the sense of 

224. aua] The reflexive Bome- deaiderat, • missee.' 

28 P. OVIDII NASONIS [240-269. 

Argos Araymonen, Epliyre Pirenidas undas. 240 

Nec sortita loco distantes flurnina ripas 
Tuta manent: mediis Tanliis fumavit in undis, 
Peneosque senex, Teuthranteusque Caicus, 
Et celer Isnienos cum PhegiSco Eryraantho, 
Araurusque iterum Xanthus, flavusque Lycormafl, 245 
Quique recurvatis ludit Maeandros in undis, 
Mygdoniusque Melas et Taenarius Eurotas. 
Arsit et Euphrates Babylonius, ai-sit Orontes, 
Tbei-modonque citus, Gangesqne, et Phasis, et Hister: 
Aestuat Alpheos : ripae Spercheldes ardent : 260 

r Quodque suo Tagus arane vehit fluit ignibus aarum : 
Et quae Maeonias celebrarant carmine ripas 
Flumineae volucres, medio caluere Caystro. 
Nilus in extremum fugit perterritus orbem, 
Occuluitque caput, quod adhuc latet : ostia septem 255 
Pulverulenta vacant, septem sine flnmine valles. 
Fors eadem Ismarios Hebrum cum Strymdne siccat, 
Hesperiosque amnes, Rhenum Rhod^numque Padumque 
Ouique fuit rerum promissa potentia, Thybiin. 

241. %<ntitd\ * Having received 247. Taenarius] The final syl- 

by lot,' i. e. having by nature. lable is lenfrthened by the arsis, 

243. aenex] The sea gods and and the verse is spondaic. 
those who personate liirge rivers 252. celebraranf] * Had filled.* 
are represented by the poets as old 253. volucrea] These were tho 
and gray. swans, which are often refcrred to 

244. Phegidco] The -o is to be by the poets. 

retained in scanning. 255. qtiod — kUef] The sources 

246. iterum] *A secund thne/ of the Nile are frcquently men- 

i. e. at the siege of Troy, when, tioncd as unknown to tiie ancients. 

accordingtoaHoniericfable,Juno 257. lamanoa] Supply amnea, 

persuaded Vulcan to set fire to from the ioilowmg verse. 

the Xanthus, becanse it opposed 259. rentm — potentia] Refer- 

Achilics. ring to the empire of Rome as 

246. recurvatia] The Maeander, the «mistress of the world.* — 

a river between Lydia and Caria, Thybrin] Tiiis Oreek fbrm is 

was remarkable for its windings. often employed by the poeta. 


Dissilit omne solum, penetratque in Tartara rimis 260 

Lunien et infernum terret cum coniuge regem. 

ICt mare coutrahitur, siccaeque est campus arenae 

Quod modo pontus erat, quosque altuni texerat aeqaor, 

Exsistunt montes et sparsas Cycladas augent. 

Ima petunt pisces, nec se super aequora curvi 265 

Tollere consuetas audent delphines in auras. 

Corpora phocarum summo resupina profnndo 

Exanimata natant. I gsum quoque Nerea fama est "^ 

Doddaqne et natas tepidis latuisse sub antris. 

Ter Neptanus aquis cum toryo bracchia vultu 270 

Exserere ausus erat : ter non tulit aeris ignes. 

Alma tamen Tellus, ut erat circumdata ponto, 

Inter aquas pelagi contractosque undique fontedi 

Qui se condiderant in opacae viscera matris, 

Sustulit oppressos collo tenus arida vultus, 275 

Opposuitque manum fronti, magnoque tremore 

Omnia concutiens paullum subsedit, et infra 

Quam solet esse, fuit : siccaque ita voce locuta est : 

" Si placet hoc, meruique, quid o tua fulmina cessant, 

Summe deum? Liceat periturae viribus ignis 280 

Igne perire tuo, clademque auctore levare. 

Vix equidem fauces haeo ipsa in verba resolvo.** 

261. reffeni] Flato, whose wife the old idea that the ocean flowed 

wafl ProserpYna. ronnd the earth. 

264. augent] The monntain tops 277. infra] InTolves the idea 

become islands, and so increase of a comparative ; ' luwer.' 

the numbcr of the Cyclftdes, 279. Si placet hoc] Sc. tibif i. e. 

which hcre represent islands in lovi, — qttid] *Why,* nsed thos 

general. adverbially, is to be refen-ed to 

267. summo — profundo] * On the accnsiitive of speciflcation. 

the sorface of thc deep.* 280. Liceat periturae] Sc. mihi; 

269. Dorfda] Cf. note II. v. 11. * permit me if I am destined to 

270. ctim torvo — vultu] For et perish.' 

toreum vuUum. 2Sl, Igne perire tuo] *To per- 

272. circumdata] Ilcferring to ish with thy lightnhig.' 

80 P. OVIDII NASONIS [283-305. 

(Presserat bra vapor), " tostos en adspice cnnes, 

Inque oculis tuntum, tautum super ora favillae. 

Hosue niilnfructjis, hunc tertilitatis honorem 285 

Officiique refers, quod adunci vulnera aratii 

Rastrorumque fero, totoquo exerceor anno, 

Quod pecori frondes, aiimentaque mitia, fruges 

Humano generi, vobis quoque tura rainistro? 

Sed tamen exitium fac me meruisse, quid undae, 290 

Quid meruit frater ? Cur illi tradita sorte 

Aequora decrescunt et ab aethere longius absunt? 

Quod si nec IVatns, nec te mea gratia tangit, 

At caeli miserere tui. Circumspice utruraque, 

Fumat uterque polus : quos si vitiaverit ignis, 295 

Atria vestra ruent. Atlas en ipse laborat, 

Vixque suis humeris candentem sustinet axem 

Si freta, si terrae pereunt, si regia caeli, 

In cliaos antiquum confundimur. Eripe flammis, 

Siquid adliuc superest, et rerura consule summae." 300 

Dixerat haeo Telhis: neque enim tolerare vaporera 

TJlterius potuit, nec dicere plura : suuraque 

Rettulit os in se propioraque manibus antra. 

At pater omnipotena, superos testatus et ipsura, 

Qui dederat currus, nisi opera ferat, omnia fato 305 

2S7. toto — anno'] Duration of 202. Jnngiua] i. e. than before. 

time is sometimefl expresscd by 29S.fratri8 — ffratia'] *Ilegard 

the ablative, for thy !)rother nor for me ; ' /ra- 

288. alimenta'] An appositive tris is the objective genitive, and 

to fntffeay and placed before it. mea equivalent to a genitive. 

290. fac] * Suppose ; * m* is em- 294 tUrumque] Sc. polum, 
phatic ; with undae supply merue- 299. chaos] The confused and 
runt, shapcless mass out of which the 

291. frater] Sc. tuuSf i. e. Nep- univcrso was made. 

tune. — tradita sorte] Reference 300. rertim — mmmae] * The 

is made to the division of the nniversc,' the dativeof advantage. 

world among the sons of Saturn : 305. opem ferat] Supply Itqh- 

Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto. piter aa subject. 


Interitura gi^avi, summam petit arduus arcem, 

TJnde solet latis nubes inducere terris, 

TJnde movet tonitrus, vibrataque fulmina iactat. 

Sed neque quas posset terris inducere, nubes 

Tunc habuit, neo quos caelo demitteret, imbres. 310 

Intonat, et dextra libratum fulmen ab aure 

Misit in aurigam, pariterque animaque rotisque 

Expulit, et saevos conpescuit ignibus ignes. 

Consternantur equi et saltu in contraria facto 

Colla iugo eripiunt, abruptaque lora relinquunt. 315 

Illic frena iacent, illic temone revulsus 

Axis, in hac radii fractarum parte rotanim, 

Sparsaque sunt late laceri vestigia currus. 

At Phaethon, rutilos flamma populante capillos, 

Volvitur in praeceps, longoque per aera tracta 320 

Fertur, ut interdum de caelo stella sereno 

Etsi non cecidit, potuit cecidisse videri. 

Quem procul a patria diverso maxiraus orbe 

Excipit Eridanus, furaantiaque abluit ora. 

Naides Hesperiae trifida fumantia flamraa 325 

Corpora dant tumulo, signant quoque carmine saxum : 


306. Interitura] Sc. esse. aorist in Greek, for the present 

309. neqtte — mtbes] As the heat of repeated or customary action. 

had consumed them. Cf. II. v. 325. trifdd—Jlammd] «With 

209. three-forked lightning.' 

313. ExpuUt] Belongs also, by 326. Corpora] For corpua ; so 
zeugma, to animSf for which the pectora, corda, ora, terga^ coUa, 
more exact expression wonld be used of one person, are particn- 
animd privavit or animam ex- larly common in the poets. — car- 
pulit. mine'] * With thc inscription.* 

314. m contraria] * In the op- 328. excidit] With incidental 
posite direction.* Cf. II., v. 320 reference to the fall from the char- 
in praecepa, * headlong.* iot, denotes figuratively the failnre 

322. poiuit] Like the gnomic of the undertaking. 

32 P. OVIDII NASONIS [820-7G3. 

Nam pater obductos, lucta miserabilis aegro, 
Condiderat vultus : et, si modo credimus, unum 330 
Isse diem sine sole ferunt. Incendia lumen 
Praebebant, aliquisque malo fuit usus in illo. 
At Clyraene postquam dixit quaecumque fuerunt 
In tantis dicenda malis, lugubris et amens 
Et laniata sinus totum percensuit orbem : 835 

Exanimesque artus primo, mox ossa requirens, 
Repperit ossa tamen peregrina condita ripa, 
lucubuitque loco : nomenque in marmore lectum 
Perfudit lacrimis et aperto pectore fovit. 


V. 760. 
Protinus Invidiae nigro squalentia tabo 340 

Tecta petit. Domus est imis in vallibus huius 
Abdita, sole carens, non ulli pervia vento, 
Tristis et ignavi pleriissima frigoris, et quae 
Igne vacet semper, caligine semper abundet. 
Huc ubi pervenit belli metuenda virago, 345 

Constitit ante domum (neque enim succedere tectis 
Fas habet) et postes extreraa cuspide pulsat. 
Concussae patuere fores : videt intus edentem 

829. Nam] Introduces the rea- 343. ignavi] * Stupefylng.' Cf. 

son why the Nympha performed note I., v. 59. 

the office ot burial. ■ 345. beUi metttenda] * To be 

331. lase] i. e. ivUaef for prae- feared in war.* 

teriaae. 346. neque-^habe^ «For she 

335. aintta] The accasatiye of does not consider it lawfal/ i. e. 

specification. she would not expose herself to 

341. petU] Sc. Minerra, who contamination by a too direct con- 

employs Envy to thwart Mercury tact with envy. 

in his attempt to gain the affec- 347. ctiapide] Sc. haatae ; OT,hy 

tions of Herse, through the me- synecdoche, for haata, 

diation of her sister Aglauros. — 348. patuere] The resnlt of the 

huim] Refers to Jnvidiae, action denoted by concuaaae. 


Vipereas carnes, vitiorum alimenta snoram, 

Invidiam, visaque oculos avertit. At illa 850 

Surgit humo pigre, semesarumque relinquit 

Corpora serpentum, passuque incedit inertL 

Utque deam vidit formaque armisque decoram, 

Ingemuit, vultumque ima ad suspiria duxit. 

Pallor in ore sedet, macies in corpore toto, 355 

Nusquam recta acies, livent robigine dentes, 

Pectora felle virent, lingua est sufFusa veneno. 

Risus abest, nisi quem visi movere dolores, 

Noc fruitur somno, vigilacibus excita curis, 

Sed vi(iet ingratoa, intabescitque videndo, 360 

Successus hominum, carpitqne et carpitur una, 

Suppliciumque suum est. Quamvis tamen odcrat illam, 

Talibus adfata est breviter Tritonia dictis : 

"Infice tabe tua natnrum CecrOpis unam. 

Sic opus est: Aglauros ea est :" haud plura locata 365 

Fagit, et inpressa tellurem reppulit hasta. 

Illa deam obliquo fugientem lumine cemens 

Murmura parva dedit, successurumque Minervae 

Indoluit, baculumque capit, quod spinea totam 

Vincula cingebant, adopertaque nubibus atris 870 

Quacumque ingreditur, florentia proterit arva, 

Exuritque herbas et summa cacumina carpit, 

350. visa] Supplyea; theabla- 360. ingratoa] <With displeas- 

tive absolate. ure.' 

354. duxie] Here * distorted,* 362. tamen] Belongs logically 
i. e. she scowled, fetching at the to adfata est, though standing in 
same time deepest sighs. the concessive claase. Translate: 

355. macies] Sc. eat, implied in ' Yet thoagh Tritonia hated her.* 
aedet. 368. parvd] * Slight,' or * sap- 

356 r^cto aci>5] Cf. the opposite presscd.* — sriccessurum] Sc.esacf 

in obliquo — luminej v. 367. an impcrsonal construction ; * that 

358. nisi quem] Equivalent to Minerva was to be successfuL' 

praeter eum guem.^visi^dolo» 372. summa cacumitia] 8q. her- 

rea] * The sight of sutferings.' barum. 

14 P. OYIDn NA80NIS [798-19. 

Adflatoqne 8no popalos arbesqne domosqae 
PoUait, et tandem Tritonida conspicit arcem, 
Ingeniis opibosque et festa pace nitentemi 875 

Vizque tenet lacrimas, qnia nil lacrimabile cemit. 



Iahqxjb detiB poaita fiBdlacis imagine taori 
Se confessus erat, Dictaeaque rura tenebat^ 
Cum pater igaarus Cadmo perquirere raptam 
Inperat, el poeiiam^ si non inyenerit^ addit 
ExnUnm, &eto pina et sceleratus eodem. 6 

Orbe pererratO) (quis enim deprendere possit 
Furta lovis?) profugus patriamque iramqne parentis 
Vitat Agenorides, Pboebique oracula supplex 
Consulit et quae sit tellus habitandai requirit. 
^Bos tibi'' Phoebns ait «^solia occurret in arviS| 10 
Nullum paaaa iagam, curyiqae immanis aratri. 
Hac ducd oai^ Tiaa et qaa requieverit herb% 

874. THiaiada -^ areem] The or Iot>em.—'Dieeaearura] Crete, 

Acropolis of Athenfe. so called fmta Bicte, a moiintain 

375. Ingem^-^niieMeBml ^IU in tbis island» oa wbidi Japiter 

lastrioas for its men of genins : ' was bronght ap. 
the glories of the age of Peilcles 3. paier] A^renor, who is fgno- 

are transfcrred by the poet to rant of his daaghter'8 fote, which 

the mythicdl period. is indicated by rapiam, 

5. facto — eodem] Tfae ablative 

LiBEK III. ^f amse.-^piuaetaceleratue] An 

1. deiui] Jnpiter, who, haTing oxymoron^ or nnion of words of 
Bssnmed the form of a bnll, had contrary meaning. 

carried Enropa, the danghter of 9. oraeukt] AtDelphi. 

the Phoenician lcing Agenor, and 10. soUe] i. e. deeertis, * lonely.' 

the sieAer of Cadmns, to the islaad 12. Hac duee] The ablative ab- 

ofCrete. tolate»— Aflrbo] The omissioa of 

2. 8eeoitfe$nui] i. e. e»ie d e v m^ •it is ooaimfm ia tiie poets* 


Moento fae condat) Boeotmqtia illa ▼ocato." 

Viz bene Caetalio Gadmaa descenderat antro^ 

Incnstoditam leiite videt ire invenoam 15 

Nallam servitii signam cervice gerentem* 

Sabsequitur, pressoque legit vestigta greaaii, 

Auctoremque viae Phoebam tacitamos adorat» 

lam vada CephTai, Pandpeeqae evaaerat arva: 

Bos stetit et toilena apecioBam comiboa altis 20 

Ad caelum firontem magitiboB inpoliti aaraa 

Atqae ita reipiclens oomitea aua terga seqaente% 

Proeubait tenerfiqoe lataa sabmisit in herba» 

Cadmus a^t gfates, peregrinaeqae OBcuIa tetraft 

Figit, et ignotoe montes agrosqoe salataS. 25 

Sacra lovt ^ctaras erat: iubet ire ministros 

Et petere e vivis libandas fontiims andas. 

Silva vetus stabat nallfi. violata securi, 

lit specus in medio^ virgis ao vimine denans^ 

Efficiens hnmilem lapidam conpagibas aream» SO 

TJberibus fecttndos aqnisy abi conditas antro 

Martios anguis eraty cristis praesignis et aoro: 

Igne inioant ocali: oorpos tnmel omne veneno: 

13. fac eondas] Ut ifl omUted ; 202 ; Wiar§ is bere siinp]/ * draw/ 

'see that yon bnild.' — J3b^'a] *fetch.* 

An acyectlTe. Thebes in Boeotia 3S. «tofa<«] * Profiwed.' Tha 

is often called Theia» BoeUteag, grove Wfi3 aacred to Man, and tt 

to distingnish it trom other dtles woald have been an act of sacri- 

of tbe same name. iege to cot wood in it. 

14 aniro] The cave whence 29. tpeau} Sc erai, impUed in 

the oraele proceeded was caUed tiabaC» 

CastaUum, firom its proximity to 30. lapidum eonpaffibut] 'With 

liie Castaliau foantain. stones joined together.' 

17. preno — greasu] * At a slow 32. Martiu» anguie] According 

]Mce/ to some, the dragon was the sott 

34» agitgratee] To ApoIIo, am- of Mars by one of tbe Fories.— 

M, T. 1& erietie — et auro] B/ hendULdjflf 

27. vim^/mtibuel C& L» T# for erietie aureie. 

86 P. OVroil NASONIS [34-68. 

Tresqae vibrant lingnae : triplici stant ordine dentes. 

Quem postqnam Tyriii lucum de gente profecti 35 

Infausto tetigere gradu, demis^aque in undas 

Urna dedit sonitum, longo caput extulit antro 

Caeruleus serpens, horrendaque sibila misit. 

Effluxere urnae manibus, sangnisque relinquit 

Corpus, et attonitos subitus tremor occupat artus. 40 

Ille volubilibus sqnamosos nexibus orbes 

Torquet, et inmensos saltu sinuatur in arcus, 

Ac media plus parte leves erectus in anras 

Despicit omne nemus, tantoque est corpore, quanto, 

Sl totum spectes, geminas qui separat Arctos. 45 

Nec mora : Phoenicas, sive illi tela parabant, 

Sive fugam, sive ipse timor probibebat utrnmque, 

Occupat : hos morsu, longis conplexibus illos, 

Hos necat aclflati funesta tabe veneni. 

Fecerat exiguas iam sol altissimus umbras : 50 

Quae mora sit sociis, miratur Agen5re natus, 

Vestigatque viros. Tegumen direpta leoni 

Pellis erat, telum splendenti lancea ferro 

Et iaculum, teloque animns praestantior omni. 

Ut nemus intravit, letataque corpora vidit, 55 

Victoremque supra spatiosi corporis hostem 

Tristia sanguinea lambentem vulnera lingua, 

" Aut ultor vestrae, fidissima corpora, mortis, 

34. Trea — fcnTwaff] Ctlingtda 43. media — parte] Sc. corpO' 

micat ore triaulcis, Verg. G. III. ris , * more than half his length.* 

439; but the tongue of the ser- 44. tanto — coi-pore] The ab- 

pent is bifid, lative of characteristic. — quanto'] 

35 Tyria — prqfectt] A periph- Sc. ia esty 1. e. Serpens, the constel- 

rasis (circumlocution) for Tyrii or lation. 

Phoenices, as Tyre was a city of 45. totum] * As a whole.' Sc. 

Fhoenicia. Serpentemy i. e. the polar Dragon. 

42. sintuttur] Used as a reflex- 61. Agenore natus] * The son 

ive vexb ; 1. e. se sinuat. of Agenor, i. e, Cadmas. 


Aut comes " inquit " ero." Dixit, dextraque molarem 
Sustulit ct magnum magno conamine misit. 60 

Illius inpulsu cura turribus ardua cclsis 
Moenia mota forent: serpens sine vulnere mansit, 
Lorica.eque modo squamis defensus et atrae 
Duritia pt^Uis validos cute reppulit ictus. 
At non duritia iaculum quoque vicit eadera, 65 

Quod medio lentae spinae curvaraine fixivii 
Constitit, et totum descendit in ilia ferrum. 
Ille, dolore ferox, caput in sua terga retorsit, 
Vulneraque adspexit, fixumque hastile momordil, 
[dque ubi vi multa partem labefecit in omnem, 70 

Vix tergo eripuit : ferrum tamen ossibus haesit. 
Tum vero postquam solitas accessit ad iraa 
Causa recens, plenis tumuerunt guttura venis, 
Spumaque pestiferos circurafiuit albida rictus, 
Terraque raaa sonat squamis, qnique halitus exit 75 
Ore niger Stygio, vitiatas inficit auras. 
Ipse modo inmcnsura spiris facientibus orbem 
Cingitur, interdum longa trabe rectior exstat, 
Impete nunc vasto ceu concitus imbribus amnis 
Fertur, et obstantes proturbat pectore silvas. 80 

Cedit Agenoride^ paullum, spolioque leonis 
Sustinet incursus, instantiaque ora retardat 

60. miignum] * Grcat as it 78. Cingitur] For ae cingit, Cf. 

was;* tlie poct oftcn lirings tho notc v. 4?. 

saine or cognntc worcls iiitojuxta- 79. Impete] An ancient form 

pisition. for impetu ; impetis is the only 

62. fbrent] For ef^sent. othcr case formcd from the ol)So- 

70. pirtrm — in omnem] * In \ctQ impes. 

every dircction.* 81. Spolioqiie leonis] Cf. v. 

7-5. quiqtie halitifs] Construe : 52; the liun's sltin scrvod as a 

et (is) hnlitus quiexit ctc. " shicld. 

76. titiutas] A prolcpsis for ut 82. instantia] Instare is the 

vitientur, as ilic rcsu It of inficit, oppositc of cedere, v. 81. 

88 F. OVWU HA80H18 [SS-IOI. 

Cnspide praetenta. Farit illey et inania dtifo 

Yulnera dat ferro, iigitqae in aoumine dentes. 

lamqiie venenifero sangitis manare palato 85 

Coeperat et virides adspergine tinxerat herbas : 

Sed leve vulnus erat, quia se retrahebat ab ictu, 

Laesaque colla dabat retro, plagamque sedere 

Cedendo arcebat, nec longius ire sinebat : 

Donec Agenorides coniectum in gutture ferrum 90 

Usque seqnens pressit, dum retro quereus eunti 

Obstitit, et fixa est pariter cum robore cei*vix« 

Pondere serpentis ourvata est arbor, et imae 

Parte flageUari gemuit stia robora caudae. 

Dum spatium victor victi confedderat hostis, 95 

Yox subito audita est : neque erat cognosoero promptum 

Undc, sed audita est : ^ Quid, Agcndro nate, peremptum 

Serpentem spectas? et tu spectabere serpens." 

Ille diu pavidus pariter cum mente colorem 

Perdiderat, gelldoque comae terrore rigebant. ' 100 

Ecce viri fautrix, superas delapsa per auras, 

Pallas adest, motaeque iubet supponere terrae 

Yipereos dentes, populi incrementa futuri. 

Paret, et ut presso sulcum patefccit aratro, 

Spargit humi iussos, mortalia semina, dentes. 105 

88. dabai retro] *Drew back/ 98. apectabere serpens] Cadmus 

— setiere — arcebat] •Prevcntcd was iiftcrwards changcd to a scr- 

firom penetnttin^;.' Arcere ia thus peiit by Mars, who gives this 

followed by the infinitivo only in warning. 

poctry and in the later pi-ose 102. motae ^ terrae] «Undcr 

WTiters. the earth tumed up with the 

90. in fftitture] This construc- plouiih.* 

tion with comectum denotes a con- 103. Vipercos] * Of the dragon.* 

dition of rest as a result of the ac- lOo. hum%] Cf. humo^ v. 127. 

complishment of the action. Elsewhcre Ovid has aemina epar- 

91. etm^l Scaerperdi, gere humo. — mortaUa] Is here 
94. ma robora] •That ItB equivalent to an objective geni- 

trunk ; ' subject otJlageUaH. tivo ; ' whence mortalfl are bom.* 

ie^tSfi.J M£TAM0BraK>SBQ9 UBEB m* 89 

Inde (fide maim) glebae 'eo^ra moTeriy 
Primaqae de sulds acies adparuit hastae^ 
Tegmina mox capitum picto natantia cono» 
Hoz humeri pectusqne onerataque bracchia telifl 
Exsbtunt, crescitque seges clipeata virorum. 110 

Sic ubi tolluntur festis aulaea theatris, 
Surgere signa solent, primumque ostendere Yultus, 
Cetera paullatim, placidoque educta tenore 
Tota patent, imoque pedes in margine ponnnt. 
Territus hoste novo Cadmus capere mrma parabat: 116 
^Ne oape^ de populo, quem terra oreaveni^ imiis 
Ezclamat ^^nec te oivilibus insere bellis." 
Atque ita terrigenis rigido de &atribn8 unnm 
Cominus ense ferit : iacuio oadit eminus ipse. 
Hunc qnoque qui leto dederat, non longius illo 120 
Yivit, et ezspirat modo quas acceperat, aoraa. 
Exemploque pari furit omnis turba, snoque 
Harte cadunt sublti per mutua vulnera fratres. ' 
lamque brevis vitae spatinm sortita iuventus 
Sanguineo tepidam plangebat pectore matrem, 125 
Quinque superstitibus, quorum fuit unus Echion* 

106. fidt maiuM\ * An eyent be- as a oonnectiye after ne wfCb fbe 

yond belief.' imperatiye, is yery rare, 

111. toUuntur — aulaed] In tbe 119. /m^ Tbe snl^ect is unu$t 
imcient theatre, contrary to our y. 116. —cadit eminut] L e. iaenh 
practice, tbe cnrtain was let down Iq eminu» ictut cadit. 

below tbe Btage wben tbe play be- 120. quogue gui] i. e. ti guogue 

gan, and raiised agam wben tbe gui ipse. Bunc, ilh, and imt», y. 

performanoe was conclnded. il6, all denote the same person. 

112. «%ma] «Tbefignres.' \2l. auraa] 'Breatb.' 

113. Cetera] Tbis, like vt<Z6a, i0 122. tuo Marte] 'Inbattlewith 
iSb» o\i]^ot ostendere.^placido' oneanotber.' 

que educta tenore] * And drawn np 123. eubiti} i. e. subito nati* 
with a gentle motion i ' educta is to. 125. matrem} U e. terram. G£ 

be joined with «^rw. terrigeme, y. 118. 

114. margine} Sc. aulaeorum, 126. Quinquesi^)er§tUibml Th0 
117. nec] Neque {fiee) for neve^ ablatiye absolutc. 

40 P. OVIDII NAS0NI8 [127-^590. 

Is saa iecit humo monita TritonYdis anna, 

Fratemaeque fidem pacis petiitque deditque. 

Hos operis comites habuit Sidouius hospes, 

Cum posuit iussam Phoebeis sortibus urbem. 130 

V. 582. 

Ille metu vacuas " Nomen mihi " dixit " Acoetes, 
Patria Maeonia est, humili de plebe parentes. 
Non mihi quae duri colerent, pater, arva iuvenci, 
Lanigerosve greges, non uUa armenta reliquit : 
Pauper et ipse fuit, linoque solebat et hamis 135 

Decipere, et calamo salientes ducere pisces. 
Ars illi sua census erat. Cum traderet artem, 
" Accipe quas habeo, studii successor et heres," 
Dixit '^opes :" moriensque mihi nil ille reliquit 

129. Sidonitu hospea] i.e.Cad- that the Tyrrhenians emigrated 
mus. £rom Lydia. 

130. urbem] i. e. Thebes. Cf. 133. Non mihi] Arrange : pater 
III. y. 13. non reliquit mihi arva, guae dttri 

131. Pentheus, king of Thebes iuvenci colerent. 

and grandsonofCadmus, tried to IZ^. greges^armenta] These 

prevent his subjects from enga- and lands {arva) were the princi- 

ging in the worship of Bacchus. pal elements of wealth in the 

The king's orders having been earliest times. 

disregarded, messengers were sent 137. census] * Estate ; ' the pub- 

to seize the god. Not finding h*c lists or registcrs were made 

Bacchus, they retum with Acoe- out at Rome every five years, 

tes, one of his prlests, who, though and contained the details neces- 

threatened with death, is yet per- sary for a system of taxation and 

mitted first to tell his story, wtiich governmcnt, as ascertained by the 

he does in the foUowing extract. census, which was always held 

,132. Maeonia] Elsewhere he is in the Campus Martius, where 

e Tyrrhena gente. As Maeonia is each citizen had to appear before 

the ancient name of Lydia, we the ccnsors and give an account 

must suppose a migration. He- of himself, of his family, and of 

roddtns has recorded a tradition his property on oatli. 


Praeter aquas : nnam hoc possum adpellare patemum. 
Mox ego, ne scopulis haererem semper in Isdem, 141 
Addidici regimen dextra moderante carinae 
Flectere et Oleniae sidus pluviale capellae, 
Taygetenque Hyadasque oculis Arctonque notavi, 
Ventorumque domos et portus puppihus aptos. 145 
Forte peteus Delon Ceae telluris ad oras 
Adplicor, et dextris adducor litora remis, 
Doquc leves.saltus udaeque inmittor arenaa 
Kox uhi consumpta est, (Aurora ruhescere primo 
Coeperat), exsurgo, laticesque inferre recentes . 150 
Admoneo, monstroque viam, quae ducat ad undas. 
Ipse, quid aura mihi tumulo promittat ah alto, 
Prospicio, comitesque voco, repetoque carinam. 
" Adsumus en ! " inquit sociorum primus Opheltes, 
Utque putat, praedam deserto nactus in agro, 155 

Virginea puerum ducit per litora forma. 

141. isdem] For iisilem. 145. domos] i. e. the re^ions 

142. Addidici] Observe the from which they came. — puppi- 
force of the preposition in com- bita] By synecdoche for nam- 
positlon. bus. 

143. Oleniae] The goat Amal- 147. dextris] i. e. those that 
thea, which gavesuck to Jupiter, bring the ship to the right. — ad- 
is called Olenian from Olgnos in ducor] In prose the preposition 
Achaia. Jiipiter placcd it among woald be repeated, or the simple 
the stars in the left shouldcr of verb with ad would be nsed. 
Auriga. — pluviale] So callcd be- 148. Do — saittis] Cf. v. 37, de- 
cause it rose in the rniny season. dit somtum and v. 232. 

144. TaygSten] One of the 150. exsurgo] * I rise from 
Plciades, liere put for the whole sleep.* 

constellation. — Hydtdas] Five 151. undas] The spring from 

stars in the hcad of Taurus. Their which the fresh water was to be 

rising and setting were supposed takcn on board. 

to bring rain. Observe three 155. Utque putat] Arrange et 

Greek accnsatives in this verse. — nacttts praedam, ut putat; man- 

notavi] An acquaintance with stealing was everywhere common 

the stars was essential to the an- in these times, without regard for 

dent navigator. race, color, or condition. 

42 P« OVIDn KAftOSIS [6O9-081. 

Hle mero somnoqae gravis titQbare videtar, 
Yixqae seqai. Specto caltam faciemque gradamqae ; 
Ni\ ibi, quod credi posset mortale, videbam. 
Et sensi, et dixi sodis ^ Qaod numen in isto 160 

Corpore sit, dubito, ged corpore numen in isto est. 
Quisquis es, o faveas, nostrisqae laboribus adsis : 
His quoque des veniam." " Pro nobis mitte precari,'* 
Dictys ait, quo non alius conscendere summaa 
Ocior antemuas, prensoque radente relabi. . 166 

Hoc labys, hoc flavus, prorae tutela, Melanthos^ 
. Hoc probat AloimSdon, et qai requiemque modomqae 
Yoce dabat remis, animoram hortator Epdpeus : 
Hoc omnes alii : praedae tam caeca cupido est. 
^ Non tamen hanc sacro violaii pondere pinum 170 
Perpetiar" dixi: "pars hio mihi maxima iuris :" 
Inque aditu obsisto. Furit audacissimus omni 
De numero Lyc&bas, qui Tusca pulsus ab urbe 
Exffllium dirapoenam pro caede luebat. 
Is mihi, dam resto, iuvenili guttura pugno 175 

Bnpit, et excussum misisset in aequora, si non 
Haesissem, quamvis amens, in fune retentus. 
Inpia turba probat factum. Tum denique BacchaSi 
(Bacchus enim fuerat), veluti clamore solutus 
Sit sopor, aque mero redeant in pectora sensus, 180 

15S. Vix] < With difflcaltjr.' pauioriua, also gare the * lest ' or 

162./iivea«] The suloimctiYe 'paase' withahammer. 

of desire. 170. vioiari] The wrong coii- 

164. eonacendere] With odor; sisted in carryiag o£f the god. 

a Oreek constraction for ad with 175 reMto] Here eqaivalent to 

tbe gorand. rendo, < I offer resiBtance.' — mihi 

166. proraetulM] Theabstract — n^] « Tried to throttie me.' 

for tbe concrete, L e. for proreUt ; 176. exeuaeuml 8c naoi, * over- 

< the under-pilot.' boaid.' 

168. Voce] The commander of 180. a mero] L e. fiKnn Inloxl- 

the rowers, lometimfis callfid cation. 


^ Qaid &citi8? quis damor?'' ait| **qnS, didte^ nantae, 

Hac ope perveni ? qao me deferre paratis ? ^ 

•* Pone metam," Proreos •* et qaos contingere portas 

Ede velis," dixit : ^ terra siatere petita." 

"Naxon'' ait Liber ^carsas advertite vestros. 

Illa mihi domas est : vobis erit hospita tellus." 

Per mare &llace8 perqoe omnia numina iarant 

Sic fore, meque iubent pictae dare vela carinae. 

Dextera Naxos erat : dextra mihi lintea danti 

** Quid fads, o demens? qais te faror " inquit ** Acoete,* 

Pro se quisqoe, **tenet? laevam pete.'' Maxima nutu 

Pars mihi significat^ pars, quid velit, aure susurrat. 

Obstupui, •*Capiat*' que **aliquis moderamina" dixi, 

Meque ministerio scelerisqoe artisque removi. 

Increpor a cunctis, totumque inmurmurat agmen. 195 

E quibas Aethalion **Te scilicet omnis in uno 



183. Proreua] A Greek word 
signifying also nnder-pilot (cf. r. 
166, prorae tuiela), here used as a 
proper name. 

184. sigtere} •Yon shaXL be 

185. Naaon] This island, the 
largest and most fertile of the 
Cyclftdes, was sacred to Bacchus. 
Its andent name was Dia, * the Di- 
Yine.* Cf. ▼, 239. 

186. mihi danma] NaxoB was 
not only famons for its wine, but, 
a(*cording to some, was also the 
birth-place of Bacchna. 

187. faUaeee] Sc. nautae, 

188. pictae] TheshipsofHomer 
are generally black, but he occa- 
sionally calls tbem * red-cheeked ' 
or * pnrple-cheeked.' — dare — ea- 
Wfloe] ' To spread the sails of the 
«hip : ' eaainae is here ia the geni- 

tiye, the part for the whole by 

189. Dexteral <0n the right.* 
The vessel was bonnd from Ceoe 
to Delos. Cf. T. l46.'-dextral 
* To the right ; ' the abiative here 
denotes the ronte. Cf. ea, <on 
that road.'— mtAft] FoUows tn- 


192. gmd veU^ The object of 
tiffnijlcat, as wcll as ottueurrat. 

193. aliquie] < Some one ; ' 
<else' may be added fi*om the 
context, bnt aUquie is not eqniva^ 
lent of itself to aUue quU. 

194. arHe\ * Of my offlce,* 1. e. 
as pilot. 

195. inmurmurat'] Observethe 
force of the preposition, as if w 

V^eeiUcet] Ironical; <no 
doabt,' *of coorse.' 

44 P. OVIDII NA80NIS [648-^68. 

Nostra salus posita est I " ait, et subit ipse meamque 
Explet opus, Naxoque petit diversa relictiu 
Tum deus inludens, tamquam modo denique fraudem 
Senserit^ e puppi pontura proapectat adunca 200 

Et flenti similis " Non haec mihi litora, nautae, 
Promi>istis" ait, "non haeo mihi terra rogata est. 
Quo merui poenam facto ? quae gloria vestra est, 
Si puerum iuvenes, si multi fallitis unum?" 
lamdudum flcbam : lacrimas manus inpia nostras 205 
Ridet, et inpellit properantibus aequora remis. 
Per tibi nunc ipsum, nec enim praesentior illo 
Est deus, adiuro, tam me tibi vera referre, 
Quam veri maiora fide : stetit aequore puppis 
Haud aliter, quam si siccum navale teneret. 210 

IUi admirantes remorum in verbere perstant, 
Velaque deducunt, geminaque ope currere temptant. 
Inpediunt hederae remos, nexuque recurvo 
Serpunt et gravidis distinguunt vela corymbis. 
Ipse racemiferis frontem circumdatus uvis 215 

Pampineis agitat velatam frondibus hastam. 
Quera circa tigres simulacraque inania lyncum 

197. subif^ Used absolutcly; 208. tam — verd] 'Things as 

* stcps up,* i. e. to tlic helni. truo as incredible.' 

19S, petU diversd] Sc. loca ; 209. veri — jUie] ' Oi*eater than 

*steers in a dilFerent direction.' belief of their truth;* i. e. too 

20\. haec — Ittord] i. e. tliose great for belief in their truth. 

to wliich you arc stecring. 212. Velague dedttcunt] Sc. de 

204. fallitis] TIio indicative wUemnis. Cf. v. 188, sq., for an 

assuines the supposcd citse as real. apparent inconsistency ; but the 

207. Per] In oaths per is often sails may have been furled again. 

separatcd from its accusative, es- gemind ope] Of Siiils and oars. 

peci.illy l)y personal and demon- 2l3. hederae] The ivy was sa- 

strative ]^YOiiOMns. ^praesentior] cred to Bacchus. 

*Mightier;* asBacchusisprescnt 2\%. Jia8tam] The thyrsus, a 

under the disguise of Acoetes, staff twined round with ivy and 

there is probably a play on the vine-leaves. 

word. 217. tigre»\ They are phan- 


Pictarumque iacent fera corpora pantberarum, 
Exsiluere viri, sive hoc insania fecit, 
Sive tiraor: prirausque Medon nigrescere coepit 220 
Corpore, et expresso spiuae curvaraine flecti. 
Incipithuic Lycfibas : "In quae miracula" dixit 
" Veiteris ? " et lati rictus et panda loquenti 
Naris erat, squamamque cutis durata trabebat. 
At Libys obstantea dum vult obvertere remos, 225 

In spatium resilire manus breve vidit, et illas 
lam non esse manus, iam pinnas posse vocari. 
Alter ad intortos cupiens dare bracchia funes 
Bracchia non habuit, truncoqne repandus in undas 
Corpore desiluit : falcata novissima cauda est, 230 

Qualia diraidiae sinuantur cornua lunae. 
XJndique dant saltus, multaque adspergine rorant, 
Emerguntque iterum, redeuntque sub aequora rursus, 
Inque chori ludunt speciem, lascivaque iactant 
Coi-pora et acceptum patulis mare naribus efiant. 235 
De modo viginti, tot enim ratis illa ferebat, 
Restabam solus. Pavidum gelidumque trementi 
Corpore yixque raeuni firmat deus, " Excute " dicens 
" Corde metum, Diamque tene." Delatus in illam 
Accessi sacris, Baccheaque sacra frequento. 240 

toms, as well as the lynxes ; so too 237. Pavtdum] Sc. me, which 

the panthers ; these animals wcre is the object oi Jirmat. 

all sacred to Bacchus. 238. vixque meum ] * And 

221. expresao] Tiiecurve of the scarcely myself ; ' i. e. scarcely ia 
baclc-bone is forced out, and as- possession of my senses. 
sumes the form of an arch. 239 Diam tene'] * Hold on your 

222. In quae miracula] * Into conrse for Dia.* Cf. note v. 185 ; 
what strange shapes ; * miracula and also inter utrumque tenCf II. 
has here the sense of monsira. v. 140. and note. Diam is tho ac- 

223. loquenti] Sc. ei ; * as he cnsative of the limit of motion ; 
spealis.' ' the names of small islands hav- 

230. novissima] i. e. extrema. ing the same construction as the 
23^, In-^speciem] 'Andlike.' names of towns. 

46 P. OVIDn KAS0XI8 [SWl* 


y. 56. 

Pybamtjb et Thisbe, iuvenum pulchemmos alter, 
Altera, quas oriens habuit, praelata puellis, 
Contiguaa tenuere domos, ubi dicituf altam 
Coctilibus muris cinxisse Semiramis urbein. 
Kotitiam primosqne gradus vicinia fecit : 6 

Tempore crevit amor : taedae quoque iure coissent: 
Sed vetuere patres» Quod non potuere vetare^ 
Ex aequo captis ardebant mentibus ambo. 
Conscius omnis abest: nntu signisque loquuiitur: 
Quoque magis tegitur, tectus magis aestuat ignis. 10 
Fissus erat tenui rima, quam duxerat olim 
Cum fieret, paries domui communis utrique. 
Id vitium, nulli x)er saecula longa notatum, 
(Quid non sentit amor?) primi vidistis smiantes, 
Et vocis fecistis iter : tutaeque per illud 15 

Murmure blanditiae minimo transire solebant. 
Saepe, ubi constiterant, hino Thbbe, PyrSmus ilfinc, 

1. This stoty lias come dowii to condacted to the honse of the 

modem times only throngh Ovid, bridegroom. — coisseni ] * Thcy 

and he represents it as having would harc been nnitcd.' 

been littlc known in liis day. 8. Ex aequo capHa] * Eqoally 

3. altarn] So called on nccount captivated.' 

of its walls, which are said to 10. tectus magia] Theomission 

havc been 200 fect in height. of eo, the corrclative of quo^ is 

4. ' Coctilibtta] * Built of bumed poetic. 

briclcs ; ' there are no quarries in 13. nulU] Equivalent to a nul- 

ttke plains of Babylonia. lo ; the dative of the agent. 

b, gradm] Sc. amoris, 14. amantes] Appositive to to$ 

6. taedae] Used by metonymy understood. 

for corUugH : torches were bome 15. /ecistis] Sc id viiium ; iier 

befeFD t^« bride when she was beingthesecoadaocosatiTei. 


Jnqne vices fnerat captatns anhelttus oris, 
"Invide" dicebant "paries, quid amantibns obstas? 
Quantum erat, ut sineres toto nos corpore iungi, 20 
Aut hoc si nimium, vel ad oscula danda pateres 1 
Nec sumus ingmti : tibi nos debere fatemur, 
Quod datus est verbis ad amicas transitus aures." 
Talia diversa nequiquam sede locuti 
Sub noctem dixere vale, partique dedere 25 

Oscula quisque suae non pervenientia contnk 
Postera noctumos Aurora removerat ignes, 
Solque pruinosas radiis siccaverat herbas : 
Ad Bolitum coiere locum : tum, murmure parvo 
Multa prius questi, statunnt, ut nocte silenti 80 

Fallere custodes foribusqne excedere temptent^ 
Cumque domo exierint, urbis quoque tecta relinquant : 
Neve sit errandum lato spatiantibus arvo, 
Conveniant ad busta Nini, lateantque sub aiiibr& . 
Arboris : arbor ibi niveis uberrima pomis 35 

Ardua morus erat, gelido contermina fbnti. 
Pacta placent : et lux, tarde discedere visa, 
Praecipitatar aquis, et aquis nox surgit ab IsdeBL 
Callida per tenebras, versato oardine, Thisbe 
Egreditur fallitque suos, adopertaque vnltum 40 

Pervenit ad tumulam, dictaque sub arbore sedit. 

18. In vieea] Less usaal than 34. husta] The plnral for the 

invicem, singnlar ; tho place where a per- 

20. Quanttem eraf] * Howmnch fion was bnmt was called bugium^ 

it wonld be;* i. e. how little it if he was afterwardsbnriedonthe 

wonld be. same spot ; here a 8epnlchi*al 

25. parU] Scparieiis. — iiedere] mound is meant. 

Plnral, as guisque is a collectiye. 38. aquis] The datiye for in 

26. eontra ] < To the otber aguaa ; i. e. into the ocean. 
side.' 41. PervenU] Observe the nse 

33* Nev 9i£] Eqniyalent to of the tenses in thig aad tha £d1- 
Et^ ait '^ («Q con v t ma nl, etc lowing Tena. 

48 P. OVEDTI NASONIS [96-119. 

Audacem faciebat amor.. Venit ecce recenti 

Caede leaena boiim spumantes oblita rictus, 

Depositura sitim vicini fontis in undti. 

Quam procul ad lunae radios Babylonia Thisbe 45 

Vidit, ct obscurum tref^ido pede fugit in antrura, 

Dnmque fugit, tergo vclamina lapsa reliquit. 

Ut lea saeva sitim raultii conpescuit unda, 

Dum redit in silvas, inventos forte sino ipsa 

Ore cruentato tennes laninvit amictus. 50 

Serius egressus vestigia vidit in alto 

Pulvere certa feraer, totoquo expalluit ore 

Pyramus. Ut vero vestem quoque sangnine tinctam 

Kfpperit, " Una duos " inquit " nox perdet amantes : 

E quibus illa fuit longfi dignissima vita, 55 

Nostra nocens anima est : ego te, miseranda, peremi, 

In loca plena metus qui iussi nocte venires, 

Nec prior huc veni. Nostrum divellite corpus, 

Et scelerata fero consumite viscera morsu, 

O quicumque sub hac habitatis rupe, leones. 60 

Sed timidi est optare necem." Velamina Thisbes 

Tollit, et ad pactae secum fert arboris umbram : 

Utque dedit notae lacrimas, dedit oscula vesti, 

" Accipe nunc " inquit " nostn quoque sanguinis haustus ! " 

Quoque erat accinctus, demisit in ilia ferrum, 65 

43. obHtd] From ohlino, 68. prior] An acijective with 

44. Depositura] * To quench ; ' tlic forcc of an ndverli. 

thc future participle dcnotes pur- 60. nipc] An instance of poeti- 

pose. cnl liccnsc, as thcre are no roclis 

\9, sineipsa] * Without Thisbe near BaUyion. 
herself.' %\, timidi] Tlie prcdicate gcni- 

60. Nostra — anima] i.e,ego; tive, aftcr estf of which optareia 

* I am the guilty one.' the suhjcct. 

67. iussi — venires] AnunuRual 63. notae] Bclongs to vesti. 
construction i ut is sometimes 6i. nostri] For mci; cf. v. 66. 
omitted after verbs of directing, 65. Quoque] i. e. et quo ; fi 

uri^lng, and the like. is the antecedent. 


Nec mora, ferventi moriens e vulnere traxit. 

tTt iacuit resupinus humo, cruor emicat alte : 

Non aliter, quam cum vitiato fistula plumbo 

Scinditur, et tenui stridente foramine longas 

Eiaculatur aquas, atque ictibus aera rumpit* 70 

Arborei fetus adspergine caedis in atram 

Yertuntur faciem, madefactaque sanguine radiz 

Puniceo tinguit pendentia mora colore. 

Ecce metu nondum posito, ne fallat amantem, 

Illa redit, iuvenemque oculis animoque requiriti 75 

Quantaque vitarit narrare pericula gestit. 

TJtque locum, et visa cognoscit in arbore formam, 

Sic facit incertam pomi color : haeret, an haec sit. 

Dum dubitat, tremebunda videt pulsare cruentum 

Merabra solum, retroque pedem tulit, oraque buxo 80 

Pallidiora gerens exhorruit aequoris instar, 

Quod tremit, exigua cum summum stringitnr anra. 

Sed postquam remorata suos cognovit amores, 

Percutit indignos claro plangore lacertos, 

Et laniata comas amplexaque corpus amatum 85 

Vulnera supplevit lacrimis, fletumque cruori 

Miscuit, et gelidis in vultibus oscula figens 

*' Pyrame " clamavit, " quis te mihi casus ademit ? 

Pyriime, responde : tua te carissima Thisbe 

Nomiuat : exaudi, vultusque attolle iacentes I " 90 

Ad nomen Thisbes oculos iam morte gravatos 

69. Scinditur] XJsed reflexive- 78. an haec sif] i. e. arbor; 
ly ; « bursts.' * whether this is the one.' 

70. aguas] * Streams of water.* 81. instar] Appositive to ora, 

71. Arboreifetus] * The fruit of 83. suoa—amores] * The object 
thetree/ ofherlove;* the abstract for the 

74. nefaUat] Follows redit, concrete. 

77. in arhore] Differs frora ar- 84. indignos] i. 6. inmeritot^ 

boris. What she recognizesm the * not deserving such treatroent.* 
tree is its/orm. 86. crttori miscuit] A Gredsm. 

60 P. OVIDII NASONIS [146-166. 

Pyi^mus erexit, visaque recondidit illa, 

Quae postquam vestemque suam cognovit, et ense 

Vidit ebur vacuum, " Tua te manus " inquit " amorque 

Perdidit, infelix. Eat et mihi fortis in unura 96 

Hoc manus. Est et amor : dabit hic in vulnera vires. 

Persequar exstinctura, letique raiserriraa dicar - 

Causa comesque tui : quiquc a me morte revelli 

Heu sola poteras, poteris nec morte revelli. 

Hoc taraen araborum verbis estote rogati, 100 

O raultura miseri, raeus illiusque, parentes, 

Ut quos certus araor, quos hora novissiraa iunxit, 

Conponi tumulo non invideatis eodera. 

At tu, quae rarais arbor raiserabile corpus 

Nunc tegis unius, mox es tectura duorura, • 105 

Signa tene caedis, ijullosque et luctibus aptos 

Seraper habe fetus, geraini mouiraenta cruoris." 

Dixit, et aptato pectus mucrone sub irauni 

Incubuit ferro, quod adhuc a caede tepebat. 

Vota taraen tetigere deos, tetigere parentes. 110 

Nam color in porao est, ubi perraaturuit, ater : 

Quodque rogis superest, unO. requiescit in urna.' 

93. vcstemque] i. e. velamina. lOO. Hoc — roffoti] *Beentrcat- 
Thc -qui} is correliitivo to tlie fol- ed (to grant) tliis.' As rogo talccs 
lowing et. Ovid has in several in- two accusatives in the active, it 
stanccs cmployed these two par- rctains one in tlie passive. 

ticles to coniiect sentenccs, but 101. illiusqtie] In the same con- 

tlicir use is limited mainly to sin- struction with the m^i, implied in 

glc words. meus. 

94. ebur] i. e. tho ivory scab- 103. Conpont] Supply eos as 
bard, tlie matcrial for the thing snbjcct. 

made of it, Tjy mctonymy. 112. rogis superest] *Ilcmain8 

95. et mihi] Equivalent to mihi from the funerai pile ; * i. e. tlieir 
quoque. — in unum hoc] * For this aslies ; rogis is in the dative ; pgra 
Bingle act ; ' i. e. of self-dcstruc- is the poctic word for rogiis ; If 
tion. the rcmains wcre deposited else- 

99. sola] Belongs to morte. — wbere, tlie spot where the body . 
nec] Has the force of ne — quidem. was bumed was calicd ustrina. 



V. 604. 

Sed tamen ambobiis versae solacia formae 
Magna nepos fuerat, quem debellata colebat 
India, quem posifris celebrabat Achaia ternplis. 116 

Solus Abantiades ab origine cretus eadem 
Aci-isius superest, qui moenibus arceat urbis 
Argollcae, contraque deum ferat arma, genusque 
Non putet esse lovis. Neque enim lovis csse putabat 
Persea, quem pluvio Danae conceperat auro. 120 

Mox tamen Acrisium, tanta est praesenlia veri, 
Tam violasse deum, quam non agnosse nepotem 
Paenitet. Inpositus iani caelo est alter : at alter 
Viperei referens spolium memorabile monstri 
Aera carpebat tenerum stridentibus alis. 125 

Cumque super Libycas victor penderet arenas,. 
Gorgonei capitis guttae cecidere cruentae, 
Quas humus exceptas varios animavit in angues : 
Unde frequens illa est infestaquo terra colubris. 

113. ambobus] Cadmns and of result. — urhh ArgoUcae] Ar- 
Hcrmionc, or Harmonia, who hnd gos, of which Acrisius w*i8 king.> 
bccn changcd to serpcnts, as pre- 121. pra^sentia] * Powcr.* 
dictcd by Mars. 122.. agnosse iiepoteni] i. c. his 

114. fiepos] Bacchus. — debel- dlvinc origin. 

lata — India] The story of Bac- 123. alter — alter] Bacchusand 

chus's expcdition to Indi.i ori- Pcrseus. 

ginated aftcr tliat of Alcxander 124. monstri] l c. MedfiFa, 

the Great. the Gorgon, whosc hair liad heon 

U5. AcAaid] Hcro 8tand«, by changed intoscrpcntsiiy Mincrva. 

synccdoche, for the ^^liole of ThewingedsteedPejrasusisfdhled 

Greccc ; so often Achaei for the to liave sprung from hcr l)lood. 

Greclss in general. 12.5. alis] i. c. the wingcd snn- 

116. origine — eddem] Agcnor, dals (calied talaribus in v. 17G) 

the father of Cadmus, and Belus, whicli he had rcceivcd from thc 

the progenitor of Acrisius, wero Kymphs. 

brothers. 129. infcsta] Hcre passivc in 

117 arceat] Tho subjunctive mcaning ; * infcstod by.' 

52 P. OVIDII NAS0NI8 [621-638. 

Inde per inmensum ventis discordibua actus 130 

Nunc liuc, nunc illuc, exemplo nubis aquosae 
Fertur, et ex alto seductaa aetliere longe 
Deapectat terras, totumque su|jervol:it orbem. 
Ter gelidas Arctos, ter Cancri bracchia vidit : 
Saepe sub occasua, saepe est ablatus in ortus : 135 

lamque cadente die, veritus se credere nocti, 
Constitit Heaperio, regnis Atlantis, in orbe : 
Exiguamque petit requiem, duin Luctfer ignes 
Evocet Aurorae, currusAurora diurnos. 

T. 631. 
Hic homimim cunctos ingenti coqoore praestans 140 
lapetionldes Atlas fuit. Ultima telhia 
Rege sub hoc et pontus erat, qui Solis anhelis 
Aequora subdit equis et fessos excipit axea. 
Mille greges illi totidemque armenta pcr herbas 
Errabant, et humum vicinia n.uHa premebant. 145 

Arboreae frondes auro radiante virentes 
Ex auro ramos, ex auro poma tegebant. 

130. inmensurn] i. e. caelum ; 142. qui] Rcfers to pontua ; the 
the property for that to which it wcsteni ocoan, ciillcd tlic Atlantic, 
belongs. from Atlas. 

131. exemplo] *Like;' the ab- \U. ffreffcs] * Flocks/ i. e. 
lative of mahner. of sliccp or .jro;'.ts. — armenfa] 

132. lonffe] Qualiflcs despectat ; * Hcrds/ i. c. of horncd cattle or 
ex aUo — aetliere also foUows this liorscs. 

verb. 14o. premehant] The plnral 

134. Cancri — vidit] i. e. saw with thc collectivc vicinia for 

thc southern heavens. vicini ; 'cncroached upon.* 

139. Aurora] Sc. evocct. 146. virenfes] Belongs to fron* 

140. hominum cimctos] * AIl des. 

mankind.' 147. ex auro poma] For au- 

141. Ultima tcllus] i. e. most rea poma ; the golden apples of 
westerly land ; cf. v. 137. the Hespcrldes are referred fo. 


** Hospes," ait Perseus illi, " seu gloria tangit 
Te generis magni, generis mihi lupplter auctor : 
Slve es mirator rerura, mirabere nostras. 150 

Ilospitium requiemque peto." Memor ille vetustae 
Sortis erat : Tliemis hanc dederat Parnasia sortem : 
"Tempus, Atla, veiiiet, tua quo spoliabitur auro 
Arbor, et hunc praedae titulum love natus habebit." 
Id metuens solidis pomaria clauserat Atlas 155 

Moenibus et vasto dedefat servanda draconi, 
Arcebatque suis externos finibus omnes. 
Huic quoque " Vade procul, ne longe gloria rerum, 
Quam mentiris," ait " longe tibi luppiter absit : " 
Vimque minis addit, manibusque expellere temptat 160 
Cunctantera et i)lacidis miscentem fbrtia dictis. 
Viribus inferior : quis enim par esset Atlanti 
Viribus ? " At quoniara parvi tibi gratia nostra est, 
Accipe munus," ait, laevaque a parte Medusae 
Ipse retroversus squalentia prodidit ora. 165 

Quantus erat, mons factns Atlas : nam barba comaeque 
In silvas abeunt, iuga sunt humerique manusque : 
Quod caput ante fuit, summo est in monte cacumen : 
Ossa lapis fiunt. Tum partes auctus in omnes 

150. rerum] Sc. gestcirum ; * cx- 163. Af] Stands often thus in 

ploits.' passionatc cxclamations : in snch 

152. TTiemis] Cf. I. v. 152. cascs there is an ellipsis of an idea, 

154. /mnc — titulum] * Tlie to which at introduces soracthing 

glory of this prize.* — love natus opposcd ; * I am no match foryou, 

Iiabebit] This prophecy was ful- but,' etc. — parvi] The genitive 

filled by HercOles, who slew the of price. 

draffon and carried off the apples. 165. retroversus] * Turnin^ his 

159. Quam mentiris] * Which face backwards,' that he might 

you fdlsely claim.* — longe — ab- nothimsclf be changed to stone. 

si^ * May be of no avail to.* — squalentia ] i. e. with the 

162.'^« — esset] The condi- bristling, snaky hair. 

tional cause is only implied ; esset 167. abeunt] Is equivalcnt to 

Is here the potential subjunctive. muiantur; 'are changcd into.' 

54 P. OVIDII NASONIS [661-677. 

Crevit in inmensuin : sic di statuistis : et orane 170 
Cuni tot sideribus caelum requievit in illo. 

V. 663. 
Clauserat Hippotudes aeterno carcere ventos, 
Admonitorque operura caelo clarissimus alto 
Lucifer ortus erat. Pennis ligat ille resumptis 
Parte ab utrfique pedes, teloque accingitur unco, 175 
Et liquidum motis tnlaiibus aiira findit. 
Gentibus innumeris circumque infraque relictis 
AethiSpura populos, Cepheaque conspicit arva. 
Illic inmeritam maternae pendere linguae 
Andromedan poenas inmitis iusserat Amraon. 180 

Quam siraul ad duras religatam bracchia cautes 
Yidit Abantiades, nisi quod levis aura capillos 
Moverat, et tepido manabant lumina fietu, 
Marmoreuni ratus esset opus : trahit inscius ignes 
£t stupet et visao correptus imagine formae 185 

Paene suas quatere est oblitus in aere pennas. 

172. Hippotadcs] i. e. Aeolus, AndromSda, boasted that she was 
who was king of tho whids. fuirer than the Nereids; this in- 

173. Admonitor operum] Inas- solence Neptune punished by 
in:ich as he summons mcn to thcir sendin^ a sea monster to ravase 
dc-.ily toil. the country. Tlie oracle of Am- 

174. ille] Pcrseus. mon promised dclivcr.mcc if An- 
17o. Parte — pedes] Equiva- drumCda should be cxposed to the 

lent to utrumqne pedem, — telo — monster. Thc Aetliiopians accord- 

wico] The harpe^ a short curved ingly compellcd Cephcus to chain 

sword loaned to him by Mercury. his daughter to a rock near the 

— accingitur'] * Girds himself.* sca, where she was fouud and rcs- 

178. Cepkea ] * Belonging to cued by Perseus. 

Cepheus/ the king of Acthiopia. 181. simuT] i. e. simul atque. 

179. matemae — linguae] * Of 182. Ahantiddes] Perseus, who 
hcr mother'8 tongue/ i. e. of her was the great-grandson of Abas. 
mother's boasting. Cassiope, the — nisi quod] * But for the fact 
wife of Cepheus and mother of that tho bght breeze had movcd.* 


TJt stetit, " O " dixit " non istis digna catenis, 
Sed quibus inter se cupidi iunguntur amantes, 
Pande requirenti nomen teiTaeque tuumque, 
Et cur vincla geras." Frimo silet illa, nec audet 190 
Adpellare virum virgo : manibusque modestos 
Celasset vultus, si non religata fuisset : 
Lumina, quod potuit, lacrimis inplevit obortis. 
Saepius instanti, sua ne delicta fateri 
Nolle videretur, nomen terraeque suumqne, 195 

Quantaque maternae fuerit fiducia formae, 
Indicat. Et noudum memoratis omnibus unda 
Insonuit, veniensque inmenso belua ponto 
Imminet et latum sub pectore possidet aequor. 
Conclamat virgo : genitor lugubris et una 200 

Mater adest, ambo miseri, sed iustius illa. 
Nec secum auxilium, sed dignos tempore Hetus 
Flangoremque ferunt, vinctoque in corpore adhaerent : 
Cum sic ho^pes ait : " Lacrimarum longa manere 
Tempora vos poterunt: ad opem brevis hora feren- 
dam est. 205 

Hanc ego si peterem Perseus love natus et illa, 
Quam clausam inplevit fecundo luppiter auro, 
GorgSnis anguicoinao Perseus superator, et alis 
Aetherias ausus iactatis ire per auras, 
Praeferrer cunctis certe gener. Addere tantis 210 

188. Sed quibtis] i. e. Sed {iis much hcr mothcr had prided her- 
catenis) qmbus, self in her beaiity/ 

189. requirenti] Sc. miVii. 199. Imminet] * Looms above.' 

193. quod potuit] * It was all 201. iustitis illa] As she, the 
shc could do.' motlier, had bcen the cause of the 

194. instanti] Sc. ila ; i. e. Per- calamity. 

860. 206. illa\ DanaG. 

195. videretur] Follows the his- 210. gener] *As son-in-law;' 
torical prcsent indicat, appositive to the omitted sulQect 

196. Quanta—formae] *How of praefBrrer, 

66 P. OVIDII NASONIS [702-721. 

Dotibns et meritam, fbyeant modo numina, tempto : 

Ut mea sit servata mea virtute, paciscor." 

Accipiunt legem : quis enim dubitaret ? et orant, 

Promittuntque super regnum dotale parentes. 

Ecce velut navis praefixo concita rostro 215 

Sulcat aquas, iuvenum sudantibus acta lacertis, 

Sic fera dimotis inpulsu pectoris undis 

Tantum aberat scopulis, quantum Balear!ca torto 

Funda potest plumbo medii transmittere caeli : 

Cnm subito iuvenis pedibus tellure repulsa 220 

Arduus in nubes abiit. Ut in aequore siimmo 

Umbra viri visa est, visam fera saevit in umbram. 

Utque lovis praepes, vacuo cum vidit in arvo 

Praebentem Phoebo liventia terga draconem, 

Occupat aversum, neu saeva retorqueat ora, 225 

Squamigeris avidos figit cervicibus ungues : 

Sio oeler inmisso praeceps per inane volatu 

Terga ferae pressit, dextroque frementis in armo 

Inachldes ferrum curvo tenus abdidit hamo. 

Yolnere laesa gravi modo se sublimis in auras 230 

211. Dotibua] His high birth 223. lovis praepes] The eagle. 
and heroic conrage. 22*5. Occupat aversum] Sc. 

212. $ervata] • If rescued.* eum; 'seizcs it from behind.'— 

214. auper'] Equivalent to *»- neu] i. e. neve, in which only ne 
tuper.^dotale] * As a dowry.* belongs to the dependent clause ; 

215. pra^/upo — roatro'] Join * and lest, ' « and that not.' 

with sulcat. 226. cervicibus] Tlie ablative ; 

218. qucmtum — caelf] «Asthe the plural is the regnlar ante- 

distance in mid-air, which/ etc. Angustan prose form. 

'—Balearica] The inhabitants of 227. celer — prcteceps] 'Darting 

the Balearic islands were cele- swiftly down.' — per inane] i. e. 

brated for their skill in the use of per aerem. Cf. note v. 130. 

thesling. — torto — plumbo] *With 229. InachHdes] Perseus was 

its whirled bullet.' descended, by his mother, from 

221. Ardtiua — abiii] * Soared the princes of Argos, of which In- 

aloft.' Observe that the nltimate &chus, the son of Oce&uus, was 

of abiit is long ; cf. note i. 26. the foander aud first king. 


Attollit, motlo siibdit aquis, raodo moro ferocis 
Versat apri, quera turba canum circumsoua teiTet. 
IUe avidos morsus velocibus effugit alis : 
Quaque patent, nunc terga cavis super obsita conchis, 
Nunc laterum costas, nuno qua tenuissima oauda 235 
Desinit in piscem, falcato verberat ense. 
Belua puniceo raixtos cum sanguine fluctuB 
Ore vorait : raaduere graves adspergine pennae. 
Nec bibulis ultra Perseus talaribus ausus 
Credere conspexit scopulura, qui vertice surarao 240 
Stantibus exstat aquis, operitur ab aequore raoto. 
Nixus eo rupisque tenens iuga prima sinistra 
Ter quater exegit repetita per ilia ferrum. 
Litora cum plausu claraor superasque deorura 
Inplevere doraos. Gaudent, generumque salutant, 245 
Auxiliuraque doraus servatoreraque fatentur 
Cassi6pe Cepbeusque pater. Rusoluta catenis 
Incedit virgo, pretiuraque et causa laboris. 
Ipse raanus hausta victrices abluit unda: 
Anguiferumque caput dura ne laedat arena, 250 

Mollit huraura foliis, natasque sub aequore virgas 
Stemit, et inponit Phorcynidos ora Medusae. 
Virga recens bibulaque etiamnum viva raedulla 
Vim rapuit raonstri, tactuque induruit huius, 
Percepitque novura rarais et fronde rigoiera. 255 

231. 8ubdii] Repeat se as ob- 242. eo] i. e. acopulo ; tbe abla- 

ject ; so with uerae^. tivc of ineans. 

234. Quaque patent] The sub- 243. repetita] * Struck repcat- 

jects are tergat costae^ cauda, edly.' 

238. maduere graves] * Became 244. cum plausu clamor] For 
wet and heavy.* clamor et plaususy and according- 

239. Nec] The jiegative be- ly foliowed by a plural vcrh. 
longs to ausus. 245. salutant] Sc. eum ; gen- 

241. Stantibus] Antithctic to erum is tlic prcdicatc ncciisative. 
moto and eqaivalent to quietis» 246. fatentur\ Sc* eum esse. 

58 P. OVIDII NASONIS [747-767. 

At pelagi nymphae factnra mirabile temptant 
Pluribus in virgis, et idem contingere gaudent, 
Seminaque ex illis iterant iactata per undas. 
Nunc quoque curaliis eadem patura remansit, 
Duritiam tacto capiant ut ab aere, quodque 260 

Vimen in aequore erat, fiat super aequora paxum. 

Dis tribus ille focos totidem de cespito ponit, 
Laevum Mercurio, dextrum tibi, bellica Virgo : 
Ara lovis media est : mactatur vacca Minervae, 
Alipedi vitulus, taurus tibi, sumnie deorum. 265 

Protinus Andromedan et tanti pnaemia facti 
Indotata rapit. Taedas Hymenaeus Amorque 
Praecutiunt : largis satiantur odoribus ignes, 
Sertaque dependent tectis et ubique lyraeque 
Tibiaque et cantus, animi felicia laeti 270 

Argumenta, sonant. Reseratis aurea valvis 
Atria tota patent, pulchroque instructa paratu 
Cepheni proceres ineunt convivia regis. 
Postquam epulis functi generosi munere Bacchi 
DifFudere animos, cultusque genusque locorum 275 

Quaerit Lyncides moresque animumque virorum. 

258. iterant iactata] i. e. ite- accusatiye for Andromgdam or 

rum iterumqtie iactatU. AndromBden, — praetnial An ap- 

260. tacto — db a^re\ * From positive to AndromBdan, et being 

contact with the air.* only explanatory, * cven.* 

262. /ocoa] Hercpoeticforora*. 267. Indotata] Bccause Per- 

263. hellica Virgo] i. e. Miner- scus refuscs the kinirdom offcred 

va, from whom hc had reccived as a dowry. Cf. v. 214. 

his shield. She had the place of 268. PraectUiuni] Bcfore the 

honor on the right of Juptter. wedding proccssion. — t^nes] On 

26o. Alipedi] Mercury Is so the altars. 

callcd from his talaria, or winged 273. Cepheni proceres] * The 

sandals. — tauru8\ The victims Aethlopian nobles.* 

wcre suitcd to the dignity and 275. locorum] *0f the coan- 

sex of the diviuities. Cf. Verg. G. try.' 

II. 146, maxuma taurus Victima. 276. Lyncides] Perseus, wh9 

266. AndromBdan] An anasoal was a descendant of Lynceus. 


V. 7(;9. 
Qui simiil edocuit " Nunc, o foitissime," dixit 
** Fare precor, Perseu, quantii virtute, quibusque 
Artibus abstuleris crinita draconibus ora." 
Narrat Agenortdes gelido sub Atlante iacentem 280 
Esse locum solidae tutum rauniraine molis, 
Cuius in introitu geminas habitasse sorores 
Phorcldas, unius partitas luminis usum: 
Id se soUerti furtim, dum traditur, astu 
Supposita cepisse manu : perque abdita longe 286 

Deviaque et silvis horrentia saxa fragosis 
Gorgoneas tetigisse domos: passimque per agros 
Perque vias vidisse hominum simulacra ferarumque 
In silicem ex ipsis visa conversa Medusii: 
Se tamen hoiTendae 'clipei, quod laeva gerebat, 290 
Aere repercusso formam adspexisse Medusae : 
Dumque gravis somnus colubrasque ipsamque tenebat, 

277. Qui simuT] * And as soon bnt onc eye and one tooth in com- 

as he/ i. e. the king, Cepheus. mon. 

279. crimta draconibus] Cf. cmr 284. dum traditur] * While it 
fftUcomaef in v. 208. (the eye) is being passed ; * when 

280. Agenorides] Perhapsapat- its possessors were both sightless. 
ronymic in a wider signlfication. 285. cepisse] Dcpends on nar' 
Perseus, as descended from Behis, rat ; so the following infinitives. 
the brother of Agcnor, belongcd 288. ferarumque] As the verse 
to the same faraily as thelatter. — is hypercatalectic, i. e. contalns a 
gelido svb Atldnte] The poet is syllable beyond the regular nieas- 
here inconsistent with his own ure, the -que must be carried to 
statement that Atlas was changed the next verse, and be blended 
to a mountain after the conquest with it, after an elision of the 
of Medusa. final e. 

282. geminas — sorores] The " 289. ex ipsis] From thcir nat- 
Graeae, the daughters of Phorcus ural state as Ijving beings, in con- 
and Ceto, and the sisters and kcep- trast with simulacra. 

ers of the three Gorgons. 290. clipei—repercusso] «Mir- 

283. luminis] The Graeae had rored in tiie bronze of his shield.' 

60 P. OVIDII NAS0NI8 [785-«J0. 

Eripnisse caput collo : pennisque fugacem 

PegSson et fratrera raatris de sanguine natos 

Addidit et longi non falsa pericula cursus : 295 

Quae freta, quas terras sub se vidisset ab alto, 

Et quae iactatis tetigisset sidera pennis. 


y. 341. 
Pbima Ceres unco glebam diraovit aratro, 
Priraa dedit fruges alimentaque mitia terris, 
Prima dedit leges : Cereris sunt omnia munus : ' 
Illa canenda mihi est. Utinam modo dicere possem 
Carmina digna dea : certe dea carmine digna est. 6 
Vasta giganteis ingesta est insula membris 
Trinacris, et magnis subiectum molibus urguet 
Aetherias ausum sperare Typhoea sedes. 
Nititur ille quidem, pugnatque resurgere saepe : 
Dextra sed Ausonio manus est subiecta Peloro, 10 

293. penniafuffacem] * Swift of foundation of the social life of 
wing.* . manliind. 

294. Jratrem] Thc giant Chry- 7. Trinacris] ''An old name of 
gaor. — natoa] Sc. esie, Sicily, which is so called froiii its 

three promontories. 
LiBER V. 8. ausum aperare] Refcrring 

1. A hymn snng by the Mnse to the war of tlic ,giants against 
Calliope in a contest with the tlie gods, and su/rgcsting the caase 
Pierldes. — Prima -^ dimovit] of the punishmentof Typhoous. 

♦ Was the first to brealc up.* 9. pttgnat resurgere] Tlie in- 

2. mitia] In distinction from finitive here denotes pnrpose, a 
the products of uncultivatcd soils, construction confined to poctry. 
of hcrds, of the chasc, and the 10. Ausonio] Applied to Pe- 
like. i«ru8 from its proximity to Italy, 

3. dedit leges] Ceres is the which the poets often called Au- 
Lawgiver {legifera)^ because agri- sonia, from tlie Ausones, an an- 
culture, which she taught, is the cient people of Southem Italy. 


Laeva, Pachyne, tibi: Lilybaeo crura premantur: 
Degravat Aetna caput : sub qua resupinus arenas 
Eiectat, flaramainque fero vomit ore Typhoeus. 
Satipe remoliri luctatur pondera terrae, 
Oppidaqije et magnos devolvere coi-piore montes. 15 
Inde tremit tellus, et rex pavet ipse sileutum, 
Ne pateat, latoque sohun retegatur liiatu, 
Inmissusque dies trepidantes terreat umbrns. 
Hanc metuens chidem tenebrosa sede tyranniis 
Exierat, curruque atrorum vectus equorum 20 

Ambibat Sicuhie cautus fundamina terrae. 
Postquam exploratum satis est, loca nulla labare, 
Depositique metus, videt hunc Erycina vagantem 
Monte suo residens, natumque araplexa volucrem 
" Arraa manusque meae, mea, nate, potentia," dixit, 25 
" Illa, quibus superas omnes, cape tela, Cupido, 
Inque dei pectus celeres moUre sagittas, 
Cui triphcis cessit fortuna novissima regni. 
Tu superos ipsumque lovem, tu numina ponti 
Victa domas ipsumque, regit qui numina ponti. 30 

Tartara quid cessant? Cur non matrisque tuumque 
Inperiura profers ? Agitur pars tertia mundi. 

12. Aetna] Homer and Vir^il 22. exphratum ] Sc. ei or ah eo, 

rcpresent Enceiadus as buried . 23. Erycina'] Venus, who had 

under this mountain. a cclcbrated temple on Mt. Eryx, 

16. rex-^silcntuni] Dis or Plu- on the westcrn coast of Sicily. 

to; cf. note I. 62. - 25. Arma — potentia] Apposi- 

20. atrorum] Cf. v. 64, and tivcs to nate. . 

*Dlack is the badi,'e of hell.' — 28. cessit] f. e. contigit; *fell 

Shakespeare, Love*s Lai)or Lost, by lot.* — novissitna] Whcn the 

iv. 3. univer.'<e was divided among the 

21. Amhibat] This irrcgular three brothcrs, the first lot fcll to 
imperfect sometimcs occur.s, but Jupitcr, thc second to Neptune, 
ambio is othcrwise regularly in- and tlie last to Pliito. 

flected according to the fourth ^\. ccssant] * Ilesitate to yicld.' 
coi\|ugation. 32. Agitur] • Is at stak«.' 


Et taraen in caelo, quae iam p.itientia nostra est, 

Speniimur, ac raecum vires niimiuntnr Amoris. 

Pallada nonne vicles iaculatricemque Dianam 35 

Abscessisse mihi ? Cereris quoque filia virgo, 

Si patieraur, erit : nam spes adfeetat easdem. 

At tu, pro socio, si qua est ea gratia, regno, 

lunge deam patruo." Dixit Veuus. Ille pharetram 

Solvit et arbitrio niatris de mille sagittis 40 

tTnam seposuit, sed qua nec acutior ulla, 

Neo minus incerta est, nec quae raagis audiat arcus : - 

Oppositoque genu curvavit flexile cornu, 

Inque cor haraata percussit arundine Ditem. 

Haud procul Hennaeis lacus est a moenibus altae, 45 

Noraine Pergus, aquae. Non illo plura Caystros 

Carmina cycnorum labentibus audit in undis. 

Silva coronat aquas cingens latus omne, suisque 

Frondibus ut velo Phoebgos subraovet ignes. 

Frigora dant rami, Tyrios humus huraida flores : 50 

Perpetuuni ver est. Quo dura Proserpina hico 

Ludit, et aut violas aut candida lilia carpit, 

33. quae — esf] Equlvalent to dom/ — si — gratia] *If that is 
ea patientid, qtiae iam nostra est ; any satisfaction ; * co is feminino 
* Such already is our lack of by nttraclion. 

spirit.* 39. deam'] Proscrptna, who was 

34. mecum'] T?ot cum meis viri- tho daughtcr of Juplter, the 
bus ; * as well as mine.' brother of Plnto. — pharetram sol- 

36. Abscessisse mihi] * Have vit] * Opcns his quiver.' 
escapcd my power.* Both these 42. magis audiat] *I8 more 
goddcsscs had vowed perpetual obcdient to.' 

virginity. — Cer8ris — Jilia'] Pro- 46. aquae] Limits lactis. 

serplna. 49. vt velo] * As vvith an awn- 

37. erit] In the scnse of mane- ing.' Ovcr thc Roman amphi- 
bit» — easdem] The same hopes theatres awnings wcrc spread to 
as Pallas and Diana ; i. e. of re- protect the spectators from the 
maining unmarried. rays of the sun. 

SS. prosocio — regno] *Forthe 50. 7ynos] i. e. purpureos ; 
advantage of our common klng- Tyre was famous for its purplc. 


Duraque puellaii 8tudio calathosque sinumque 

Inplet, et aequales certat superare legendo, 

Paene simul visa est dilectaque raptaque Diti : 55 

tTsqne adeo est properatus amor. Dea territa maesto 

Et matrem et Comites, sed matrem saepius, ore 

Clamat : et ut summa vestem laniarat ab ora, 

CoUecti ilores tunicis oecidere remissis : 

Tantaque simplicitas puerilibus adfuit annis : 60 

Haec quoque virgineum movit iactura dolorem. 

Raptor agit currus, ct nomine quemque vocatos 

Exhoitatur equos, quorum per colla iubasque 

Excutit obscura tinctas ferrugine habenas : 

Perque lacus altos et olentia sulphure fertur 65 

Stagna Palicorum, rupta ferventia terra : 

Et qua Bacchiadae, bimari gens orta Corintho, 

Inter inaequales posuerunt moenia portus. 

y. 409. 
Est medium Cyanes et Pisaeae Arethusae, 
Quod coit angustis inclusum cornibus aequor. 70 

Hic fuit, a cuius stagnum quoque noraine dictum est, 
Inter Sicelldas Cyane celeberrima nymphas. 
Gurgite quae raedio sumraa tenus exstitit alvo, 
Agnovitque deam. " Nec longius ibitis " inquit. 

58. vestem laniarat] As an in- 69. medhtm] Poctically wlth the 

dic:ition of frricf. genitivo for inter with the accnsa- 

66. ferrenfia] * Boiling up.' tive. — Piaaeae] Cf. v. 154, below. 

67. bimari] Corinth is thns 70. aetptor] Tlie Great Port is 
called from its situation on the meant, Ortygia forminj; one, and 
isthmns hetween the Corinthian Plcmmyrium the other hom. 
and Saronic pulfs. 71. Hic fuit—Cyane] * lu this 

68. Inter —portua] Syracuse reirion was Cyane.* 

had two principal harbors, one on 73. Gurgite — m^dio] Equiva- 
either side of the ancient city . lent to in tnedio aequore. 

64 P. OVIDII NASONIS t*16-487. 

" Non potea invitae Cereris gener esse : roganda, 76 

Non rapieiKla fuit. Qiiod si conponere magnis 

Parva niilii fas est, et rae dilexit Anapis : 

Exorata tamen, nec, ut liaec, exterrita nupsi." 

Dixit, et in partes diversas bracchia tendens 

Obslitit. Ilaud ultra tenuit Saturnius iram, 80 

1'erribilesque hoitatus equos in gurgitis ima 

Coiitortum vidido sceptrum regale lacerto 

Condidit. Icta viam lellus in TartSra fecit, 

Et pronos currus medio cratere recepit. 

At Cyane raptamqufe deam contempt.aque fontis 86 

lura sui maerens, inconsolabile vulnus 

Mente gerit tacita, lacrimisque absumitur omnis, 

Et quarum fuerat raagnum modo numen, in illas 

Extenuatur aquas. Molliri raembra videres, 

Ossa pati flexus, ungnes posuisse rigorem : 90 

Priraaque de tota tenuissima quaeque liquescunt, 

Caerulei crines digitique et crura pedesque : 

Nain brevis in gelidas raerabris exilibus undas 

Transitus est: post haec huraeri tergusque latusque 

Pectoraque in tenues abeunt evanida rivos. 95 

Deniqne pro vivo vitiatas sanguine venas 

Lympha subit, restatque nihil, quod prendere possis. 

75. roganda — fuit'] * She ought 86. inconsolabile^ * Incarablc by 

to have been askcd for.* any solace.* 

77. et] Equivalent to etiam ; 89. videre*] *One miijht have 
*and so too.* — Andpis] The Been ; ' the potential subjunctive. 
usual form is Andpus. 90. p^itifiixus] * Become fljxi- 

78. nupsi] iSc. ei ; the union ble.' 

of the two rivers is representcd by 91. de tota] * Of her wholc pcr* 

the poet as a niamage. son.' — temdssima quaeque] * AU 

80. Saturnius] ' Tlie son of the most slender parts.' 

Saturn;' hcre Pluto. 95. abeunt] Cf. IV. v. 137. 

^l. in gtirgitis ima] *Into the ^(^. vitiatas] The blo d-v- ssds 

depths of the pool.* too were bcglnning to liqncfy. 


Interea pavidae neqaiquam filia matii 
Omnibus est terris, omni quaesita profundo. 
Illam non udis veniens Aurora capillis 100 

Cessantem vidit, non Hesperus. Illa duabus 
Flammiferas pinus manibus succendit ab Aetna, 
Perque pruinosas tulit inrequieta tenebras. 
Rursus ubi alma dies hebetarat sidera, natam 
Solis ab occasu solis quaerebat ad ortu& " 105 

T. 446. 

Fessa labore sitim collegerat, oraque nulli 
Colluerant fonte», cum tectam stramine vidit 
Forte casam, parvasque fores pulsavit : at inde 
Prodit anus, divamque videt, lymphamque roganti 
Dulce dedit, tosta quod texerat ante polenta. 110 

Dum bibit illa datum, duri puer ons et audax 
Constitit ante deam, risitque, avidamque vocavit. 
Offensa est, neque adhuc epota parte loquentem 
Cum liquido mixta perfudit diva polenta. 
Conbibit os maculas, et quae modo bracchia gessit, 115 
Crura gerit : cauda est mutatis addita membris : 
Inque brevem formam, ne sit vis magna nocendi, 
Contrahitur, parvaque minor mensura lacerta est. 
Mirantem flentemque et tangere monstra parantem 
Fugit anum, latebramque petit, aptumque colori 120 
Nomen habet, variis stellatus corpore guttis. 

100. udis — capillis'] Becanse nine in its nsual meaning of * day .* 

Aurora rises from the ocean. 106. sitim coUegeraf] * Had be- 

102. pinus\ * Torches of pine.* come thirstj.' 

103. inre^ieta'] *Never rest- IIO, Dulce] TJsed substantive- 
ing.' \y for dukem potionem, 

104. alma dies] The poets often 113. neque adhuc] Equivalent 
make the singular of dies femi- to et^nondum. 


66 P. OVIDn NASONIS [462-488. 

V. 462. 
Quas dea per terras et quas erraverit undas, 
Dicere longa mora est. Quaerenti defuit orbis. 
Sicaniam repetit, dumque omnia lustrat eundo, 
Venit et ad Cyauen. Ea ni mutata fuisset, 125 

Omnia narrasset : sed et os et lingua volenti 
Dicere non aderant, nec quo loqueretur, habebat. 
Signa tamen manifesta dedit, nDtamque parenti, 
Illo forte loco delapsam in gurgite sacro, 
Persepbdnes zonam summis ostendit in undis. 130 

Qnam simul agnovit, tamquam tunc denique raptam 
Scisset, inornatos laniavit diva capillos, 
Et repetita suis percussit pectora palmis. 
Nescit adliuc, ubi sit : terras tanien increpat omnes, 
Ingratasque vocat nec frugum munere dignas : 135 

Trinacriam ante alias, in qua vestigia damni 
Repperit. Ergo illic saeva vertentia glebas 
Fregit aratra manu, parilique irata colonos 
Raricolasqae boves leto dedit, arvaque iussit 
Fallere depositum, vitiataque semina fecit. 140 

Fertilitas terrae, latum vulgata per orbem, 
Falsa iacet : primis segetes moriuntur in herbis, 
Et modo sol nimius, nimius modo corripit imber : 

123. hnga mora e8f\ * It woald 134. tiJbi sif] Sc. JiUa, 

take too long.* — Quaerenti — or- 136. vestigia tlamni] * The 

bis] •For her scurch the world tokens of her ioss;* i.-e. the gir- 

was too limited.* dle. Cf. v. 130. 

127. nec quo—habebaf\ *And 140. Fallere depoaitum] *To 

she had no means.' betray their trust.' 

130. Persephdnes] . The Greek 141. terrae'] Sicily is meant 

form for Proaerptnae, 142. primis — in herUs] * In 

IZl. tunc denique] *Not till the first blade.' 

then.* ^ 143. corripit] Sc. ccw, repre- 

133. repeHta] * Bepeatedly.' senting aegetea. 


Sideraqne ventique nocent, avidaeque volucres 
Semina iacta legunt : lolium tribuliqne fatigant 145 
Triticeas raesses, et inexpugnabile gramen. 
Tura caput Eleis Alpheias extulit undis, 
Rorantesque coraas a fronte removit ad aures, 
Atque ait " O toto quaesitae virginis orbe 
Et frugum genetrix, inmensos siste labores, 150 

Neve tibi fidae violenta irascere terrae. 
Terra nihil meruit, patuitque invita rapinae. 
Kec sum pro patria supplex : buc hospita venL 
Pisa mihi patria est, et ab EUde ducimus ortus. 
Sicaniam peregrina colo : sed gratior omni 155 

Haec mihi terra solo est: hos nunc ArethQsa penates, 
Hanc habeo sedem : quam tu, mitissima, serva. 
Mota loGO cur sim tantique per aequoris undas 
Advehar Ortygiam, veniet narratibus hora 
Tempestiva meis, cum tu curaque levata 160 

Et vultus melioris eris. Mihi pervia tellus 
Praebet iter, subterque imas ablata cavernas 
Hic caput attollo, desuetaque sidera cerno. 
•Ergo dum Stygio sub terris gurgite labor, 

144. Stderagtte] The -gtte is 154. mihi — dueimus] An ab- 

here lengthened by the ictus. rupt change of namber. 

146. gramen] Sc. fcUigcU. 156. Arethusa] Appositive to 

147. Eleis] Cf. t. 154, below. — the subject of habeo, 
Alpheiaa] Arethusa, with whose 158. loco] 1. e. of my nativity. 
waters the Alpheus mingled ; for, 159. Advehar] As well as mota 
according to the fable, the river- «tm, depends on narratibus, 
god, in his pursuit of the nymph, 161. meUoris] i. e. more cheer- 
followed her under the sea and fvX.—pervia tellus] *A subter- 
likewise rose at Ortygia. ranean passage.' 

152. nihil meruit] * Has done 163. Hic] Cf. v. 159. — <f(?»M^ 
no wrong.* ta] * Unfamiliar ; * i. e. from her 

153. Nec — supplex] *I am no long joumey under the sea. 
suppliant; ' for it is not my coun- 164. Stygio — gurgite] From ita^ 
try for which I intercede. neamess to the lower world. 

68 P. OVIDII KASONIS [606-627. 

Visa taa est oculis illic ProserpYna nostris : 165 

Illa qnidem tristis, neque adhuc interrita vultu, 

Sed regina tamen, sed opaci maxima mundi, 

Sed tamen inferni pollens matrona tyranni." 

Mater ad auditas stupuit ceu saxea voces, 

Attonitaeque diu similis fuit. Utque dolore 170 

Pulsa gravi gravis est amentia, curribus auras 

Exit in aetherias. Ibi toto nubila vultn 

Ante lovem passis stetit invidiosa capillis : 

** Proque meo veni supplex tibi, luppiter," inquit, 

*^ Sanguine, proque tuo. Si nulla est gratia matris, 176 

Kata patrem moveat, neu sit tibi cura, precamur, 

Vilior illius, quod nostro est edita partu. 

En quaesita diu tandem mihi nata reperta est : 

Si reperire vocas amittere certius, aut si 

Scire, ubi sit, reperire vocas. Quod rapta, feremus : 180 

Dummodo reddat eam : neque enim praedone marito 

Filia digna tua est, si iam mea filia non est." 

luppiter excepit " Commune est pignus onusque 

Nata mihi tecum : sed si modo nomina rebus 

Addere ,vera placet, non hoc iniuria factura, ISS 

Verum amor est : neque erit nobis gener ille pudori, 

Tu modo, diva, velis. Ut desint cetera, quantum est 

167. maximd] Sc. regina, is used as tbe second accnsative; 

169. ceu aaxea] * As if of rock.* *if you call it finding;* but scire 

172. toto nubila vvltu] * With a stands as direct object« like amit- 
gloom over her whole connte- tere. 

nance.* 180. rapta"] Sc. est orfuit. 

173. invidiosa'] Here active ia 182. digna — est] *Deserves;* 
sense ; * full of indignation ; ' i. e. with non est repeat digna, 
against Pluto. 187. Tu modo — velis'] * If you 

177. ilUus] The objectivegeni- will only consent.* — Ut desinf] 

tive after curdt as matris^ v. 175. Ut takes the meaning of * al- 

— quod — partu] * Because I gave though ' from primarily signifying 

her birth.* * even if we suppose the case that ; ' 

179. reperire'] In both verses the subjunctive is one of resnlt. 


Esse lovis fratrem ! Quid quod nec cetera desant, 

Nec cedit nisi sorte mihi. Sed tanta cupido 

Si tibi discidii est, repetet Proserplna eaelum, . 190 

Lege tamen certa, si nuUos contigit illic 

Ore cibos : nam sic Parcarum foedere cautum est." 

Dixerat. At Cereri certum est educere natam. 
Non ita fata sinunt, quoniam ieiunia virgo 
Solverat, et cultis dum simplex errat in hortis, 195 

Poeniceum curva decerpserat arbore pomum, 
Sumptaque pallenti septem de coitice grana 
Presserat ore suo. Solusque ex omnibus illud 
Ascal^phus vidit, quem quondam dicitur Orphne, 
Inter Avernales haud ignotissima nymphas, 200 

Ex Acheronte suo silvis peperisse sub atris : 
Vidit, et indicio reditum crudelis ademit. 
Ingemuit regina Erebi, testemque proflinam 
Fecit avem, sparsumque caput Phlegethontide lymplia 
In rostrum et plumas et grandia lumina vertit. 206 
Ille sibi ablatus fulvis amicitur ab alis, 
Inque caput crescit, longosque reflectitur ungues, 
J^ixque movet natas per inertia bracchia pennas : 

188. Quid quod] «What shaU 202. Vidit] Repeated on ac- 
we say to this that.' count of ttie long parenthesis. •— 

192. Parcdrum foedere] This redi/um] Of ProscrpXna. 

even Juplter could not chan*re. 203. regina Erdhi] Cf. v. 167. 

193. Cergri certum eat] * Ceres — profanam] * lil-omencd.' In 
is resolvcd.* another place the poet has profa- 

195. cuHis] *Wcll cared for.* nusbubo. 

— simplex] * In licr innocence.' 2QQ, sihiablatus] * Deprived of 

196. Poeniceum — pomutn] *A his natural lorm.* — ab alis] Un- 
pome^anate.* — curvd] i. e. bend- usual for the simplc siblative. 

in«? uuder its bnr<len (jf fruit. 207. In caput crescit] * Grows 

200. Averndles] Lake Avcmus, to hcad ; * i e. the head becomes 
in Campania, siipposcd to be the inordinately large. 

entrance to the infcrnal regions. 208. natas — bracchia] *That 

201. Acheionte] A rivcrinthe grew out all over his sluggibh 
lower worid ; hcre the river-god. arms.' 

70 P. OVIDII NASONIS [54»-565. 

Foedaqne fit Yolacris, ventnri nnntia Inctns, 

Ignavus bubo, dirum mortalibus omen. 210 

V. 651. 
Hic tamen indicio poenam linguaqne videri 
Corameruisse potest. Vobis, Acheloldes, unde 
Pluma pedesque avium, cum virginis ora geratis ? 
An quia, cum legeret vernos Proserptna flores, 
In comitum numero, doctae Sirenes, eratis ? 215 

Quam postqnam toto frustra quaesistis in orbe, 
Protinus, ut vestram sentirent aequora curam, 
Posse super fluctus alarum insistere remis 
Optastis, facilesque deos habuistis, et artus 
Vidistis vestros subitis flavescere pennis. 220 

Ne tanien ille canor mulcendas natus ad aures, 
Tantaque dos oris linguae deperderet usum, 
Virginei vultus et vox humana remansit. 

T. 664. 
At medius fratrisque sui maestaequo sororis 
lupplter ex aequo volventem dividit annum. 225 

213. geratW] Cum takes the 219. facilea — hcUmistis] * And 
snbjanctive when it denotes cause found the gods compliant.' 

or concession. 221. ille canor] The Sircns 

214. An quia] * Was it not be- charmed all who listened to their 
cause?* When a qnestion is it- sonjr. — ntitus] 'Fitted by na- 
self answered under the form of a ture ; * cf. II. v. 223. 

question, an sometimes has the 222. Tanta — oris] *And snch 

force of nonne. a gift of specch.* 

215. doctae] Refers to their 224. medius] * As mediator ; * 
skill in song. i. e. between Pluto and Ceres. 

217. curam] * Anxicty/ i. e. 225. ex aequo] * Equally ; ' ac- 
for Proserplna. cording to others Froserplna 


Nunc dea, regnorum numen comraune duorun), 
Cum raatre est totidem, totidera cum coniuge mensea. 
Vertitur extemplo facies et mentis et oris : 
Nam modo quae poterat Diti quoque maesta videri, 
Laeta deae from est, ut sol, qui tectus aquosis 230 

Nubibus ante fuit, victis e nubibus exit. 


V. 146. 

Lydia tota fremit, Phrygiaeque per oppida facti 
Rumor it, et magnum sermonibus occupat orbem. 
Ante suos Ni5be thalamos cognoverat illam, 
Tura cura Maeoniam virgo Sipylumque colebat: 
Nec taraen admonita est poena popularis Arachnes 5 
Cedere caelitibus, verbisque minoribus uti. 
Multa dabant animos. Sed enim nec coniugis artes, 
Nec genus amborura magnique potentia regni 
Sic placuere illi, quamvis ea cimcta placereut, 

dwells only a third of the year in in a contest with the goddess, was 

the lower world, a division that changed by her into a spider. 

agrecs better with the phenomena 3. thalamoa] * Marriage ; ' po- 

of the vegetable I^ingdom in the etic for coniugium, Nidbe was 

latitude of Greece and her colo- married to Amphion, king of 

nies. . Thebes. — illam] Arachne. 

229. Diti quoque] i. e. to the 6. minoribva] * Less boastful.* 

gloomiest of the gods. 7. anim^s] * Proud feclings.* 

— coniuffis artes] Amphion was 

LiBER VI. celebrated for his skill in music. 

1. fremit] * Resonnds ; * i. e. Cf. v. 33. 

with the story of Arachne, a Lyd- 8. genus amborum] Amphion, 

ian maiden, who, having boasted the ]iusband, and Tantaius. the 

that she could surpass Minerva in father of Niobc, were sons of Jupl- 

weaving, and ventured to engage ter. Cf. vv. 27 and 31. 

72 P. OVIDII NASONIS [165-174. 

XTt sna progenies : et felicissima matram 10 

Dicta foret Ni5be, si non sibi visa fuisset. 

Kam sata Tiresia venturi praescia Manto 

Per medias fuerat, divino concita.mota, 

Vaticinata vias : " Ismenides, ite frequentes, 

Et date Latonae Latonigenisque duobus 15 

Cum prece tura pia, lauroque innectite cnnem. 

Ore meo Latona iubet." Paretur, et omnes 

ThebaYdes iussis sua tempora frondibus ornant, 

Turaque dant sanctis et verba precantia flammis. 

Ecce venit comitum NiSbe celeberrima turba, 20 

Vestibus intexto Phrygiis spectabilis auro, 

Et, quantum ira sinit, formosa, movensque decoro 

Cum capite inmissos humerum per utrumque capillos : 

Constitit : utque oculos circumtulit alta superbos, 

** Quis furor, auditos " inquit " praeponere visis 25 

Caelestes ? aut cur colitur Latona per aras, 

Kumenadhucsineturemeumest? Mihi Tant^lus auctor^ 

Cui licuit soli snperorum tangere mensas : 

PleBldum soror est genitrix mea : maximus Atlas 

11, vi8afiiis8ef\ Sc. felidssima ^, ctleberrimaturha\ *Attend- 

nuUrum, In this fact she prided ed by a very numerous throng/ 

herself too mueh. 21. Phryffiia] SkilfuUy em- 

13. Per mediaa^viaa] *In the broidered, as the Phrygians were 
streets of * Thebes. celebrated for fabrics of this 

14. Umenldes] So called from kind. 

Ismenus, a river which flows in 24. alta] * With lofly mien/ 

the immediate vicinity of Thebes. 25. praepanere] Is the subject 

Though so cclebrated in antiquity of est understood, fturor being 

it is nothing but a torrent, which the predicate nominativo. — viais] 

is fuU of water only in winter Sc. caelestibua. 

after heayy rains. 26. per aras] * At many altars,* 

15. Latoniginis] Apollo and i. e. in different countries. 
Diana. 29. Pleiddum soror] Dione, one 

16. lauro] The laorel was sa- of the Hy&des, who, as well as the 
credtoApoUo. Plei&des, were the daughters ot 

17. Parttur] * They obey.* Atlas. 


Est avns, aetberium qui fert cervicibus axem : 30 

Inpptter alter avus : socero quoque glorior illo : 
Me gentes metuunt Phrygiae, me regia Cadmi 
Sub domina est, fidibusque mei coramissa mariti 
Moenia cum populis a meque viroque reguntur : "* 
In quamcumque domns adverti lumina partem, 35 

Inmensae spectantur opes. Accedit eodem 
Digna dea facies. Huc natas adice septem 
Et totidem iuvenes, et mox generosque nurusque. 
Quaerite nunc, liabeat quam nostra superbia causam, 
Kescio quoque audete satam Titanlda Coeo 40 

Latonam praeferre mihi, cui maxima quondam 
Exiguam sedem pariturae terra negavit. 
Nec caelo, nec hurno, nec aquis dea vestra recepta est : 
Exsul erat mundi, donec miserata vagantem, 
"Hospita tu terris erras, ego" dixit "in undis," 45 

Instabileraque locum Delos dedit. Illa duorum 
Facta parens : uteri pars haec est septima nostri. 
Sum felix : quis enim neget hoc ? felixque manebo : 

31. aocero] Cf. note v. 8. vif] Jano, actnated by jealonpy, 

d3. domina] Arrange : Sub me had forbidden all coiintries to 

domina, — commissa] * Bronght afibrd a resting-place to Latona. 
together/ i. e. by the music of 44. Bxsul — mMndi] * Anoutcast 

Amphion*8 golden lyre, which he from the world.* — donec — dixit] 

had received from Mercury. Arrange : donee Delos miserata 

36. Accedit eodem] * To this is vajardem dixity etc. Delos, which 
to bc addcd.* was fahled till now to have been 

37. natas—septem] Homer floating al>out undcr the sea, was 
ascribes to Niobe six sons and six raised and moored by Ncptune as 
daughters. a retreat for Latona. Itafterwards 

40. Nescio qtioqtte] For et nes- became the seat of a f.imous sanc- 

cio guo; here contempt is ex- tuary which was crected in houor 

pressed, and satam nescio quo of ApoUo and Diana and was at 

Coeo may be translated, * the oflT- times a place of great political and 

spring of the ignoble Coeus.* commercial significance. 

42. pariturcte] * When about to 47. uteri^nostrt] * Of mt/ off- 

become a mother.* — terra hego' spring * Cf. v. 37, sq. 

74 P. OVIDII NASONIS [194-214. 

Hoc qnoqae quis dubitet ? tutam me copia fecit. 
Maior sum, quam cui possit fortuna nocere : 50 

Multaque ut eripiat, multo mihi plura relinquet. 
Excessere metum mea iam bona. Fingite demi 
Huic aliquid populo natorum posse meorum, 
Non tatnen ad numerum redigar spoliata duorum, 
Latonae turbam : quae quantum distat ab orba ? 55 
Ite, satisque superque sacri, laurumque capillis 
Ponite." Deponunt, infectaque sacra relinquunt, 
Quodque licet, tacito venerantur murmure numen. 
Indignata dea est, summoque in vertice Cynthi 
Talibus est dictis gemina cum prole locuta : 60 

"En ego vestra parens, vobis animosa creatis, 
Et, nisi lunoni, nuUi cessura dearum, 
An dea sim, dubitor, perque omnia saecula cultis 
Arceor, o nati, nisi vos succurritis, aris. 
Nec dolor hic solus. Diro convicia facto 65 

Tantalis adiecit, vosque est postponere natis 
Ausa suis, et me, quod in ipsam recidat, orbam 
Dixit, et exhibuit linguam scelerata paternam." 
Adiectura preces erat his Latona relatis : 

50. quam ctn] Eqnivalcnt to 59. Cyntkt] This monntain was 
quam ut miM ; qnality and rcsalt sacred to ApoUo and Diana. 

are implied, h&VLCib poaait in tlie 61. vohia — creatis] *Proad of 
subjunctive. having given you birth.* 

51. t^] ' Althongh.* 62. mUU cessura] * Disposed to 

53. Huic —posse] * A part may yield to none.' 

he taken away from this malti- 67. quod] i. e. childlessness, 

tude.' implied in orbam dixit, — recidat] 

54. spoliata] * Though be- The subjunctive of desire. Ob- 
reaved ; * concessive. serve that the first syllable is long. 

55. turbam] Ironical and anti- GS. linffuam — patemam] Tan- 
thetic to popuh, — guae quantum] taius was punished for disclosing 
* How much does ske differ from the secrets of the gods. From 
one that is childless.' his mode of punishment we de- 

57. Deponunt] Sc. laurum, rive the word * tantalize.' 


«Desine*' Phoebus ait: "poenae mora longa que- 

rella est." 70 

Dixit idem Phoebe : celerique per aera lapsu 
Contigerant tecti Cadmelda nubibus arcem. 
Planus erat lateque patens prope moenia carapus, 
Adsiduis pulsatus equis, ubi turba rotarum 
Duraque mollierat subiectas ungula glebas. 75 

Pars ibi de septem genitis AmphiSne fortes 
Conscendunt in equos, Tyrioque rubentia suco 
Terga premunt^ auroque graves moderantur habenas. 
E quibus Ismenos, qui matri sarcina quondam 
Prima suae fuerat, dum certum flectit in orbem 80 

Quadrupedis cursus, spumantiaque ora coercet, 
*' Ei mihi ! " conclamat, medioque in pectore fixa 
Tela gerit, frenisque manu moriente remissis 
In latus a dextro paullatim defluit armo. 
Proximus, audito sonitu per inane pharetrae, 85 

Frena dabat Sipylus : veluti cum praescius imbris 
Nube fugit visa, pendentiaque undique rector 
Carbasa deducit, ne qua levis effluat aura. 
Frena dabat: dantem non evitabile telum 
Consequitur : summaque tremens cervice sagitta 90 
Haesit, et exstabat nudum de gutture ferrum. 
IUe, ut erat pronus, per colla admissa iubasque 

71. Phoebe] Diana. 79. Ismenos] The eldest son of 

72. ContigerarU] The plaper- Niobe, s6 named froin the Isme- 
fect denotes the speed with whicb nas ; cf. note v. 14. 

they had reached their goal. — 86. Frena dabat] Cf. note I. v. 

Cadmeida — arcem\ The citadel 111. 

of Thebes, built by Cadmus. 88. ne qua — atira] * Lest any- 

74. Adsiduis] The acycctive for whcre a hjjht breeze may escape ; * 

the adverb ; * continually.* and so be lostas a motive power. 

77. Tyrio -- swo] *With pur- 92. ^r coUa admissa] •Over 

ple dye ; ' the hoasings are re- the neck and mane of the horse, 

ferred to. going at fall speed.' 

76 P. OVIDII NASOx^IS [238-268. 

Volvitur, et calido tellurem sanguine foedat. 

Phaed!mus infelix et aviti nominis heres 

Tant^lus, ut solito finem inposuere labori, 95 

Transierant ad opus nitidae iuvenile palaestrae : 

£t iam contulerant arto luctantia nexu 

Pectora pectoribus, cum tento concita nervo, 

Sicut erant iuncti, traiecit utrumque sagitta. 

Ingemuere simul, simul incurvata dolore 100 

Membra solo posuere, simul suprema iacentes 

Lumina versarunt, animam simul exhalarunt. 

Adspicit Alphenor, laniataque pectora plangens 

Advolat, ut gelidos conplexibus adlevet artus : 

Inque pio cadit officio : nam Delius illi 106 

Intiraa fatifero rupit praecordia ferro. 

Quod simul eductum, pars est pulmonis in harais 

Eruta, cumque anima cruor est effusus in auras. 

At non intonsum simplex DamasichthSna vulnus 

Adficit. Ictus erat, qua crus esse incipit, et qua 110 

Mollia nervosus facit internodia poples. 

Dumque manu temptat trahere exitiabile telum, 

Altera per iugulum pennis tenus acta sagitta est. 

Expulit hanc sanguis, seque eiaculatus in altum 

Emicat, et longe terebrata prosilit aura. 115 

Ultimus IliOneus non profectura precando 

Bracchia sustulerat, "di" que "o communiter omnes," 

Dixerat, ignarus non omnes esse rogandos, 

96. nittdae] The ancicnt wres- 103. laniata] The efTect ofplan- 

tlers, bofore engaging in tlicir con- gensy 1. e. plangem ut lanientur. 

tests.anointedtheraselveswithoil, 105. Deliits] Apollo; socAlled 

in order to give pli.ibility to thcir from his birthplace, the island of 

limbs. Wax was commonly mixcd Delos ; cf. note v. 44. 

with the oil and the composition 109. non] Modifies simplex. — 

waa called cerdma. intofisum] The Greck boys wore " 

101. tuprema] * For the last their hair uncut till they reached 

time.* the age of puberty. 


** Parcite ! " Motus erat, cum iam revocabile telum 
Non fuit, Arcitenens. Minimo taraen occidit ille 120 
Vulnere, non alte percusso corde s.igittji. 

Fama mali populique dolor lacrimaeque suornm 
Tam subitae matrem certam fecere ruinae, 
Mirantem potuisse, irascentemque, quod ausi 
IIoc essent superi, quod tantum iuris haberent. 125 
Nam pater Amphion ferro per pectus adacto 
Fihierat moriens pariter cum luce dolorem. 
Heu quantum haec NiSbe NiSbe distabat ab illa, 
Quae modo Latois populum submoverat aris, 
Et mediam tulerat gressus resupina per urbem, 130 
Invidiosa suis, at nunc miseranda vel hosti ! 
Corporibus gelidis incumbit, et ordine nullo 
Oscula dispensat natos suprema per omnes. 
A quibus ad caelum liventia bracchia tollens, 
" Pascere, crudelis, nostro, Latona, dolore, 135 

Pascere " ait, " satiaque meo tua pectora luctu : 
Corque ferum satia" dixit: "per funera septera 
Efferor. Exsulta, victrixque iniraica triumpha. 
Cur autera victrix? miserae mihi plura supersunt, 
Quam tibi felici. Post tot quoque funera vinco." 140 

120. Minimo — vulnere] Pity, 131. Invidiosa] Here passive 

thoagh shown too late, broke in sense ; * envied,* or * an object 

somewhat the force of the bow. of envy.' — vel] * Even ; * olten 

123. certam fecere'] For the thus with snperlatives. 

more usual certiorem fecere. 134. live^Uia] i. e. from beat- 

124. potuiase] Supply ntperoa ing, as a token of grief. 

as subject and Aoc as object. 135. Pascere] Reflexive; *feast 

126. Nam] Tlie thoufihtis: *0f yourself.* 
Ni6beonIyneedwespeak,for,'etc. 1Z7. per funera] *Over the 

127. cum luce] * With his life.* corpses of the seven I am carried 
130. tulerat ffreatus] * Had ad- out for burial.' In efferor observe 

vanced ; * a proud and stately gnit the force of the preposition ; the 
ja implicd. — resupina] * With ancients did not permit barials 
^d thrown back.' Cf. v. 24. withui the walls of dties. 

78 P. OVIDII NAS0NI8 [280-812. 

Dixerat, et sonuit contento nervns ab arcn : 

Qui praeter NiOben unnm conten'uit oranes. 

Illa malo est audax. Stabant cura vcstibus atris 

Ante toros fratriim demisso crine sorores. 

E quibus una trahens haerentia viscere tela 145 

Lijjosito fratri moribunda relanguit ore: 

Altera solari miseram conata parentem 

Conticuit subito, duplicataque vuluere caeco est. 

[Oraque conpressit, nisi postquam spiritus ibat.] 

Haec frustra fugiens collabitur : illa sorori 150 

Inmoritur: latet haec: illam trepidare videres: 

Sexque datis leto diversaque vulnera passis 

Ultima restabat : quam toto corpore mater, 

Tota veste tegens "Unam minimamque relinquc! 

De multis minimam posco" clamavit "et unam." 155 

Dumque rogat, pro qua rogat, occidit. Orba resedit 

Exanimes inter natos natasque virumque, 

Diriguitque malis. NuUos movet aura capillos, 

In vultu color est sine sanguine, lumina maestis 

Stant inmota genis : nihil est in imagine vivum : 160 

Ipsa quoque intenus cum duro lingua palato 

Congelat, et venae desistunt posse moveri : 

Nec flecti cervix, nec bracchia reddere motus, 

Nec pes ire potest: intra quoque viscera saxum est: 

Flet tamen, et validi circumdata turbine venti 165 

In patriam rapta est. Ibi fixa cacumine montis 

Liquitur, et lacrimas etiam nunc marmora manant. 

141. arcti] Sc. Dianae, althongh ter ; * the genainencss of this verse 

this is oiily hinted bj Ovid. Cf. is doii>)ted. 

V. 71, sq. 159. aine aanguine] Eqnivalent 

144. demiaso crine'] * With di- to exsanguis, 

shcvelled hair ; * with the ancients 162. renae — movert] The beat 

a common way of exhibitinggrief. of the pulse is meant 

149 nisipoatquam] 'Only af- 166. montie] i, e, SippH. 



y, 622. 
FoRTE fuit iuxta patulis rarissima ramis 
Sacra lovi quercus de semine Dodonaeo : 
Hic nos frugilegas adspexiraus agmine longo 
Grande onus exiguo formicas ore gerentes, 
Rugosoque suum servantes cortice callem. 5 

Dum numerum miror, " Totidem, pater optime," dixi, 
*' Tu mihi da cives, et inania moenia supple." 
Intremuit, ramisque sonum sine flamine motis 
Alta dedit quercus. Pavido mihi membra timore 
Ilorruerant, stahantque coraae : tamen oscula terrae 10 
Roboribusqne dedi : nec me sperare fitebar : 
Sperabam tamen, atque animo mea vota fovebam. 
Nox subit, et curis exercita corpora somnus 
Occupat. Ante oculos eadem mihi quercus adesse, 
Et ramos totidem totidemque animalia ramis 15 

Ferre suis visa est, pariterque tremiscere raota, 
Graniferumque agmen subiectis spargere in arvis : 
Crescere quod subito et maius maiusque videri, 

1. pcUulis — ramis] * Very re- Athenian, the manner of the ful- 
markable for its spreading filment of his prayer. 
branches.* 9. Pavido] Modifies timore ; 

2. Dodonaeo] *From Dodo- * with anxious fear.* — wiAi] The 
na ; ' here, in a frrove of oaks sa • dative with the verb, instcad of 
cred to Juptter, was the oldest wco, the equivalent of the gcni- 
oracle of the Greeks. tive. 

3. nos] For ego; Ae&cus, the 11. Roboribtts] The plural for 
son of Juplter and the nymph the sinj^ular. 

'Aegina, having prayed to his 13. cttris — corpora] *Mybody 

fathcr for the restoration of his wearied with anxicty.* 

people, who had perished by a 18. Crescere gtiod] For idgue 

plagae, describes to Ceph&las, the {agmen visum est) crescere. 

80 P. OVIDII NASONIS [640-668. 

Ac se tollere humo rectoque adsistere trunco, 
Et maciem numeruraque pedum nigrumque colorem 20 
Ponere, et humanam merabris inducere formara. 
Somnus abit. Damno vigilans mea visa, querorque 
In superis opis esse nihil. At in aedihus ingens 
Murmur erat, vocesque hominum exaudire videbar, 
lam mihi desuetas. Dum suspicor has quoque somni, 25 
Ecce venit Telamon properus, foribusque reclusis 
"Speque fideque, pater," dixit "maiora videbis. 
Egredere ! " Egredior, qualesque in imagine somni 
Visus eram vidisse viros, ex ordine tales 
Adspicio noscoque. Adeunt, regemque salutant. 30 
Vota lovi solvo, populisque recentibus urbem 
Partior et vacuos priscis cultoribus agros : 
MyrmidSnasque voco, nec origine nomina fraudo. 
Corpora vidisti : mores quos ante gerebant, 
Nunc quoque habent, parcumque genus patiensque la- 

borum, 35 

Quaesitique tenax, et qui quaesita reservent. 
Hi te ad bella pares annis animisque sequentur, 

19. rectoque — trunco] * And to 33. Mt/rmiddnas] A Greek ac- 

Btand witli trunk ercct.* cusutive ; tlie word is by some 

22. Damno — viaa] * I reject derived frora the Greek temi for 
my visions.* *ant.* — necorigine — fraudo'\ i. e. 

23. nihiT] The last syllable is I gave them a name suggcstlvc of 
lengthened. thcir origin ; for nominay cf. note, 

25. desueta^] * Unfamiliar ; ' v. 11. 

the plague bad depopulated the 35. genus] Appositive to the 

citv. — somni] Sc. esse ; the pred- subjcct of habent. 

icate genitive ; * belonged to my 36. qui] Evquivalent to tales iU, 

sleep,* i. e. formed a part of my 37. te] Ceplialus, an Athenian 

dream. ambassador, who had comc to sc- 

26. properus] The adjective for cure the friendship and alliance 
thc aiiverb ; * in haste.* of Acftcus for Athens, which was 

27. Spequejideque] Sc. tua. thrcatened by Minos, the king of 
30. regem] The second accusa- Crcte, because his son Androgeos 

tive ; supply me as object. had been slain there. 


Cum primum, qui te feliciter attulit, eurus 
(Euru3 enim attulerat) fuerit mutatus in austros. 


y. 183. 

Daedalus interea Creten longumque perosus 
Exsilium, tractusque loci natalis amore, 
Clausus erat^elago. " Terras licet " inquit " et undas 
Obstruat, at caelum certe patet : ibimus illac. 
Omnia possideat, non possidet aera Minos." 5 

Dixit, et ignotas animum dimittit in artes, 
Naturamque novat. Nam ponit in ordine pennas 
A minima coeptas, longam breviore sequenti, 
TJt clivo crevisse putes. Sic rustica quondam 
Fistula disparibus pauUatim surgit avenis. 10 

Tum lino medias et ceris adtigat imas, 
Atque ita conpositas parvo curvamine flectit, 
Ut veras iraitetur aves. Puer Icarus una 
Stabat, et, ignarus sua se tractare pericla, 
Ore renidenti modo quas vaga moverat aura, 15 

2. exsiUum] Daedaius, having generally, without reference to 

murdered his nephew, fled to a mimmd, etc. 

Crcte to escape the penalty of his 10. Fistula] The 8hepherd's 

misdeed, and there built the Lab- pipe consisted generally of seven 

yrinth for Minos, who now tries reeds or straws of unequal length, 

to dctain him. joined with wax. Theocrltus men- 

4. Obstruat] Sc. Minoa; cf. v. 5. tions one of nine reeds. 

6. Omnia possideat] * He may 11. medias — ima^] Sc.penruu; 

possess everything clse.* the adjectives are partitive. 

7- Naturam novat] * Cliangcs 13. veras — aves] A brief ex- 

the laws of nature,' i. e. in con- pression for veras avium alas» 

verting man into a wingcd animal. 14. sita — pericla] * Objects fuU 

8. hngam — sequenti] Repre- of danger to him.' — tractare] 

scnts the style of combination Depends on ignarua, 

82 P. OVIDII NASOiaS [198-224. 

Captabat plumas, flavam modo pollice ceram 

Mollibat, lusuque suo mirabile patris 

Inpediebat opus. Postquam manus ultima coeptis 

Inposita est, geminas opifex libravit in alas 

Ipse suum corpus, motaque pependit in aura. 20 

Instruit et natum, " Medio " que " ut limite curras, 

Icare," ait " moneo, ne, si demissior ibis, 

Unda gravet pennas, si celsior, ignis adurat : 

Inter utrumque vola. Nec te spectare Booten 

Aut Helicen iubeo, strictumque OriSnis ensem : 25 

Me duoe carpe viam." Pariter praecepta volandi 

Tradit, et ignotas humeris adcommodat alas. 

Inter opus monitusque genae maduere seniles, 

£t patriae tremuere manus. Dedit oscula nato 

Non iterum repeteuda suo, pennisque levatus 30 

Ante volat, comitique timet, velut ales, ab alto 

Quae teneram prolem produxit in aera nido : 

Hortaturque sequi, damnogasque erudit artes, 

Et movet ipse suas et nati respicit alas. 

Hos aliquis, tremula duni captat arundine pisces, 35 

Aut pastor baculo, stivave innixus arator, 

Vidit, et obstupuit, quique aethera carpere possent, 

Credidit esse deos. Et iam lunonia laeva 

Parte Sjimos, fuerant Deloaque Parosque relictae, 

Dextra Lebinthos erat fecundaque raelle Calymne : 40 

Cum puer audaci coepit gaudere volatu, 

Deseruitque ducem, caelique cupidine tractus 

17. MolUbaf\ An ancient form 35. aliquia] ' Many a one.* 
for moUiebat. 37. possent] The subjunctive 

19. »1» alas] i. e. between the of cause. 

wings. 38. lunonia — Samoa] Samos, 

20. mota] Sc. alia, Argos and Cai*th:ige were especial- 
Z^, Hortatur aequt] A Grae- ly favored by Juno andcontained 

cism for hortatur ut aequatur. her cbief temples. 


Altius egit iter. Rapidi vicinia solis 

Mollit odoratas, pennarum vlncula, ceras. 

Tabuerant cerae : nudos quntit ille lacertos, 45 

Remigioque carens non ullas percipit auras : 

Oraque caerulea patrium clamantia nomen 

Excipiuntur aqua, quae nomen traxit ab illo. 

At pater infelix, nec iam pater, ** Icare," dixit, 

" Icare," dixit " ubi es ? qua te regione requiram ? " 60 

^ Icare " dicebat, pennas adspexit in undis, 

Devovitque suas artes, corpusque sepulchro 

Condidit : et tellus a nomine dicta sepultL 


y. 236. 
Hunc miseri tnmulo ponentem corpora nati 
Garrula limoso prospexit ab elice perdix, 55 

£t plausit pennis, testataque gaudia cantu est : 
Unica tunc volucris, nec visa prioribus annis, 
Factaque nuper avis, longum tibi, Daedale, crimen. 
Namque huic tradiderat, fatorum ignara, docendam 
Progeniem germana suam, natalibus actis 60 

Bis puerum senis, animi ad praecepta capacis. 
Ille etiam medio spinas in pisce notatas 

43. Rapidi] • Swiftly consam- 57. Unica] *The only onc of 
ing: Its kind/ 

44. odoratas] Here a mere term 68. longum — crimen] * A last- 
of emi^ellishmcnt. ing rcproach.* Pertlix was the 

46. Remiffio] i. e. pennarum or nephew of Daedftlus» who, moved 

alai-umy as In Verg. Aen. I. 301 ; by envy of the youth on account 

a common metaphor. of his genins, slew him. 

48. nomen traxit] The Icarian 60. natalibua] The ablative of 

sea, between Naxos and Caria, a characteristic. 

part of the Aegean. 61. puerum] Appositive to pro- 

53. tellua] The island Icarii, geniem. — animi] The genitive of 

west of Samos. characteristic. 

84 P. OVIDII NASONIS [246-624. 

Traxit in exemplnm, ferroqne incidit acuto 

Perpetuos dentes, et serrae repperit nsum. 

Primus et ex uno duo ferrea bracchia nodo 65 

Vinxit, ut aequali spatio diatantibus.illis 

Altera pars staret, pars altera duceret orbem, 

Daed&lus invidit, sacraque ex arce Minervae 

Praecipitem misit, lapsum mentitns. At illum 

Quae favet ingeniis, excepit Pallas, avemque 70 

Reddidit, et mcdio velavit in aere pennis. 

Sed vigor ingenii quondam velocis in alas 

Inque pedes abiit : nomen, quod et ante, remansit. 

Non tamen haec alte volucris sua corpora tollit, 

Nec facit in ramis altoque cacumine nidos : 75 

Propter humum volitat, ponitqne in saepibus ova, 

Antiquique memor metuit sublimia casus. 

V. 618. 

* * * Inmensa est, finemque potentia caeli 
Non habet, et quicquid superi voluere, peractum est. 
Quoque minus dubites, tiliae contermina quercus 80 
Collibus est Phrygiis, modieo circumdata muro — 
Ipse locum vidi : nam me Pelopeia Pittheus 
Misit in arva, suo quondam regnata parenti — 
Haud procul hinc stagnum est, tcllus habitabilis olim, 

63. ferro\ Is datiye. rcmarks of Pirithons, the Bon of 

64. Perpetwsl * In a continu- Ixion, Lclex rclates thc follow- 
ous row.' ing story as a prouf that tlic gods 

65. ex uno — nodo] * Proceed- could changc tho forms of men 
Ing from one joint.' and other beings. 

68. exarce] From thc Acropolis 82. Pelope^ia — arra] Phrygia, 

at Athens. whence Pelops, thc son of the 

Q^. lapsuin\ Sc. ciim csse. PhrygiankingTantjlhis, wasdriv- 

73. guod et ante] Sc. erat. en when he flcd to Grecce. 
78. In reply to somc derisive 84. hinc] i. e. ab hit coUibus. 


Nanc celebres mergis fulicisque palustribus undae. 85 

luppiter huc specie mortali, cumque pareute 

Venit Atlantiades positis caducifer alis. 

MiHe domos adiere, locum requiemque petentes : 

Mille domos clausere serae. Tamen uua recepit, 

Parva quidem, stipulis et canna tecta palustri : 90 

Sed pia Baucis anus parilique aetate Philemon 

Illa sunt annis iuncti iuvenilibus, illa 

Consenuere casa : paupertateraque fatendo 

Effecere levem nec iuiqua mente ferendo. 

Nec refeit, dominos illic, famulosne requiras : 95 

Tota domus duo sunt, idem parentque iubentque. 

Ergo ubi caelicolae parvos tetigere penates, 

Submissoque humiles intrarunt vertice postes, 

Membra senex posito iussit relevare sedili, 

Quo superiniecit textum rnde sedala Baucis. 100 

Inde foco tepidum cinerem dimovit, et ignes 

Suscitat hesternos, foliisque et coitice sicco 

Nutrit, et ad flammas anima producit anili 

Multifidasque faces ramaliaque arida tecto 

Detulit, et minuit, parvoque admovit aeno. 105 

Quodque suus coniunx riguo collegerat horto, 

Truncat olus foliis. Furca levat ille bicorni 

Sordida terga suis nigro pendeutia tigno : 

85. celebrea — undae] * Watcrs bowed head ; ' bocaase the door 

much frcqacntcd by.* was so low. 

87. Atlantiades] Mercary, 100. Quo\ Adverb ; * on which.' 

whose mothcr, Maia, was the 103. anili\ i. e. d^biU ; * feeble 

daaghter of Atlas. from age.* 

94. nec %niqiia\ A litotes for et 104. faces] As originally, * ban- 

aeqttd; * with rcsignation.* dlcs of stlcks for burning.* — tec- 

96. idem] Contractcd from to] i. e. de tecto ; * from the loft.' 
iidem, WJ.foliia] The ablative of 

97. penates] By metonymy for separation. 

domum, 108. Sordida] From the smoke ; 

98. Submisao — vertice] * With * a' rusty flitch of bacon.* 

86 P. OVIDir NASONIS [649-671. 

Seryatoqne diu resecat de tergore partem 
ExiguaiD, sectamqae domat ferventibus undis. 110 

Interea medias fallunt serraonibus horas, 
Concntiuntque torum de molli iluminis ulva 
Inpositum lecto sponda pedibus^que salignis. 
Yestibus huno velant, quas non nisi tempore festo 
Stemere consuerant : sed et haeo vilisque vetusque 115 
Yestis erat, lecto non indignanda saligno. 
Accubuere deL Mensam succincta tremensqne 
Ponit anus : mensae sed erat pes tertius inpar : 
Testa parem fecit. Quae postquam subdita clivum 
Sustulit, aequatam mentae tersere virentes. 120 

Ponitur hic bicolor sincerae bacca Minervae, 
Conditaque in liquida corna autumnalia faece, 
Intibaque et radix et lactis massa coacti, 
Ovaque non acri leviter versata favilla : 
Omnia fictilibus. Post haec caelatus eodem 125 

Sistitur argento crater, fabricataque fago 
Pocula, qua cava sunt, flaventibus inlita ceris. 
Parva mora est, epulasque foci misere calentes : 

111. medias — horaa] * Begnile tirhich was sacred to this goddess ; 

thd intenrening hours.' hicolor refcrs to the mingling of 

113. sponda—s€tligma] Thc ab- grcen and black in this fruit. 

lative of charactcristic ; saUgnis 123. lactis — eoacti\ 'Ofcurd.' 

modifies both nouns. 124. non acri] * No longer 

117. dei] Juptter and Mercury, glowing.* 

who, disgaised in haman shape, 125. Omnia] Sc. ponuntur. — 

are received by Philemon and caefaius — argento] A humc.rous 

Bancis after having been refused expression in allusion to the piain 

admittance by their neighbors. earthen vessels. 

118. pestertius] InOvid'stime 127. Pocuh] This term signi- 
three-footed tables were a mark of fics drinking cups of any sort; 
poverty ; those with one foot were they were filled from the crater, 
fashiuhable. — inpar] Difierent the vessel in which the wine was 
from the two others in length. mixed, with a kind of lad!e. 

120. aequatam] Sc. mensam, 128. epulas — calentes^ThQlxM» 

121. baeca Minervae] Theolive, edbaoon. 


Nec longae ruraua referuntur vina senectae, 

Dantque locum mensis paullum seducta secundis. 130 

Hic nux, hio mixta est rugosis carica palmis, 

Prunaque, et in patulis redolentia mala canistris, 

Et de purpureis collectae vitibus uvae. 

Candidus in medio favus est. Super omnia vultos 

Accessere boni, nec inera pauperque voluntas. 135 

Interea totiens haustum cratera repleri 
Sponte sua, per seque vident succrescere vina. 
Attoniti novitate pavent, manibusque supinis 
Concipiunt Baucisque preces timidusque Philemon, 
Et veniam dapibus nullisque paratibus orant. 140 

TJnicus anser erat, minimae custodia villae, 
Quem dis hospitibus domini mactare parabant. 
IUe celer penna tardos aetate fatigat, 
Eluditque diu, tandemque est visus ad ipsos 
Confugisse deos. Superi vetuere necari, 145 

"Di" que "sumus, meritasque luet vicinia poenas 
Inpia " dixerunt, " vobis immunibus huius 
Esse mali dabitur : modo vestra relinquite tecta, 
Ac nostros comitate gradus, et in ardua montis 
Ite simul." Parent ambo, baculisque levati 150 

Nituntur longo vestigia ponere clivo. 
Tantum aberant summo, quantum semel ire sagitta 

129. 'Nec longae] *And wines goose is said sometimes to have 

of no great age/ etc. — ruratu re- taken tlie place of the dog. 

feruntttr] * Are removed again/ 148. dahitur] i. e. licebit. 

i. e. to make place for the dcssert. 149. comitate] The active form 

131. nic] At the dessert. of this vcrb occurs only in the 

135. nec iners] For et voluntaa pocts. — in ardua] * To the sum- 

nec inera nec pavper, mit.* 

140. nuIUaparatibual * For their 150. aimuT] i. e. nobiscum, 

want of preparation.* 151. Nituntur] The verse it- 

Hl, custodia] The abstract for self marks the lediousness of the 

the concrcte, custos ; in this capac- ascent. 

ity, according to Colamella, the 152. summo] Sc. mont9. 

88 P. OVIDII NASONIS [696-718. 

Missa potest : flexere oculos, et mersa palnde 
Cetera prospiciunt, tantum sua tecta manere. 
Dumque ea mirantur, dum deflent fata suorum, 155 
Illa vetus, dominis etiam casa parva duolnis, 
Vertitur in templum : furcas subiere columnae : 
Stramina flavescunt, aurataque tecta videntur, 
Caelataeque fores, adopertaque marmore tellus. 
Talia tum placido Satumius edidit ore : 160 

" Dicite, iuste senex, et femina coniuge iusto 
Digna, quid optetis." Cum Bauclde pauca locutus, 
ludicium superis aperit commune Philemon : 
** Esse sacerdotes, delubraque vestra tueri 
PoBcimus : et quoniam concordes egimus annos, 165 
Auferat hora duos eadem : nec coniugis umquam 
Busta meae videam, neu sim tumulandus ab illa.'' 
Vota fides sequitur : templi tutela fuere, 
Donec vita data est. Annis aevoque sohiti 
Ante gradus sacros cum starent forte, locique 170 

Inciperent casus, frondere PhilemSna Baucis, 
Bauclda conspexit senior frondere Philemon : 
lamque super geminos crescente cacumine vultus, 
Mutua, dum licuit, reddebant dicta : " Vale " que 
^ O coniunx " dixere simul, simul abdita texit 175 

156. lUa] Arranjre : IUa vetus 168. Jides aequttur] * Fulfilment 
ctuaj parva dttobm dominis, etC attends.* — tutela] Cf. note on 

157. subiere] * Took the place custodia, v. 141. 

of.* 171. Incipereni] As if incipe- 

158. Jlavescunt] Explained by rent narrare. 

aurata, 172. senior] * Aj?ed ; * but lit- 

159. tellus] That which had tle stronger than the positive. 
been the floor of the hut. 173. lam — cacumine] * And 

164. Esse] Objcct of poscimus, as a tree-top was now growing.* 

166. duos] *Both of us ; * duos 174. Mutua — reddebarU] * Ex- 
being here equivalent to ambo. • changed.* 

167. neu sim tumulandus] *Let 175. abdita] Proleptic for tit 
me not be destined to be buried.' abderentur. 


Ora frutex. Ostendit adhuc Tyaneius illio 
Incola de gemino vicinos corpore truncos. 
Haec mihi non vani, neque erat cur fallere vellenty 
Karravere senes. Eqnidem pendentia vidi 
Serta super ramos, ponensque recentia, dixi : 180 

Cura pii dis sunt, et qui coluere, coluntur." * 



y. 211. 

EccB, Lichan trepidum et latitantem rupe cavata 
Adspicit : ntque dolor rabiem coUegerat omnem, 
" Tune, Licha," dixit, " feralia dono dedisti ? 
Tune meae necis auctor eris ?" Tremit ille, pavetque 
Pallidus, et timide verba excusantia dicit. 5 

Dicentem genibusquc manus adhibere parantem 
Corripit Alcides, et terque quaterque rotatum 
Mittit in Eubolcas tormento fortius undas. 
Ille per aerias pendens induruit auras : 
Utque ferunt imbres gelidis concrescere ventis, 10 

Inde nives fieri, nivibus quoque molle rotatis 

177. truneos] i. e, arbores, fUry.* Hercttles, having put on 

178. non vani] * Trustworthy.* the shirt of Nessus, was now tor- 
— neque erat cur] * And thero mented with the pain caused hy 
was no reason why.* the poison. 

6. genibus — adhihere'] Sc. Hcr- 
LiBER IX. f^ig . tiiijj iiQ does ag a sui^pliant. 

1. Lichan'] Lichas had bronght 7. ^fcfctes] Hercttlesisso Ciilled 
to Herctiles the poisoncd tunic of from liis grandtather, Alceus, a 
Nessus, wliich Deianlra, actuatcd king of Tiryns. 

by jealousy of lole, had sent to 9. per] * On his way through ; * 

her husband, to riBcall his wandcr- follows induruit, 

ing affections. 11. nivea] Hcre, * snow-flakcs.' 

2, rabiem — omnem] *A11 his —moUe] Modifies «wyw», v. 12. 




Adstringi et spissa glomerari grandine corpus : 
Sic illara, validis actam per inane lacertis, 
Exsanguemqne metu nec quicquam humoris habentem, 
In rigidos versum silices prior edidit aetas. 15 

Nunc quoqne in Eubotco scopulus brevis emicat alto 
Gurgite, et humanae servat vestigia formae : 
Quem, quasi sensurum, nautae calcare verentur, 
Adpellantque Lichan. At tu, lovis inclita proles, 
Arboribus caesis, quas ardua gesserat Oete, 20 

Inque pyram structis, arcum pharetramque capacem 
Regnaque visuras iterum Troiana sagittas, 
Ferre iubes Poeante satum, quo ilamma ministro 
Subdita: dumque avidis conprenditur ignibus agger, 
Congeriem silvae Nemeaeo vellcre summam 25 

Sternis, et inposita clavae cervice recumbis, 
Haud alio vultu, quam si conviva iaceres 
Inter plena meri redimitus pocula sertis. 

lamque valens et in omne latus diffusa sonabat, 
Securosque artus contemptoremque petebat 80 

13. per %nane\ 'Throngh the 

15. prior — aetaa] * Former agcs 
have declared.' 

16. brevia] i. e. non kUus; 
*8mall.' — alto] As well as Eu- 
boico, modifies gurgite. 

22. visuraa] * Destined to see ; * 
by the decrees of the Fates,— 
iterum] In the possession of Phi- 
loctetes {Poeante satttm), whom 
Ulysses snmmoned fi*om Lemnos ; 
for, according to an orncle, Troy 
could not be talccn without the 
arrows of Herctiles. They had 
already seen Troy when Herctiles 
was warring with LaoraCdon. 

23. Ferre] * To take/ as a leg- 

acy .— quo — ministro] * By whose 

24. Subdita] Sc. eatpyrae. 

25. Congeriem ailvae] Thesame 
thing as affger, both representing 
the funeral pile. — Nemeaeo vel- 
lere] * With the sldn of the Ne- 
mean lion.' 

27. iaceres] The Koman cns- 
tom of reclining at table is re- 
ferred to. 

28. redimitiu ^ sertis] As a 
token of hiiarity or joyousness. 
These smcillcr garlands are said 
also to have becn wom around the 
neck by the earlier Christians. 

30. Securos] * Unconcemed,* 
i. e. about the flame. 


Flamma snam. Timuere dei pro vindice terrae. 
Quos ita, sensit enira, laeto Saturnius ore 
lupplter adloquitur : " Nostra est tiraor iste voluptas, 
O superi, totoque libens mihi pectore grator, 
Quod memoiis populi dicor rectorque paterque, 35 

Et mea progeuies vestro quoqne tuta favore est. 
Nam quamquam ipsius datur hoc inmanibus actis, 
Obligor ipse tamen. Sed enim, ne pectora vano 
Fida metn paveant, Oetaeas spernite flammas : 
Omnia qui vicit, vincet, quos cernitis, ignes : 40 

Nec nisi materna Vulcanum parte potentem 
Sentiet : aeternum est, a me quod traxit, et expers 
Atque immune necis, nullaque doraabile flamma. 
Idque ego defunctum terra caelestibus oris 
Accipiam, cunctisque mcum laetabile fhctum 45 

Dis fore confido. Siquis tamen HercQle, siqnis 
Forte deo doliturus erit : data praeraia nolet, 
Sed meruisse dari sciet, invitusque probabit.^' 
Adsensere dei : coniunx quoque regia visa est 
Cetera non duro, duro tamen ultima vultu 50 

31. vindice terrae] Herctiles is 39. Oetaeas] Cf. y. 20, sq. 
thus called becaase he had freed 41. maternd ^parte] Alcme- 
tbe earth fyom so many monsters, na, the mother of Herctlles, was 
robbers, and tyrants. mortal. — Vulcdnum — potentem] 

32. aenait enim] Sc. iUoe timere. * The power of Vulcan/ or * the 
83. timor iete] ' That fear of effects of fire.' 

yours;' referring to timuere, v. 46. HerciUe — deo] 'Because 

31. Herctiles is a god.' 

35. memoris popult] * Of a grate- 47. data — nolet] i. e. m quidem 

fhlpeople;' the gods are meant, data esae nolet; 'he may indeed 

who are mindful of the good deeds be displeased,' etc. 

of Herctlles. 48. dari] Sc. fia£c praemia as 

^. tuta — esf] * Is protectod.' subjcct. 

37. Aoc] * This concem.' 60. duro — vuUu] *Withalook 

38. enim] The reason is stated of displeasure.' — ultima] The 
in vincet — ignet, v. 40. words si^ie — probabit. 

92 P. OVIDII NASONIS [261-7. 

Dicta tnlisse lovis, seqae indoluisse notatam. 
Interea quodcumque fuit populabile flammae, 
Mulclber abstulerat : nec cognoscenda remansit 
Herculis effigies, nec quicquam ab imagine ductum 
Matris habet, tantumque lovis vestigia servat. 55 

Utque novus serpens, posita cum pelle senecta, 
Luxuriare solet, squamaque virere recenti : 
Sic, ubi mortales Tirynthius exuit artus, 
Parte sui meliore viget, maiorque videri 
Coepit, et augusta fieri gravitate verendus. 60 

Quem pater omnipotens inter cava nubila raptum 
Quadriiugo curru radiantibus intulit astris. 


y. 1. 
Indb per inmensum croceo velatus amictn 
Aethera digreditur, Cic5numque Hyraenaeus ad oras 
Tendit, et Orphea nequiquam voce vocatur. 
Adfuit ille quidem : sed nec sollemnia verba, 
Nec laetos vultus, nec felix attulit omen. 5 

Fax quoque, quam tenuit, lacrimoso stridula fumo 
Usque fuit, nullosque invenit motibus ignes. 

61. se — notatam] Sc. eaae ; 62. inhdit astria] Hercttles be- 
* that she was pointcd at.' came a constellation. 

52. popidahile] A word coined 
by Ovid ; * destractible.' liber x. 

58. Tirynthius] SocnUedfrom 

jriryns, a town in Argolis, where ,1. Inde] From Crete, where 
Hercttles was brought up. Hymen hnd becn present at a 

59. Parte — meUore] * In his marria^e cercmony. 

more ethereal part.* Observe the 3. neqtdquam] Inasmuch as the 
use of sui, the subjective genitive, union was .to have an unhnppy 
for the possessive sud, end. — voccUur^ Sc ad nuptias. 


Exitus auspicio gravior : nam nupta per herbas 
Dura nova Naiadum turba comitata vagatur, 
Occidit, in taluni serpentis dente recepto. 10 

Quam Sitis ad superas postquam RhodopeYus auras 
Deflevit vates, ne non temptaret et umbras, 
Ad Styga Taenaria est ausus descendere porta : 
Perque leves populos simulacraque functa sepulchro 
PersephSnen adiit, inamoenaque regna tenentem 15 
Umbrarum dominum : pulsisqne ad carmina nervis 
Sic ait : " O positi sub terra numina mundi, 
. In quem recidimus, quicquid mortale creamur : 
Si licet et, falsi positis ambagibus oris, 
Vera loqui sinitis, non huc, ut opaca viderem 20 

Tartara, descendi: nec uti villosa cohibiis 
Tema Medusaei vincirem guttura monstri. 
Causa viae coniunx, in quani calcata venenum 
Vipera diffudit, crescentesque abstulit annos. 
Posse pati volui, nec me temptasse negabo : 25 

Vicit Amor. Supera deus hic bene notus in ora est: 
An sit eC hic, dubito : sed et hic tamen auguror esse. 

8. nupta — nova] Eurydtce. the Stoic dictum: recidunt om- 

U*. superas — auras] Antitlietic nia in terras et oriuntur e terria. — 

taumhras. — Rhodopdus — vates\ guicquid — creamur] * As far as 

* The Thracian bard/ i. e. Or- we are created subject to death ; * 

pheus. quicquid is appositive to nos un- 

12. ne non temptaref] * Not to dcrstood. 

leave untried.* 22, Medusaei — tnonstrf] Cer- 

13. Ta&naria — porta] A dark b€rus, so called as thc oflfsprlng of 
cavern at Taend,rus was fabled to Echidna, the daughtcr of Medusa. 
lcad to the lower world. — vincirem] Refers to the act of 

14. leves] * Unsubstanti:il.* Hercttles, who bound him and 

15. adiit] The last syllable is dragged him to the upper world. 
long ; cf. note, i. 26. 24. cresc&ntes — annos] * The 

16. dominum] Pluto. — nd car- years of her youth ; * with dbstU' ^ 
mina] * As an accompanlmcut to lit supply cui from in qua?n. 

his song.' 27. An sit] Sc. notus. — essel 

18. recidimtui] Is cxplaincd by Sc. notum, with eum as subject. 

94 P. OVIDII NASONIS [28-46. 

Famaque si veteris non eht mentita rapiuae, 

Vos quoque iunxit amor. Per ego haeo loca plena 

Per Chaos hoc ingens, vastique silentia regni, 80 

Eurydices, oro, properata retexite fata! 
Omnia debemur vobis, paullumque morati 
Serius aut citius sedem properamus ad unam. 
Tendimus huc omnes, haeo est domus ultima: vosque 
Humani generis longissima regna tenetis. 35 

Haec quoque, cum iustos matura peregerit annoS| 
luris erit vestri. Pro munere poscimus usum. 
Quod si fata negant veniam pro coniugc, certum est 
NoUe redire mihi : leto gaudete duorum." 

Talia dicentem nervosque ad verba moventem . 40 
Exsangues flebant animae : neo Tant^us undam 
Captavit refugam, stupuitque Ixi5nis orbis, 
Nec carpsere iecur vohicres, urnisque vacarunt 
Belldes, inque tuo sedisti, Sisyphe, saxo. 
Tunc primum lacrimis victarum carmine fama est 45 

28. rapinae] Refers to the 39. NoUe] Has fiere the same 

carrying off of Prosei-plna by force as when in tlie imperative 

Plato. before an inflnitive. 

30. Chaos] Is here used in a 40. ad verba] * In accompani- 
limited sense for the lower world. ment to ; ' cf. v. 16. 

Cf. note, II. 299. 42. atupuit] * Stood stiU ' as if 

31. properata — fata] * Unravel amazcd ; the wheel is personified. 
the web of her premature fate ; ' 43. iecur] Of Tityus ; two vul- 
with reference to the Parcae, who tures devoured his liver, which 
spun the thread of human des- grcw as fast as it was consumed. 
tiny. 44. Belldes] The Danaldes, the 

32. Omnia debemur] * We are danghters of Danaus and the 
all destined ; * cf. v. 18. granddarfghters of Belus. For 

36. Haec] Eurydlce. the murder of their hnsbands 

37. Iwis] The predicate geni- they were condemncd in the in- 
tive ; * will be subject to you.* fernal world to draw water in 

38. certum eat — miki] *I am sieves to ftll a leaky cask. — saxo] 
resolved not to retum.' The rock which Sisyphus was 


EnTnenldum maduisse genas. Neo regia coniunz 

Sustinet oranti, nec qui regit ima, negare : 

Eurydlcenque vocant. Umbras erat illa recentes 

Inter, et incessit passu de vulnere tardo. 

Hanc simul et legem Rhodopems accipit heros, 60 

"Ne flectat retro sua lumina, donec Avemas 

Exierit valles : aut inrita dona futura. 

Capitur adclivis per muta silentia trames, 
Arduus, obscurus, caligine densus opaca : 
Nec procul afuerunt telluris margine summae. 55 

Hic, ne deficeret, metuens, avidusque videndi, 
Flexit amans oculos : et protinus illa relapsa est 
Bracchiaque intendens prendique^et prendere captans 
Nil nisi cedentes infelix arripit auras. 
lamque iterum moriens non est de coniuge quicquam 60 
Questa suo : quid enim nisi se quereretur amatam ? 
Supremumque vale, quod iam vix auribus ille 
Acciperet, dixit, revolutaque rursus eodem est. 

Non aliter stupuit gemina nece coniugis Orpheus, 
Quam tria qui timidus, medio portante catenas, 65 

compelled to roU np hill, and 52. Exierit] With an accnsa- 

whlch always rolled back again tire, is poetic. — aut] Hcre*other- 

as soon as it reached the top. wise/ — futura] Sc. esse, after an 

46. Eumentdum] A enphemis- Implied verbum dicendu 

tic Grcek terra, mcaning * benevo- 55, afuSrunt] Observe the ir- 

lent/ for Furiarttm. regular quantity. 

47. Nec — austinet] * She cannot 56. ne dejiceret] * Lest she (L e. 
bear to deny his request;* with her strength) should fail.' 
oranti supply ei, 58. intendens] Bclongs to illa, 

49. Inter] Its position is a po- the common subjcct of relapaa est 

etical license. and arripit, — prendi] By Orphcus. 

51. Ne flectat] Appositive to 61. amatam] Scesse; arrange: 

legemf which hero significs * con- quid enim querereturt etc. 

dition.' — Avernas — valles] The 62. mfe] An imperative nsed 

lowerworld. Near Lake Avernus, substantivcly. 

a passage to the infemal regions 65. Quam ~ qui] * Than he 

was 8upi>08ed to exist. who.' — medio] Sc collo. 

96 P. OVIDII NASONIS [66-8. 

Colla canis vidit : quem non pavor ante reliquit, 

Quam natura prior, saxo per corpus oborto : 

Quique iu se crimen traxit voluitque videri 

Olenos esse nocens, tuque, o confisa figurae, 

Infielix Lethaea, tuae, iunctissima quondam 70 

Pectora, nunc lapides, quos humida sustinet Ide. 

Orantem frustraque iterum transire volentem 

Portitor arcuerat. Septem taihen ille diebus 

Squalidus in lipa Cereris sine munere sedit. 

Cura dolorque animi lacrimaeque aliraenta fuere, 75 

Esse deos Erebi crudeles questus, in altam 

Se recipit RhodOpen pulsumque aquilonibus Ilaemum. 


V. 1. 

Carmine dum tali silvas animosque ferarum 
Threicius vates et saxa sequentia ducit, 
Ecce nurus Cicdnum, tectae lymphata ferinis 

66. canis] CerbCrus. — vidif] noa and Lethaea, — kttmida — Ide] 

"VVhen Herctiles dra^ged the mon- Cf. celeberrima —Idey II. 218. 

sterto light. Further details of 72. OrafUem] S?. Orpkea. 

this story, as well as of the fol- 73. Pottitor] Charon, who car- 

lowing, are uuknown. ried over the Styx the souls of the 

68. Quique] Arrange : et (qtiam) dead. 

Oldnos, quit etc, quam being re- 74. SqtMlidus] * In woful garb.' 
peitcd from v. 65, and refcrring 

still to Non aliter atupuit. libee xi. 

70. Letkaea] Seems, like Niobe, • 

to have oflfended the gods by her 1. tali] Such as has l)een spo- 

arrogance and presuraption As ken of in the preceding book. 

Oldnos wished to assume the 2. saxa seqtcentia] Cf. Jidibua 

penalty, both were changed to commissa tnoeniaf VI. v. 33 sq. 

stone. 3. nurtts] Here poetic for 

71. Pectora] Appositive to OiS- * young womcn ' gcnerally. — 


Pectora velleribus, tumuli de vertice cernunt 

Orphea percussis sociantem carmina nervis. 5 

E quibus una, levem iactato- crine per auram, 

<*En," ait "en hic est nostri contemptor 1 " et hastam 

Vatis ApoUinei vocalia misit in ora : 

Quae foliis praesuta notam sine vulnere fecit. 

Alterius telum lapis est : qui raissus, in ipso 10 

Aere concentu victus vocisque lyraeque est, 

Ac veluti supplex pro tam furialibus ausis 

Ante pedes iacuit. Sed enim temeraria crescunt 

Bella, niodnsque abiit, insanaque regnat Erinys. 

Cunctaque tela forent cantu mollita : sed ingens 15 

Clamor et infracto Berecyntia tibia comu 

Tympanaque et plausus et Bacchei ululatus 

Obstrepuere sono citharae. Tum denique saxa 

Non exauditi rubuerunt sanguine vatis. 

Ac primum attonitas etiamnum voce canentis 20 

Innumeras volucres anguesque agmenque ferarum 

MaenS,des Orphei titulum rapuere triumphi. 

Inde cruentatis vertuntur in Orphea dextris 

li/mp?uaa] 'Frantic;' here in* 16. in/racto] Equlvalent to 
reference to the frenzied worshlp adunco ; * crooked ; * the pipe ter- 
of Bacchns. minated in a hor^ bending up- 

4. tumuli] Equiyalent to mon- wards. 

tia. 17. plausus] * The clapping of 

5. nervis] Cf. v. II ; nervis is hands.* — Bacchei] The ultimate 
hero dative. does not suffer olision. 

7. nostri contemptor'] Orpheus 20. attonitas etiamnum] * Even 
had, since the loss of Eurydlce, yet charmed ; ' so as to fall an 
shunned the society of women. easy prey to the Bacchantes. 

8. ApoUinei] * Of Apollo/ as 22. titulum] Appositive to ro- 
the god of music. lucreSf etc. ; tbeseanimals formed, 

9. foUis] The spear was a thyr' as it were, the minstrel's trium- 
9U8 ; cf. V. 28, And pampineia vela- phal procession, and so contribu- 
tam frondibus hastam, III. v. 216. ted to his glory. 

13. Sed enim] Equivalent to 23. vertimtur] Reflexive, as 
sedfnutrdt nam, often. 


98 P. OVron NASONIS * [24-47, 

E.t coeant nt aves, si quando luce yagantem 

Koctis avem cernunt : structoque ntrimque theatro 25 

Ceu matutina cervus periturus arena 

Praeda canum est, vatemque petunt et fronde virentes 

Coniciunt thyrsos, non haec in munera factos. 

Hae glebas, illae direptos arbore ramos, 

Pars torquent silices. Keu desint tela furoii : 30 

Forte boves presso subigebant vomere terram : 

Nec procnl hinc, multo fructum sudore parantes, 

Dura lacertosi fodiebant arva coloni : 

Agmine qui viso fugiunt, operisque relinqnunt 

Arma sui : vacuosque iacent dispersa per agros 35 

Sarculaque rastrique graves longique ligones. 

Quae postquam rapuere ferae, cornuque minaces 

Divellere boves, ad vatis fata recurrunt, 

Tendentemque manus, atque illo tempore primnm 

Inrita dicentem nec quicquam voce moventem, 40 

Sacrilegae perimunt: perque os, pro lupplterl illud 

Auditum saxis intellectumque ferarum 

Sensibus in ventos anima exhalata recessit. 

Te maestae volucres, Orpheu, te turba feramm, 

Te rigidi silices, te carmina'saepe secutae 45 

Fleverunt silvae : positis te frondibus arbos 

Tonsa comam luxit : lacrimis quoque flumina dicunt 

25. Noctiaavem] *Theowl.*— 38. DiveRere] This form pre- 
structo tOrimqtie thecOro'] A pe- seiits the only legitimate perfect 
riphrasis for amphitheatro, stem of this coropound. — /ate] 

26. matutina] The flghts of wild Here equivalent to caedem. 
beasts took place in the mornlng, 41. Sacrilegae] As they attack 
preceding those of the gladiators. a man of divine descent, and a 

30. Neu] Equivalent to etne, favorite of Apolio and the Muses. 

82. fructwn] • The desired har- 45. teciftae] Equivalent to a 

vest.' relative clanse. 

84. Agmine] Sc. Bacchantium, 47. Tonsa comam] The trees 

36. Sarcuktque] The -que is are here invested with homan 

lengthened by the arsis. sympathies ; the ancients in their 


Increvisse suis : obstrusaque carbasa pullo 
Naldes et Dryades passosque habuere capillos, 49 

Mernbra iacent diversa locis. Caput, Hebre, lyramque 
Excipis: et, mirura! medio dum labitur amne, 
Flebile nescio quid queritur lyra, flebile lingua 
Murmurat exanimis, respondent flebile ripae. 
lamque mare invectae flumen populare relinquunt, 
Et Methymnaeae potiuntur litore Lesbi. 65 

Hic ferus expositum peregrinis anguis arenis. 
Os petit, et sparsos stillanti rore capillos. 
Tandem Phoebus adest, morsusque inferre parantem 
Arcet, et in lapidem rictus serpentis apertos 
Congelat, et patulos, ut erant, indurat hiatus. 60 

Umbra subit terras, et, quae loca viderat ante,. 
Cuncta recognoscit : quaerensque per arva piorum 
Invenit Eurydlcen, cupidisque amplectitur ulnis. 
Hic modo coniunctis spatiantur passibus ambo : 
Nunc praecedentem sequitur, nunc praevius anteit, 65 
Eurydlcenque suam iam tuto respicit Orpheus. 

gricf often shaved thcir hair and called f^om Methymna, Its most 

consecrated it to the dead. important town after Mytilcne. 

48. puUo^l Is here used as a 66. expositum] For eiectum ; 

noun ; * with mourning.* * thrown up.' 

50. diversa locis^ Poetic for 57. rore\ Here for aqita. 

diversis locis ; locis is the ablatiYe 68. Tandem'] * At last ; ' im- 

of specification. plying that the power of the pod 

52. nescio quid] * Something ; * might have been exorcised earlier 

the accusative after gueritur and in hls behalf. 

modihed hy Jlebile, 61. Umbra] Sc. Orphei.—ante] 

54. mare] Depends on the m Cf. X. v. 13, sq. 

in invectae. — invectae] Sc. lingua 62. arva piorum] Tho Elysian 

et lyra^ the former representing Fields. 

the entiro hcad. Cf. v. 56, sq. — 64. modo] Correlative to »um? ; 

flumen populare] Tho Hebrus *now.' 

is meant, which was the principal 65. anteit] Dissyllabic by syn- 

river of Thrace, the native coun- izesis. 

try of Orpheus. 66. tuto] Without fear of an- 

65. Methifmnaeae] Lesbosisso other separation. 

100 P. OVIDn NASONIS [86-101, 

V. 86. 

Nec satis hoc Baccho est : ipsos qnoque deserit agros, 
Curaque choro raeliore sui viueta Timoli 
Pactolonque petit, quaravis non aureus illo 
Tempore, nec caris erat invidiosus arenis. 70 

Hunc adsueta cohors Sat^ri Bacchaeque frequentant. 
At Silenus abest. Titubantem annisque meroque 
Ruricolae cepere Phryges, vincturaque coronis 
Ad regem duxere Midan, cui Thracius Orpheus 
Orgia tradiderat cura Cecropio Euraolpo. 75 

Qui siraul agnovit sociura coraiteraque sacrorum, 
Hospitis adventu festuni genialiter egit 
Per bis quinque dies et iunctas ordine noctes. 

Et iara stellarum sublirae coegerat agmen 
LucXfer undeciraus, Lydos cum laetus in agros 80 

Rex venit, et iuveni Silenum reddit alurano. 
Huic deus optandi gratura, sed inutile, fecit 
Muneris arbitrium, gaudens altore recepto. 

67. Necsatiahoc] Bacchashad 72. Silemuy The instmctor of 
changed the women who killed Bacchas. 

Orpbeus into oaks. He now 73. coronis] * With garlands. * 

abandons Thrace, and visits Lydia 75 Cecropio] * Athenian ; ' the 

and Phrygla. final o is not elidcd, and the verse 

68. TimoU] Another form for is sppndaic. Cecrops was the 
TymoU, or Tmoli ; siti is used be- tirst kingof Attlcaand the founder 
cause of the vineyards on this of Athens. 

monntain. 77. adrentu] Ablative of cause, 

69. Pactdlon] • The Pactolus as well as of time. 

rises in Mount Tmolus, and, 80. Luci/er] Cf. II. v. 115. — 

after passing on the wcst of undecimus] *For the eleventh 

Sardis, empties itself into the Her- time.' 

mug, 81. iuveni — alumno] Bacchus, 

70. invidiosus] Hcre passive ; who is rcpresented as evcr young ; 
* envied * or * coveted.' iuveni is here an adjective. 

71. Hunc] Bacchus. — coAor»] 82. inutile] 'Pemicious;' cf 
Appositive to Saipri Bacchaegue. male uaurusy v. 84. 


Hle, male nsaras donis, ait ^ Effice, qaicqaid 
Corpore contigero, fulvnm vertatur in aurum.** 85 

Adnuit optatis, nocituraque munera solvit 
Liber, et indoluit, quod non meliora petisset. 

Laetus abit, gaudetque malo Berecyntius heros : 
Pollicitique fidem tangendo singula temptat. 
Vixque sibi credens, non alta fronde virenti 90 

Ilice detraxit virgam : virga aurea facta est. 
Tollit humo saxum : saxum quoque palluit auro. 
Contigit et glebam : contactu gleba potenti 
Massa fit. Arentes Cereris decerpsit aristas : 
Aurea messis erat. Demptum tenet arbore pomum : 95 
Hesperldas donasse putes. Si postibus altis 
Admovit digitos, postes radiare videntur. 
IUe etiam liquidis palmas ubi laverat undis, 
Unda fluens palmis Danaen eludere posset. 

Vix spes ipse suas animo capit, aurea fingens 100 
Omnia. Gaudenti mensas posuere ministri 
Exstructas dapibus, nec tostae frugis egentes. 
Tum vero, sive ille sua Cerealia dextra 
Munera contigerat, Cerealia dona rigebant : 
Sive dapes avido convellere dente parabat, 105 

Lamina fulva dapes, admoto dente, premebat. 

86. 8olvif\ * Grants/ with the 94. Masaa] i. e. attri moles. 

incidental notion of * paiys ' or * dis- 99. Jluens palmis] i. e. de pai- 

charges/ for by his promise he mia ; cf. /luit unda capillis fl,Y, 97 • 

had contracted^ as it were, a debt. — Danaen — possef] * Might have 

88. Berecyntius] Midas is thus deceived Danae ; ' as the golden 

styled as the son of Cybdle, who showor did, in which Juplter 

is often called Berecyntia, from came down to her. 

the Phrygian mountain Berecyn- 102. tostaefrugis] i. e. bread ; 

tus, which was consecrated to her in tlie most ancieiit times grain 

worship. was first roasted and then bruised 

S9. PolUcitiJidem] «Thetruth for bread-making. Cf. torrete-^ 

of the promise.' fruges, Verg. G. 1. 267. 

90. non aUa\ Join with iUce. 106. premebat] * Covered.* 


Mscuerat puriB auctorem muncris undis : 
Fusile per rictus aurum fluitare videres. 

Attonitus novitate mali, divesque miserqne, 
EflFugere optat opes, et quae modo voverat, odit. 110 
Copia nulla famem relevat : sitis arida guttur 
Urit, et inviso meritus torquetur ab auro. 
Ad caelumque manus et splendida bracchia toUens 
"Da veniam, Lenaee pater ! peccavimus," inquit 
" Sed miserere, precor, speciosoque eripe damno." 115 
Mite deum numen Babcbus peccasse fatentem 
Restituit, factique fidem data munera solvit. 
" Neve male optato maneas circumlitus auro, 
Vade " ait " ad magnis vicinum Sardlbus amnem, 
Perque iugum montis labentibus obvius undis 1% 

Carpe viam, donec venias ad fluminis ortus, 
Spumigeroque tuum fonti, qua plurimus exit, 
Subde caput, corpusque simul, simul elue crimen." 
Rex iussae succedit aquae. Yis aurea tinxit 
Plumen, et humano de corpore cessit in amnenu 125 
Nunc quoque iam veteris percepto semine venae 
Arva rigent auro madidis pallentia glebis. 

107. auctorem muneris] Bac- 119. amnem'] The Pactolus ; cf. 

chufl, i. e. wine. t. 69 and note. 

113. splendida'] * Shining ; ' the 122. plurimuaexW] * Issaes most 

^arments of Midas had been abundant.' 

turned to gold. 12.3. crimen] The foUy of his 

116. Mite — numen"] For mitis choice. 

deua, deum being the genitive; 124. Via attrea] <The golden 

numen is appositive to Bacchus ; eflacacy,' i. e. the power of con- 

* Bacchus, merciful divinity.* verting into gold. 

117. factique — solvit] ♦ And in 126. percepto semine] * Having 
confirmation of the fact (i. e. of his received the ore.' 

restoration to his former nature), 127. auro madidis] * Impreg- 

he revokes his granted ftivor ; ' nated with gold.' Strabo, who 

^misappositivetomuntfraxo/vi^. was a contemporary of Ovid, de- 

118. Neve] Equivalent \o et nies the existence of gold in the 
ne ; * and that— nqt.' sands of Factolus in his time. 




Of the life of Qaintus Cartias no particalars bave 
been banded down to ns, nor bas be been quoted by 
auy ancient autbor. The first writers mentioning bim 
date no earlier tban tbe twelflb century. Tbe con- 
jectures as to tbe time in wbicb be wrote bave been 
very various. Two passages in bis work furnisb tbe 
only evidence we bave bearing upon tbis point; but tbe 
more important of tbese uses language wbicb can be 
applied to many of tbe Roman emperors down even to 
Tbeodosius the Great. It bas also been asserted tbat 
his history was tbe work of a modem writer. But the 
prevailing opinion is, tbat Curtius lived early in tbe 
Cbristian era, probably not far from tbe time of Vespa- 
isian; on the contrary, otber critics would make bim 
contemporary witb Septimius Severus. 

He was, doubtless, a rhetorician, and bis flowery, 
omamented style bas induced tbe critics to assume 
tbat it is entirely artificial, and an attempted imitation 
of Livy, It bas life, brilliancy of expression, and free- 
dom, but is wanting in simplicity. His admiration of 



his hero rendera his work, althongh drawn from good 
sourcesy unreliable as historical authority. His narra- 
tive betrays a great ignorance of geography, astronomy, 
and of tho military art. Although he may be refiised 
the title of historian, he can still claim the credit of 
being an amusing and interesting writer. 

The first two books, and a portion of the tenth, have 
been supplied by modem writers, of whom Freinsheim 
ranks the highest. 




LIBER in. 

I. Alexandeb fauces iugi, quae Pylae appellantur^ 
intravit. Contemplatus locorum situra, non alias magii) 
dicitur admiratus esse felicitatem suam : obrui potaisse 
yel saxis confitebatar, si fuissent, qui in subeuntes 
propellerent. Iter vix quatemos capiebat armatos: 5 
dorsum montis imminebat viae non angustae modo, sed 
plerumque praeruptae, crebris oberrantibus rivis, qui ex 
radicibus montium manant. Thracas tamen leviter ar- 
matos praecedere iusserat scrutarique calles, ne occultus 
hostis in subeuntes erumperet. Sagittariorum quoque 10 
manus occupaverat ingum: intentos arcus habebant, 
moniti, non iter ipsos inire, sed proelium. Hoo modo 
agmen pervenit ad urbem Tarson, cui tum maxime Per- 

LiBER III. snffldent to contain foor anned 

Alexander, enters the passes of ^^ abreast.' 

Cilicia. He bathes in the river ^l-crebns^rtma] 'Nnmerona 

Cydnns ; is seized wlth a vlolent "^^^ts crossmg the path. 

illness, bnt is cnred by the skiU ^^-^^r"*^} .^*^""^ ^^/^^^ 

of hisphysician, Philippns. «^ C^>?^*» distingmshed for i s 

popnlation and wealth. TarsoniB 

2. non aHcui] * On no other oc- a Oreek accnsative. The Oreek 

casion.' form of the accnsative frequently 

6, vix — ormatotf] * Was hardly occnrs in Curtius. 



sae subiciebant ignem, ne opulentam oppidum hostis 
invaderet. At ille, Parmenione ad inhibendum incen- 
dium cum expedita manu praemisso, postquam barbaros 
adventu suorum fugatos esse cognovit, urbem a se con- 
5 servatam intrat. 

11. Mediam Cydnus amnis, de quo paullo ante dictum 
.est, interfluit, et tunc aestas erat, cuius calor non aliam 
magis quam Ciliciae oram vapore solis accendit, et diei 
fervidissimum tempus coeperat. Pulvere simul ao 

lOsudore perfusum regem invitavit liquor fluminis, ut 
calidum adhuc corpus ablueret. Itaque veste deposita, 
in conspectu agminis, — decorum quoque futurum ratus, 
si ostendisset suis, levi et parabili cultu corporis se esse 
contentum, — descendit in flumen. Vixque ingressi 

15subito horrore artus rigere coeperunt: pallor deinde 

suffusus est, et totum propemodum corpus vitalis calor 

reliquit. Exspiranti similem ministri manu excipiunt 

nec satis compotem mentis iu tabemaculum deferunt. 

III. Ingens sollicitudo et paene iam luctus in castris 

20erat. Flentes querebantur, in tanto impetu cursuque 
rerum omnis aetatis ac memoriae clarissimum regem 
non in acie saltem, non ab hoste deiectum, sed abluen- 

2. Parmenione] PaTmenio was it becoming him to disregard the 
one of the most distinguished of appliances of Inxury. 
Alexander'8 generals. 13. cultu corporis] * Care of the 

3. barbaros] i. e. the Persians. peraon. * Curtius had in mind the 

6. Mediam] Sc. urbem. luxuries of the Roman bath. 

7. cuius calor] Kinneir says : 18. nec satisr compotem mentis] 
* The snn was too powerful during * Scarcely retaining his couscious- 
the day to admit of my going ness.* 

abroad.* 19« It^ctus] * Wailing.* 

gfc 8. vapore] * Heat.* 20. impetu cursuque rerum] 

10. perfusum] A zeugma ; per- * Rapid career of success. * 

fuaum properly applying only to 22. saUem] * At least ; * i. e. had 

sudore.—Uquor] * Clearness.' he fallen in battle, that would 

12. deoorwn] The king thought have been a consolation. 


tem aqua corpns ereptrim esse et exstinctum. Instare 
Dareiim, victorem, antequam vicHsset hostem. Sibi 
easdem terras, quas victoria peragrassent, repetendas : 
omnia aut ipsos aut hostes populatos : per vastas soli- 
tudines, etiamsi nemo insequi velit, euntes, fame atque 5 
inopiadebellari posse. Quem signum daturum fugien- 
tibus ? quem ausurum Alexandro succedere ? lam ut 
ad Hellespontum fuga penetrarent, classem, qua tran»- 
eant, quem praeparaturum ? Rursus in ipsum regem 
misericordia versa, illum florem iuventae, illam vimlO 
animi, eundem regem et commilitonem, divelli a se et 
abiiirapi inmemores sui querebantur. 

IV. Intei* haec liberius meare spiritus coeperat : ad- rex oculos et, panllatim redeunte animo, circum- 
stantes amii-os agnovernt, laxa.tnqne vis morbi ob hoc 15 
solum videbatur, quia magnitudinem mali sentiebat. 
Animi autem aegritudo corpus urgebat : quippe Dare- 
um quinto die in Cilicia fore nuntiabatur. Vinctum 
ergo se tradi et tantam victoriam enpi sibi ex manibus 
obscumque et ignobili morte in tabemaculo exstingui 20 
se querebatur. Admissisque amicis pariter ac medicis, 

2. victorem] For, if Alexander 12. abrumpt] * Tom away.' 

died, they thought that thcy woald Stronger than divelU. — inmemo' 

be obliged to rctum to their coun- res] * Forgetful * of their own dan- 

try as conquered. gers, anxious for the safety of the 

6. Quem — ftigientibus] *Who king alone. 

would lead thcm in their flight ? * 13. Inter — coeperat] * In the 

7. lam ut] * Suppose that al- mean tirae his breath had begun 
ready.' to come more freely * 

8. HeUespontum] Aftcr the bat- 15. ob hoc solum] They thought 
tle of the Granicus, Alexandrr that the force of the disease had 
had sent back the greater part of decreased from. this one thing, 
his fleet into Greece. viz., that the king was conscious 

11. regem et commilitonem] Al- of its violcnce. 

though he was king, Alcxandcr 16. mali] * The disease.* 

shared all labors and dangers wlth 19. tantam] * So great/ i. e. as 

the commoii soldiers. he bad hoped. 


**In qiio me,*' inquit, " articulo rerum mearum fortuna 
deprehenderit, cernitis. Strepitum hostiliura armorum 
exaudire mihi videor, et, qui ultro intuli bellum, iam 
provocor. Dareus ergo, cum tam superbas litteras 
Sscriberet, fortunam meam in consilio habuit: sed ne- 
quiquam, si mihi arbitrio meo curari licet. Ldnta re- 
media et segnes medicos non exspectant tempora mea : 
vel mori strenue quam tarde.convalescere mihi melius 
est. Proinde, si quid opis, si quid artis in medicis est, 
10 sciant, me non tam mortis, quam belli remedium quae- 

V. Ingentem omnibus incusserat curam tam praeceps 
temeritas eius. Ergo pro se quisque precari coepere, 
ne festinatione periculum augeret, sed esset in pote- 

15 state medentium : inexperta remedia haud iniuria ipsis 
esse suspecta, cum ad pemiciem eius etiam a latere ip- 
sius pecunia soUicitaret hostis. Quippe Dareus mille 
talenta interfectori Alexandri daturum se pronuntiari 
iusserat. Itaque ne ausurum quidem quemquam arbi- 

20 trabantur experiri remedium, quod propter novitatem 
posset esse suspectum. 

VI. Erat inter nobiles medicos ex Macedonia regem 
secutus Philippus, natione Acarnan, iidus admodum 

1. articitlo] * Critical juncture/ health, but also of the successful 

2. deprehenderit] * Surprised/ manacement of the war. 
as an enemj falls upon tiis ad- 12. ctiram] 'Anxiety.* 
versary unawares. 13. guisque] With a plural yerb, 

4. superbas litteras] Curtius expressive of individual action. 
probably gave an account of these 14. aed — medentium] * Should 

letters in that part of his work commit himsclf to tlie care and 

which has perished. skill of the physicians. * 

6. fortunam — habuit] * Was in \5. haud iniurid] 'Justly.* 
consultation with the genius con- 16. a kUere] i. e. his friends, 

troUing my fortune/ companions, and attendants. Cf. 

\0, remedium] Refers not only aaenislaterenumquamdiacederem^ 

to the means of restoration to Cicero, De Amicitia, i. 1. 


regi : puero comes et custos salutis datus, non ut regem 
modo, sed etiam ut alumnum, eximia caritate diligebat. 
Is non praeceps se, sed strenuum remedium adferre tan- 
tamque vira morbi potione medicata levaturum esse 
promisit. Nulli promissum eius placebat praeter ipsum, 5 
cuius periculo pollicebatur. Omnia qaippe facilius, 
quam moram, perpeti poterat : arma et acies in oculis 
erant, et victoriam in eo positam esse arbitrabatur, si 
tantum ante signa stare potuisset, id ipsum, quod post 
diem tertium medicamentum sumpturus esset (ita enim 10 
medicus praedixerat), aegre ferens. 

VIL Inter baec a Parmenione, fidissimo purpurar 
torum, litteras accipit, quibus ei denuntiabat, ne salu- 
tem suam Philippo committeret : mille talentis a 
Dareo et spe nuptiarum sororis eius esse corruptum. 15 
Ingentem animo sollicitudinem litterae incusserant, et 
quicquid in utramque partem aut metus aut spes subie- 
cerat, secreta aestimatione pensabat. "^ Bibere perse^ 
verem ? ut, si venenum datum fuerit, ne inmerito qui- 
dem, quicquid acciderit, evenisse videatur ? Damnem 20 

1. custos sahitis] * The guar- king not to trost Philip, and in- 

dian of his hcaltb.' formcd him that he had becn 

3. praeceps] * Immedkite. * bribcd. 

5. ipsum] i. e. Alcxander, who 17. in utramque partem] * For 

was to incur the danger. and against/ i. e. whethcr to give 

8. si tantum] i. e. even if he up or adhcre to his opinion. 

could do notbing raore tban pre- 18. secreta] i. e. without con- 

sent himself to the view of his sultation with any one i within 

soldiers. himself. — (testimatione] Weigh- 

12. Parm^nione] Scn6ca relates ing the reason» for either course. 
that the letter was written by — Bibere perseverem] • Shall I 
Oly mpias, Alexander*s mothcr. — persist in my purpose of drinking ? * 
purpuratorum] * Courtiers.* A 20. accideritf evenisse] Accidit, 
term derived from the Persian * it happens * by accident, having 
satraps, whose garments were influence upon something else; 
oraamented with purple. evenit, * it follows,' nsed as the re- 

13. denunHaboit] * Wamed ' the solt of an event. 


medici fidem? in tabernaculo ergo me opprimi patiar? 
At satius est, alieno me mori scelere, qiiarn metu no- 

VIII. Diu animo in diversa versato, nuUi, quid scrip- 

•5tum esset, enuntiat epistulamque, sigillo anuli sui in- 
presso, pulvino, cui incumbebat, subiecit. 

Inter has cogitationes biduo absumpto, inluxit a 
medico destinatus dies, et ille cura poculo, in quo medi- 
camentum diluerat, intravit. Quo viso Alexander, 

10 levato corpore in cubili, epistulam a Parmenione mis- 
Siim sinistra manu tenens, accipit poculum et haurit in- 
territus : tum epistulam Philippum legere iubet ; nec a 
vultu legentis movit oculos, ratus, aliquas conscientiae 
notns in ipso ore posse deprehendere. 

15 IX. Ille, epistuhl perlecta, plus indignationis quam 
pavoris ostendit : proiectisque amiculo et litteris ante 
lectum, " Rex," inquit, " semper quidem spiritus meus 
ex te pependit, sed nunc vere, arbitror, sacro et vene- 
rabili ore trahitur. Crimen parricidii, quod mihi ob- 

20 iectum est, tua salus diluet. Servatus a me vitam mihi 
dederis: oro quaesoque, omisso metu, patere medica- 
mentum concipi venis : laxa paullisper aniraum, quem 
intempestiva sollicitudine amici sane fideles, sed moleste 

1. opprimi] Sc. by my adver- 21. oro quaesoque] Oraret * to 

sary. beglondlyand eamestly;* jt«ie*o, 

17. spiritus — ex te"] *I have *I beg,' expresses an urgent re- 
always considered that my breath quest, with claims for the kind ful- 
(life) depended upon you * fiiment ; obaecrare^ * to beg * by all 

18. nwnc] • At this critical point.* that is sacred, * to conjure. * — 
— Bocro] The Romans were omisso metit] Fear and anxiety 
accustpmed to apply the term wouldhinderthe effect of the po- 
sacer to whatever pertained to the tion. 

emperor. 22. concipi venis"] Theancients 

19. ore trahitur'] i. e. ifyoulive supposed that potions penetrated 
my life is safe; but if you per- the veins,— /aara— ammMm] i. c. 
ish, my life wiU pay the forfeit dismiss all care. 


seduli turbant." Non securum modo haeo vox, sed 
etiam laetum regera ac plenum bonae spei fecit. Ita- 
que, " Si dei," inquit " Philippe, tibi permisissent,^quo 
modo maxime velles animura experiri meum, alioprofec- 
to voluisses, sed certiore, quam expertus es, ne optasses 5 
quidem. Hac epistula accepta, taraen, quod dilueras, 
bibi : et nunc crede, me non minus pro tua fide quam 
pro mea salute esse sollicitum." 

X. Haec locutus dextram Philippo offert. Ceteruni 
tanta vis medicamenti fuit, ut, quae secuta sunt, crimi- 10 
nationem Parmenionis adiuverint. Interclusus spiri- 
tus arte meabat. Nec Philippus quicquam inexpertum 
omisit. Ille fomenta corpori admovit; ille torpentem 
nunc cibi, nunc vini odore excitavit. Atque ut primum 
mentis compotem esse sensit, raodo matris sororumque, 15 
modo tantae victoriae adpropinquantis ' admonere non 
destitit. Ut"vero medicamentura se diffudit in venas, 
et sensira toto corpore saUibritas percipi potuit, piimum 
animus vigorera suura, deinde corpus quoque exspecta- 
tioue maturius recuperavit : quippe post tertium diem, 20 
quara in hoc statu fuerat, in conspectura militum 
venit. Nec avidius ipsum regera, quara Philippum, in- 
tuebatur exercitus : pro se quisque dextram eius am- 
plexi grates habebant velut praesenti deo. 

4. animum^meum] * To test 2A, gratea] Is particularly nsed 

my confidence in you. ' — aho — of thanks to tlie gods. Gratias 

voluiases] * You would have wish- affere, to give thanks in words ; 

ed the trial made in another way.' referre gratiamy to make a rcqui- 

7. pro tud Jide] That your tal ; habere gratiam, or grcUes, to 

fidelity to mc may be apparent. feel grateful. Here, however, 

11. adiuverint] i. e. seeraed grates habere must mean the ex- 
to confirm the truth of thc cliarge. pression of the gratitude. — pra^- 

12. arte] * Witli difliculty.' s&nti deo] Tlie ancients thought 
18. salubrita^] i. e. tlie healing tiiat the gods appeared in person 

power ot' tlie potion. to tliose wliom they wished to aid. 




[iv. 7.] 
I. Akgyptii olira Persarum opibus infensi, — quippe 
avare et superbe inperitatum sibi esse credebant, — 
ad spem adventus eius erexerant animos, utpote qui 
Amyntam quoque transfugam et cum precario inperio 
5 venientem laeti recepissent. Igitur ingens multitudo 
Pelusium, qua intraturus videbatur, convenerat. Atque 
ille septimo die, postquam a Gaza copias moverat, in 
regionem Aegypti, quam nunc Castra Alexandri vocant, 
pervenit. Deinde, pedestribus copiis Pelusium petcre 

10 iussis, ipse cum expedita delectorum manu Nilo amno 
vectus est : nec sustinuere adventum eius Persae, dc- 
fectione quoque perterriti. lamque haud procul Meni- 
phi erat: in cuius praesidio Mazaces, praetor Darei, 
relictus, ad Cercasoron amne superato, octingenta 

15 talenta Alexandro omnemque regiam supellectilem tra- 
didit. A Memphi eodem. flumine vectus, ad interioni 

LiBER IV. of Issus, tnming trnitor to Danus 

Alexander visits the temple of »^«"' ^« «^^^^® **^ ^'^^ «P^" "^® 

Juplter Haramon in Libya. govcrnmcnt of Egypt, but was 

slain by thc Persian commandcr. 

1. Aegyptii] After the hattle of — precarid] Depending upon tho 

Issus, Alcxandcr marchcs to pleasure of his foUowers. 

Phocnicia, takes the city Tyre, 6. Pehisium] A city of Egypt, 

and then reduccs Egypt under situatcd at the most eastcrn of the 

his dominion. — olim] * Long mouths of tlie Niie. 

Bincc* Egypt, brought undcr the 7. Gazd] A city of Palestine 

power of Ihe Persians by Camby- takcn by Alcxander. 

ses (B. C. 525), had madc frc- II. defcctiojie] Of the mcrce- 

quent l)ut vain attempts to throw narics, who, at the approach of 

off the yoke of tbe conqucror. Alcxander, deserted the Persiau 

4. Amyntam] Amyntas was a standard. 

Macedonian traitor who went 14. amne] The Nile. 

over to Darius. After thc battle 16. vectus] Sc. Alexander. 


Aegypti penetrat conpositisque rebus ita, ut nihil ex 
patho Aegyptiorum more mutaret, adire lovis Ham- 
monis oraculum statuit. 

II. Iter expeditis quoque et paucis vix tolerabile in- 
grediendum erat : terra caeloque aquarum penuria est, 5 
steriles arenae iacent, quas ubi vapor solis accendit, 
fervido solo exurente vestigia, intolerabiiis aestus exsi- 
stit. Luctandumque est non solum cum ardore et sicci- 
tate regionis, sed etiam cum tenacissimo sabulo, quod 
praealtum et vestigio cedens- aegre moliuntur pedes. 10 
Haec Aegyptii vero maiora iactabant. 

III. Sed ingens cupido animum stimulabat adeundi 
lovem, quem generis sui auctorem, haud contentus 
mortali fastigio, aut credebat esse aut credi volebat. 
Ergo cum his, quos ducere secum statuerat, secundo 15 
amne descendit ad Mareotin paludem. Eo legati 
Cyrenensium dona attulere, pacem, et ut adiret urbes 
suas, petentes. Ille, donis acc^tis amicitiaque coniunc- 
ta, destinata exsequi pergit. Ac primo quidem et 
sequenti die tolerabilis labor visus, uondum tam vastis 20 

2. patrio — more] The Egyp- H, mortalifastiffw] *ThQB\im- 

tians were very tenacious of tiieir mit of human gi-eatncss/ 

castoms, and especially of their 15. qttos ducere] The army 

religious rites. consisted of four thousand foot 

5. terra caeloque] * From the soldiers and three hundrcd horse. 
springs and clouds.* Rain rarely — secundo amne] * Down tho 
fails in Egypt. ' stream/ i. e. the Nilc. 

6. accendit] * Hcats.* 16. Mareotin] A iake in Lower 

7. vestigia] i. c. the fcet. Egypt, not far from Alexandria. 

9. tenaciasimo] Which rctard- 17. Cyrenetisium] Cyrene was 
ed and impeded their progi*ess. a Grcelt colony on the coast of 

10. cedeiis] *Yielding/ so that of Africa, west of Egj^pt. 

the foot sank ihe deepcr/ — a^gre 18. amicitidque coniuncia] * And 

moliuntur] * Strujrgle through having formcd a league of friend- 

with difflculty.* ship.* 

\\. naec — iactahant] *Magni- ^. vastis] * Waste/ * unculti- 

fied these difflculties.' vated.* 


nndisqae solitudinibas aditis, iam tamen sterili et 
emorieiite teixa. 

IV. Sed at aperuere se camfii alto obruti sabulo, 
haud secus, quam profundum acqtior ingrcssi, terram 
5 oculis requirebant. Nulla arbor, niilhim culti soli oo- 
currebat vestigium. Aqiia etiam dcfccerat, qnam utri- 
bns cameli vexerant, et in arido solo ac fervido sabulo 
nuUa erat. Ad hoc sol omnia inccnrlerat, siccaque et 
adusta erant ora : cum repente, sive illud deonim 

10 munuBy sive casus fuit, obductae caelo nubes condidere 
solem; ingens aestu fatigatis, etiamsi aqua deficeret» 
auxilium. Enimvero ut largum quoque imbrem excu&- 
serunt procellae, pro se quisqne excipere eum, quidam, 
ob sitim inpotentes sui, ore quoque hianti captare co6- 

15 perant. 

y. Qnatriduum per vastas solitudines absuraptom 
est. lamque haud procul oraculi sede aberant, cum 
complures corvi agmini occununt, modico volata piima 
signa antecedentes, et modo humi residebant, cuixi 

20 lentius agmen incederet, modo se pennis levabant, ante- 
cedentium iterque monstrantium ritu. 

Tandem ad sedem consecratam deo ventum est. In- 
credibile dictu, inter vastas solitadines sita, undique 
ambientibus ramis, vix in densam umbram cadcnte 

2. emorienie] ^Lifeless.' impatience ; ' *anable to control 

3. aperuere] *Opened to tlie tliemselves/ 

vlew/ 18. modieo volatu\ • In a gen- 

8. omma\ * All tlieir supplies.' tle flight.* 

11. etiamnaqtta] In the fail- 19. arUecedentes] i. e. preced- 
nre of the supply of water, the in^ it as Kuides. 

clouds afforded great relief. 22. Incredibile dictu] ' One 

12. imbrem excusserunt procel- conld scarcely believe that so 
lae] *The storm clouds discharged pleusant a spot could exist in the 
a plentifal rain.' desert.' 

14. inpotentes sm\ * In their 24. cadente] ' Penetrating.' 


eole, contecta est, multique foutes, dulcibus aquis pas- 
sim manantibus, alunt silvas. Caeli quoque mira tem- 
peiies, verno tepoii maxirae similis, omnes anni partes 
pari salubritate percurrit. Incolae nemoris, quos 
Hammonios vocant, dispersis tuguriis babitant : me- 5 
dinm nemus pro arce habent, triplici muro circum- 
datum. Prima munitio tyrannorum veterem regiam 
clausit : in proxima coniuges eorum cum liberis et pel- 
licibus babitant : bic quoque dei oraculum est : ultima 
munimenta satellitum armigerorumque sedes erant. 10 

YL Est et aliud Hammonis nemus : in medio habet 
fontem, quem Solis aquain vocant: sub lucis ortum 
tepida manat, medio die, cuius vehementissimus est 
calor, fiigida eadem fluit, inclinato in vesperam cale- 
scit, media nocte fervida exaestuat : quoque nox propins 15 
vergit ad hicem, multum ex nocturno calore decrescit, 
donec sub ipsum diei ortum adsueto tepore languescat. 
Id, quod pro deo colitur, non eandem effigiem habet, 
quam vulgo deis artifices adcommodaverunt : umbilico 
maxime simiHs est habitus, smaragdo et gemmis coag- 20 
mentatus. Hunc, cum responsum petitur, navigio 
aorato gestant sacerdotes, multis argenteis pateris ab 

3. vemo tepori] * To the (ItaJ- fountain \s mentioned by Pliny, 

ian) climate in the spring.' — ofn- Pomponius Mcla, Silius Itallcus, 

fies — pereurrit] * Extends through vid, and Lucretius. 

the whole year.* 18 Id, qttod] The author hcsi- 

5. medium nemwi] Accordin? to tates to write deus in consequence 

Diodorus, this was an acropolis. of the rude form of the image. 

7. Prima munitio] * The in- 19. vulffo] i. e. by the Grcck 

terior part of the fortress.' and Roman artists. — umbilico] 

14. incUnato] Sc. die, Williinsun says : * Some of tbe sa- 

15. quoque — propius] * The cred l)oats contained the emblems 
nearer ; ' guogtie beiiig equal to et of Life and Stability.' By umbili- 
quo; i. e. the nearer tlie day ap- cua was probably mcant one of 
proaches, tlie more the hcat in- thcse, conical in shape. 
creases. ' 20. hdbitua] * Its form.* — gem^ 

17. ianffueacat] * Subsidcs.' This mia] Sc. * aUis.* 


ntroqne navigii latere pendentibns: seqaantur ma- 
tronae virginesque, patrio more inconditum quoddam 
carmen canentes, quo propitiari lovem credunt, ut cer- 
tnm edat oraculum. 

5 YII. Ac tum quidem regem propius adeuntem maxi- 
mus natu e sacerdotibus filium appellat, hoc nomen illi 
parentem lovem reddere adfirmans. Ille se vero et ac- 
cipere ait et* agnoscere, humanae sortis oblitus. Con- 
suluit deinde, an totius orbis inperium fatis sibi desti- 

lOnaret pater. Yates aeque in adulationem conpositus 
tcrrarum omnium rectorem fore ostendit. Post haeo 
institit quaerere, an omnes parentis sui interfectores 
poenas dedissent. Saberdos parentem eius negat ullius 
scelere posse violari, Philippi autem omnes interfectores 

151uisse supplicia: adiecit, invictum fore, donec excede- 
ret ad deos. Sacrificio deinde facto, dona et sacerdoti- 
bus et deo data sunt, permissumque amicis, nt ipsi 
quoque consulerent lovem. Nihil amplius quaesierunt, 
quam, an auctor esset sibi divinis honoribus colendi 

20 suum regem. Hoc quoque acceptum fore lovi vates re- 
spondet, ut ipsi victorem regem divino honore colerent. 

2. tnconditufn] <Rade.' Most 10. Vates] Who interpreted 
of thereligiousson^s ofearly an- the will of the goda. ^atque] 
tiqaity were of this description. * Not less than ' the chief priest, 

3. certum] * Clear/ * unambig- vrho had first saluted Alexander. 
aous.' 12. interfectorea] Philip was 

7. aceipere] * Accept ' as a good assassinated, at the ninrri:ige of 
omen. An omen was thought to be his daughter, by Pausanias, a 
efflcient when it wjis accepted. Maccdonian youth. Because Phil- 

8. agnoscere] * To consider as ip would not avenge an injury he 
true.* — humanae — oblitue] * For- had received, he tarned Iiis wrath 
getful of his human origin/ in agninst the king. Some writers 
thinking lie wasagod and the son state that he was instigated by 
of a god. Olympiiis, Philip's wife. 

d.fatie] Juplter himself was 19. auctor easet sibi] 'Would 
thought to be subject to the Fates. authorize them.' 



[V. 1.] 

I. Babtloniam procedenti Alexandro Mazaeus, qui 
ex acie in eam urbem confugerat, cum adultis liberis 
supplex occurrit, urbem seque dedens. Gratus adven- 
tus eius regi fuit : quippe magni operis obsidio futui*a 
erat tam munitae urbis. Ad hoc vir inlustris et manu 5 
proraptus famaque etiam proximo proelio celebris et ce- 
teros ad deditionem sui incitaturus exemplo videbatun 
Igitur hunc quideni benigne cum liberis excipit : cete- 
rum quadrato agmine, quod ipse ducebat, velut in 
aciem irent, ingredi suos iubet. Magna pars Babyloni- IQ 
orum constiterat in muris, avida cognoscendi novum 
regem : plures obviam egressi sunt. Inter quos Ba- 
gophanes, arcis et regiae pecuniae custos, ne studio a 
Mazaeo vinceretur, totum iter floribus coronisque con- 
straverat, argenteis altaribus utroque latere dispositis, 15 
quae non ture modo, sed omnibus odoribus cumulave- 
rat. Dona eum sequebantur greges pecorum equorum- 

LiBEE V. 5, manupromptus] 'Bravein 

Alexander enters Babylon. A ^j^ion.* ^ ,^ 

descriptionofthatcity. 1 . ad deditumem ^i] 'To sur- 

render themselves.* 

1. Babyloniam] After the 8. ceterum] As Alcxander did 

conqucst of Egypt, Alcxandcr not trust the inhabitants^.he en- 

returned to Asia, and having tercd thc city in battle array. 

conqucrcd Darius at Arbela, 9. quadrato agmine] * In order 

went to Babylon. — Mazaeus] At of battle,' so that the whole body 

Arbela, Mazaens had command formed a parallelogram. 

ofthe Pcrsian cavalry. After the li. iterjlonbus] According to 

battle he retreated to Babylon, the Pcrsian custom. 

but miide a voluntary surrcndcr 17. Do7ia — sequebantur] The 

on the approach of Alexandcr, who Asiatics never approached tlio 

appointed him satrap of Babylon. king but with gifts. 


que : leones quoque et pardales caveis praefereban- 

II. Magi deinde, suo more carmen canentes, post lios 
Chaldaei Babyloniorumque non vates modo, sed etiam 
5 artifices cum fidibus sui generis ibant : laudes lii regum 
canere soliti, Chaldaei siderum motus et statas vices 
temporum ostendere. Equites deinde Babylonii, suo 
equorumque cultu ad luxuriam magis quam ad magnifi-» 
centiam exacto, ultimi ibant. Rex, armatis stipatus, op- 

10 pidanorum turbam post ultimos pedites ire iussit : ipse 

cum curru urbem ac deinde regiam intravit. Postero 

die supellectilem Darei et omnem pecuniam recognovit. 

m. Ceterum ipsius urbis pulchritudo ac vetustas, 

non regis modo, sed etiam omnium oculos in semet 

15haud inmerito convertit. Semiramis eam condiderat, 
non, ut plerique credidere, Belus, cuius regia ostendi- 
tur. Murus instructus laterculo coctili, bitumine inter- 
litus, spatium triginta et duorum pednm in latitudi- 
nem amplectitur : quadrigae inter se occurrentes sine 

20 periculo commeare dicuntur. Altitudo muri quinqua^ 
ginta cubitorum eminet spatio: turres denis pedibus, 
quam muru^ altiores sunt. Totius operis ambitus trecen- 

1. praeferdtantur] The techni- 8. fnctgni/iceTttiam'] Here means 

cal term for * carrying' things in a becoming display. 

a public procession. 11. cum cwru] i, e. as it were, 

3. Mag%] Priests of the Per- in triumph. 

ffians, to whom was intrusted the 15. Semirdmis] According to 

careof the sacred fire. They also some authorities, Belus huilt the 

had great political influence. citadel and Semiramis the walls. 

4. CJialdaei] The name of a 17. bitumine] From the neigh- 
people. But the tei-m is also ap- boring lake. 

plied to those who professed that 18. latitudinem] Different au- 

they could predict future events thors give different accounts of 

by observing the motions of the the extent of these walls. 

heavenly bodies — astrologers, 2\. cubitorum] ARomancubit 

5. «iM generie] * Of a peculiar was 17.4744 English inches, aad 
^d.' a Greek cabit 18.2016 inches. 


ta sexaginta quinque stadia conplectitur ; singulorum 
stadiorum structuram singulis diebus perfectam esse 
memoriae proditum est. Aedificia non sunt admota 
muris, sed fere spatium iugeii unius absunt. Ac ne 
totam quidera urbem tectis occupaverunt : per octogin- 5 
ta stadia habitatur, nec omnia continua sunt, credo, 
quia tutius visum est, pluribus locis spargi. Cetera 
Berunt coluntque, ut, si externa vis ingruat, obsessis 
alimenta ex ipsius urbis solo subministrentur. 

IV. Euphrates intei-fluit magnaeque molis crepidini- 10 
bus coercetur. Sed omnium operum magnitudinem cir- 
cumveniunt cavernae ingentes, in altitudinem pressae 
ad accipiendum impetum fluminis, quod, ubi adpositae 
crepidinis fastigium excessit, urbis tecta cori iperet, nisi 
essent specus lacusque, qui exciperent. Coctili later- 15 
culo structi suqt : totum opus bitumine adstringit ur. . 
Pons lapideus flumini inpositus iungit urbem. Hic 
quoque iriter mirabilia orientis opera numeratus est: 
quippe Euphrates altum limum vehit, quo penitus ad 
fundamenta iacienda egesto vix sustinendo operi flr- 20 

1. stadia] A stade was 625 8. extemavia] i. e. of a be- 

Roman feet ; 606 feet nine inches sieging enemy. 

Englisli. Thus just a year was 11. circumvenitint] An un- 

employed" for the completion of usual expression for superant, 

the work, one stade being finished 12. in altUudinem pressae] i. e. 

each dijy. depressaet * very deep.* 

4. iufferi] As a measure of 13. impetum fluminis] * The 

lengtli, iugerum seems to have swollen river.* 

meant 104 Roman feet. 15. specus lacusque] • Caveras 

,5. totam — urbem] Not inclad- and cisterns.* The cisterns were 

ing the space bctwecn the build- dug to a great depth and liiied 

ings and the walls. with heavy masonry. 

6. continua] i. e. the ediflces 16. adstringitur] * Strength- 
were not in all cascs contiguous. ened,' * bound together.* 

7. tutiu^] Against firo. — Cete- 17. iungit urhem] * Connects 
fa] The greatest part of the the two parts of the city.' 

Und was devoted to agriculture. 19. penitus. * Wholly.' 


mam reperiunt solum : arenae autem Bubinde cumula- 
tae et saxis, quis pons sustinetur, adnexae morantur 

* amnem, qui retentus acrius, quam si libero cursu 

mearet, inliditur. 
5 V. Arcem quoque ambitu viginti stadia conplexam 
babent. Triginta pedes in terrara turrium fundamenta 
demissa sunt, ad octoginta summura munimenti fastigi- 
um pervenit. Super arccm, vulgatum Graecorum 
fabulis miraculum, pensiles horti sunt, summam muro- 

IQ rum altitudinem aequantes multarumque arborum um- 
bra et proceritate amoeni. Saxo pilae, quae totum 
onus sustinent, instructae sunt : super pilas lapide 
quadrato solum stratum est, patiens terrae, quam altam 
inicinnt, et humoris, quo rigant terras : adeoque 

15 validas arbores sustinent moles, ut stipites earum octo 

cubitorum spatium crassitudine aequent, in quinquagin- 

ta pedum altltudinem emineant, frugiferae aeque sint, 

ut si terra sua alerentnr. 

VI. Et cura vetustas non opera solum manu facta, 

20 sed etiam ipsam naturam pauUatim exedendo perimat, 
haec moles, quae tot arborura radicibus prcjmitur tanti- 
que nemoris pondere onerata est, inviolata durat : 
quippe viginti pedes lati parietes sustinent, undecim 
pedura intervallo distantes, ut procul visentibus silvae 

25montibus suis iraminere videantur. Syriae regem 

3. acrina] * More farlously.* 15. moles] * Masscs of stone.* — 

8. Super arceni] * On the 6um- vt] Supply adeo. 

mit of the citadel.* — Graecdrum 18. terrasua] *Native soil.* 

. fahulis] * The exaggerated sto- 19. cum] i. e. quamvis, 

ries of the Greek writers.* 20. exedendo perimat] * De- 

10. arborum] i. e. covered stroys by corrosion.* 

with raany tail and shady trees. 25. Syriae] * Assyria/ often so 

IS, patiens terrae — et humoris] called hy the ancient writers,— 

< Capable of supporting the soil regem] Nebuchadnezzar, as is geu- 

and of retaining the moisture.' erally supposedp 


Babylone regnantera, hoc opus esse molitura raemoriae 
proditum est, amore coniugis victum, quae desiderio 
nemorum silvarumque in campestribus locis virum 
compulit amoenitatem naturae genere huius operis 
imitarL 5 

[V. 2.] 

Vn. lamque Susa Alexandro adituro Abulites, regi- 
onis eius praefectus, sive Darei iuasu, ut Alexandrum 
praeda retineret, sive sua sponte filium obviam misit, 
traditurum se urbem promittens. Benigne iuvenem 
excepit rex, et eodem duce ad Choaspen .amnera per-lQ 
venit, delicatam, ut fama est, vehentem aquara. Hic 
Abuhtes cum donis regalis opulentiae occurrit. Dro- 
mades cameli inter dona erant, velocitatis eximiae, duo- 
decim elephanti a Dareo ex India acciti, iam non ter- 
ror, ut speraverat, MacedSnura, sed auxiliura, opes victi 15 
ad victorem transferente fortuna. Ut vero urbem in- 
travit, incredibilem ex thesauris sumraam pecuniae 
egessit, quinquaginta milia talentura argenti non sig- 
nati forraa, sed rudi pondere. 

VIII. Multi reges tantas opes longa aetate cumulave- 20 
rant liberis posterisque, ut arbitrabantur, quas una hora 
in extemi regis manus intulit. Gonsedit deinde in 
regia sella multo excelsiore, qaam pro habitu corporis. 
Itaque cum pedes imum gradum non contingerent, 

LiBER V, 2. Persian kings. On tlieir journeys 

Alexander mounts the royal it was carried with them for their 

throne at Susa. "^f : _ , ^ « n ^ r 

12. Dromadea] So called from 

8. praeda\ i. e. while Alexan- their swiftness. 

der was engaged in coilectiiig the 18. non sifjnati /orma] * XJn- 

booty, hc could escape. stamped,' * bullion.* 

10. Choaspen] The water of 24. imum gradum] *The step 

the Choaspes was sacred to the next the bottom of the throne.' 


nnus ex regiis pneris mensam subdidit pedibns. Et 
Gum spadonem, qni Darei fuerat, ingemiscentem con- 
spexisset rex, causam maestitiae requisivit. Ille iudicat, 
Dareuni vesci in ea solitum seque sacram eius men^am 
5 ad ludibrium recidentem sine lacrimis conspicere non 
posse. Subiit ergo regem verecundia violandi hospitales 
deos, iamque subduci iubebat, cum Philotas : " Minime 
vero haec feceris, rex, sed omen quoque accipe, men- 
sam, ex qua libavit hostis epulas, tuis pedibus esse sub- 
10 iectam." 

[Y. 6.] 

IX. Postero die Alexander convocatos duces copia- 
rnm docet, nullam infestiorem urbem Graecis esse, quam 
regiam veterum Persldis regum. Hinc illa inmeusa ag- 
mina infusa : hinc Dareum prius, dein Xerxem Europae 

15 inpium intulisse bellum. Exscidio illius parentandum 
esse maioribus. lamque barbari, deserto oppido, qua 
quemque metus agebat, diffugerant: cum rex phalan- 
gem nihil cunctatns inducit. Multas urbes refertas 
opulentia regia partim expugnaverat, partim in fidem 

20 acceperat, sed urbis huius divitiae vicere praeterita. 

X. In hanc totius Persidis opes congesserant bar- 

1. tnensam] According to the liber y. 0. 

Eastern custom, lower than our Alexander plunders and bums 

tables. Persepolis. 

0. ad ludibrtum] *To a Yile 

use/ 10. Posterodie] i. e. after Alex- 

6. verectmdia] * Reverential ander*s arrival at Pcrsepolis. 
fear.' — hospitales deos] The ta- 12. illa inmensa agmina] For 
bles were ccyisidered sacred to the subjugation of Greece. 

the gods of Iiospitality. 15. inpittm] In consequence of 

7. P/ulotas] The commander the numerous temples plundercd 
of the cavalry, son of Parmenio, and burnt by the Persians. — pa- 
put to death with his father. rentandum] It was thought that 

8. haec] The plural for the thespiritsof theslainwereappeas- 
singular, Uke Tavra in Greek. ed by the blood of their slayers. 


bari: aurnm argentumque cumulatum erat, vestis in- 
gena modus, supellex non ad usum, sed ad ostenta- 
tionem luxus comparata. Itaque inter ipsos victoros 
ferro dimicabatur: pro hoste erat, qui pretiosiorera 
occupaverat praedam : et cum omnia, qnae reperiebant, 5 
capere non posscnt, iam rcs non occupabantur, sed 
aestimabantur. Lacerabant regins vestes, ad se quis- 
que partem trahentes : dohibris pretiosae aitis vasa 
caedebant : nihil neque intactum erat neque integrum 
ferebatur: abrnpta simulacrorum membra, ut qnisquelO 
avellerat, trahebat. 

XI. Neque avaritia solum, sed etiam crudelitas in 
capta urbe grassata est: auro argentoque onusti vilia 
captivorum corpora trucidabant, passimque obvii caede- 
bantur, quos ante pretiutn sui miserabiles fecerat. Mul- 15 
ti ergo hostinm manus voluntaria morte occupaverunt, 
pretiosissima vestium induti e muris semetipsos cum 
coniugibus ao liberis in praeceps iaciente?. Quidam 
ignes (quod paullo post facturus hostis videbatur) sub- 
iecerant aedibus^ ut cum suis vivi cremarentur. In-20 
gens cnptivae pecuniae modus traditur, prope ut fidem 
excedat. Ceterum aut de aliis quoque dubitabimus, 

1. iiigens modxts] Modus is captives, that prolit might be de- 

used as tho measiire of anything, rived from their saie. 

as pecuniaCf agri^ etc. * 16. occupaverunt'] * Anticipa- 

6. ca/)ere] *Ccirry off.*—om«;?a- ted/ Many killcd themselves 

hantur] At first, in saclsing a city, rather thim meet dcath at the 

thc soldicrs seizcd upon evcry- hands of the enemy. 

tliing iiidiscriminatciy. After- 17. pretiosissimdvesthtm] Tliey 

wards, the valiie of tlie plundcr arrayed themselves in thcir most 

was taken into considcriiiicjn {aes- costly garments, as for thc gnive. 

timabantur). 19. quod--videbatur] * Which jt 

8. dolahris] * Axes,* used es- secmed likcly tlie encmy would 

' pecially for tcarin.^' down hoiises. shortly do.* 

\5, pretium — fccerat] * Tlicir 22. aut^dubitahimus] *Either 

valuc hiid m:idc objccts of pity/ wc must discredit iho othcr state- 

Soldicrs wCiC wout to Bp.ire thcir mcntsmadel)y thoauthor,or,' etc. 


aut credemus, in huius urbis gaza faisse centum et vi- 
ginti milia talentum : ad quae vehenda (namque ad 
usus belli secum portare decreverat) iumenta et came- 
los a Susis et a Babylone contrahi iussit. Accessere 
6ad hanc pecuniae summam, captis Persagadis, sex 
milia talentum. Cyrus PersagSidum urbem condiderat, 
quam Alexandro praefectus eins Gobares tradidit. 

XII. Rex arcem PersepOlis, tribus milibus MacedS- 
num praesidio relictis, Nicarchlden tueri iubet: Tiri- 

10 dati quoque, qui gazam tradiderat, servatus est honos, 
quem apud Dareum habuerat : magnaque exercitus 
parte et inpedimentis ibi relictis Parmenioua Crate- 
rumque praefecit. Ipse cum mille equitibus peditum- 
que expedita manu interiorem Persldis regionem sub 

15 ipsum Vergiliarum sidus petiit multisque imbribus et 
prope intolerabili tempestate vexatus, procedere tamen, 
quo intenderat, perseveravit. 

• XIII. Ventnm erat ad iter perpetuis obsitum nivi- 
bus, quas frigoris vis gelu adstrinxerat, locorumque squa- 

20 lor et solitudines inviae fatigatum militem terrebant, hu- 
manarnm rerura terminos se videre credentem. Omnia 
vasta atque sine ullo humani cultus vestigio attoniti in- 
tuebantur et, antequam lux quoque et caelum ipsos 
deficerent, reverti iubebant. 

26 XIV. Rex castigare territos supersedit : ceterum ipse 
equo desiluit pedesque per nives et concretara glaciem 

10. honoa] i. e. the offlce of places which are uninhabitable 

governor of the city. from heat. 

14. aub — sidus] *At the settiDg 21. terminos] i. e. the limit of 

of the Plciades* in November. the habitable world. 

16. procedere — perseveravit] Aa 23. lux — caeluin] Thepopular 

bibere perseveremf p. 111, line 18. opinion, with the ancicnts, envel- 

19. gelu adstrinxerat] * Had con- oped in darkness the regions be- 

verted into ice.* — locorum squa- yond the limits of the eartlk. 

lor] Squalor in generaliy a^ed of 25. superaedit] * Omitted.' 


ingredi coepit. Erubuerunt non sequi primura amici, 
deinde copiarum duces, ad ultimum milites : primusque 
rex dolabra glaciem perfringens iter sibi fecit : ex- 
emplum regis ceteri imitati sunt. Tandem propemo- 
dum invias silvas emensi humani cultus rara vestigia 6 
et passim errantes pecorum greges repperere : et inco- 
lae, qui sparsis tuguriis habitabant, cum se callibus in- 
viis septos esse credidissent, ut conspexere hostiura 
agmen, intei-fectis, qui comitari fugientes non poterant, 
devios montes et nivibus obsitos petiverunt. Inde per 10 
conloquia captivorum pauUatim feritate raitigata, tradi- 
dere se regi. Nec in deditos gravius consultum. 

XV. Vastatis inde agris Persidis vicisque compluri- 
bus redactis in potestatem, ventum est in Mardorura 
gentem bellicosara et multum a ceteris Persis cultu 15 
vitae abhorrentem. Specus in raontibus fodiunt, in 
quos seque ac coniuges et liberos condunt :, pecorum 
aut ferarum carne vescuntur. Ne ferainis quidera pro 
naturae habitu molliora ingenia sunt : comne prominent 
hirtae, vestis super genua est, funda vinciunt frontera : 20 
hoc et ornamentum capitis et telura est. Sed hanc 
quoque gentera idera fortunae irapetus dorauit. Itaque 
tricesirao die, postquara a PersepOli profectus erat, 
eodera rediit. Dona deinde araicis ceterisque pro 

7. C7im se] They had thonght to the external condition ; huma- 

themselves safe against any ene- nitas to the raind. 

my, from the natare of the 18. pro naturae kabitu] Since 

groand. nature has given to woman a 

II. per canloqtna] Alexander 'milder disposition. 

scrit captives to them to induce 20. funda vinciunt] Hellodo- 

thera to snbmit. rus describes a tribe which sur- 

14. Mardorum] A trihe dwell- rounded the head with arrows. 
ing in the raountains ori the con- 22. idem fortunae impetus] i. e. 
fines of Persis. which had^overthrown the other 

15. cuUu] Has reference rather provinces of the Pcrsian empire. 


cumsque merito dedit. Propemodum omnia, quae in 
ea urbe ceperat, distributa. 

XVI. Ceterum ingentia anirai bona, illam indolem, 
qna omnes reges antecessit, illam in subenndis periculis 

6 constantiam, in rebus moliendis efficiendisque velocita- 
tem, in deditos fidem, in captivos clementiam, in vo- 
luptatibus permissis quoque et usitatis temperantiara, 
haud tolerabili vini cupiditate foedavit. Hoste et 
aemulo regni reparante tum maximebellum,nuper sub- 

10 actis, quos vicerat, novumqne inperium aspernantibus, 
de die inibat convivia, quibus femlnae intererant, non 
quidera, quas violari nefas esset, quippe jK^llices, licen- 
tius, quam decebat, cum armato vivere adsuetae. Ex 
his una Thais, et ipsa temulenta, maximam apud omnes 

16 Graecos initurum gratiam adfirmat, si regijun Persarum 
iussisset incendi : exspectare hoc eos, quoi ura urbes bar- 
bari delessent. 

XVII. Ebriae mulieri de tanta re ferenti sententiam 
unus et alter, et ipsi mero onerati, adsentiuntur. Rex 

20 quoque avidior fuit, quam patientior : " Quin igitur ul- 
ciscimur Graeciam, et urbi faces subdimus?" Omnes 
incaluerant mero : itaque surgunt temulenti ad incen- 

3. illam indolem] ' * That gifted 16. barbari] In the wars previ- 

uature.* ously carried on in Greece. 

5. moliendis] * Tn undei-taking.' 19. untts et aUer] * One and an- 

9. aemulo] 'Daxius.-^nupersub' other,* i. e. an indefinite number. 

<ictis] *Not yet kabitaatcd to — mero] * Unmixcd wine.' 

bearing thc yoke.' 20. avidior fuit] * Eagerly ad- 

11. de die] * In the daytime,* opted,' urged on by wine and the 

before the usual time. — feminae] words of Thuis. See Dryden*8 

Accordiiig to the custom of the *Alexander*8 Feast.* — quam pa~ 

times, no chaste woman could be tientior] * Rather than simply ac- 

present at a banquet. cepted the proposal.' — Qum] Is 

15. initurum] Inire ffratiam, joined wlth the indicative in ques- 

* To get into tl>e good graces,* * to tions having a hortative force ; 

obtain the favor of.' * why uot then ? ' 


dendam nrbetn, cui armati pepercerant. Primns rex 
ignem regiae iniecit, tum convivae et rainistri pellices- 
que. Multa cedro aedificata erat regia : quae, celeriter 
igne concepto, late fudit incendinm. Quod ubi exerci- 
tus, qui haud procul urbe tendebat, conspexit, fortui- 6 
tum ratus, ad opem ferendam concurrit. Sed ut ad 
vestibulura regiae ventura est, vident regem ipsum ad- 
huc aggerentem igni faccs. Omissa igitur, qnam por- 
taverant, aqua, aridam materiem in incendium iacere 
coeperunt. 10 

XVIII. Hunc exJtum habuit regia totius orientis, un- 
de tot gentes antea iura petebant, patria tot regum, uni- 
cus quondam Graeciae terror, molita mille navium clas- 
sem et exercitus, quibus Europa inundata est, contabula- 
to mari molibus peifossisque montibus, in quorum specus 15 
fretum inmissum est. Ac ne tam longa quidem aetate, 
quae exscidium eius secuta est, resurrexit. Alias urbes 
habuere MacedSnum reges, quas nunc habent Parthi : 
huius vestigium non inveniretur, nisi Araxes amuis 
ostenderet. Haud procul moenibus fluxerat : inde ur- 20 
bem fuisse viginti stadiis distantem credunt magis 
quam sciunt accolae. 

3. cedro] The palace was built 13. molita] * Which had eqnip- 

largely of cedar, as being more ped.* 

beautiful than stone. 14. eontabulato] * Bridged over.' 

5. tendebat] i. e. tentoria ten- 15. epecus] In this place means 

ef^&a^; * wasencamped.* the canal dug throngh Monnt 

9. in incendium iacere] In order Athos. 

to iiicrease the flarae which they 18. Maceddnum regea] L e. 

had come to extinguish. Alexander's successors. 

12. totgentes] From the time 22. aciunt] These statements 

whcn ilic sceptre passed from the are incorrect. Persepdlis stood 

Medes to the Persians. The till the timc of the Mahometan 

wholc passagc is rather*a display princes. Its ultimate destruction 

of rhetoric than a historical ac- was owing to the fanatical Arabs, 

count worthy of credence. A. D. 982. 


XIX. Pudebat Macedfines, tam praeclaram urbem a 
comissabundo rege deletam esse. Itaque res in serium 
versa est, et inperaverunt sibi, ut crederent, illo potis- 
simum modo fuisse delendam. Ipsum, ut prinium 
Sgravatam ebrietate mentem quies reddidit, paenituis- 
se constat, et dixisse, maiores poenas Persas Grrfecis 
daturos fuisse, si ipsum in solio regiaque Xerxis con- 
spicere coacti essent. Postero die Lycio, itineiis, quo 
Persldenl intraverat, duci, triginta talenta dono dedit. 
10 Hinc in regionem Mediae transiit, ubi snpplemen- 
tum novorum e Cilicia militum occurrit. Peditum 
erant quinque milia, equites mille : utrisque Platon 
Atheniensis praeerat. His copiis auctus Dareuni per- 
sequi statuit. 

2. m — versa est] * The affair necessary, for by its faU the powcr 
assumed a serious aspect.* of the Persians over the natious of 

3. inperaverunt aibi] * Imposed the East was ended. 

apon themselves the belief that 5. mentem] i. e. when repose had 
the destruction of the city was dispeUed the fumcs of the wine. 



[vi. 5.J 

I. Mardortjm erat gens confinis Ilyrcaniae, cultu 
vitae aspera et latrociniis adsueta. Haec sola nec lega- 
to8 miserat, nec videbatur inperata factura. Itaque 
rex indignatus, si una gens posset efficere, ne invictus 
esset, inpedimentis cum praesidio relictis, invicta raanu 5 
coniitante, procedit. Noctu iter fecerat, et prima luce 
hostis in conspectu erat: tumultus magis quam proe- 
lium fuit. l)eturbati ex coUibus, quos occupaverant, 
barbari profugerunt, proximique vici ab incolis deserti 
capiuntur. Interiora regionis eius haud sane adiri sine 10 
magna vexatione exercitus poterant. 

II. luga montium praealtae silvae rupesque inviae 
saepiunt : ea, quae plana sunt, novo munimenti genere 
inpedierant barbari. Arbores densae sunt de industiia 
'consitae, quarum teneros adhuc ramos manu fleQtunt, 15 
quos intortos rursus iuserunt terrae: inde velut ex 
alia radice laetiores virent trunci. HoSy .qua natura 
fert, adulescere non sinunt: quippe alium alii quasi 
nexu consernnt, qui ubi mnlta fronde vestiti sunt, ope- 
riunt terram. Itaque occulti ramorum velut laquei per- 20 

LiBER VI. 5. invictd 7/1011x1] i. e. with the 

The nation of the Mardi is sub- l»g»»t arraed anencumbered troops. 

jQgj^ 7. tumulttis] * An irregnlar fight,' 

opposed to cuneSf where the troops 

1. Mardorum] This is not tho are regularly drawn up. 

same nation as that mentioned on 17. laetiorea] * More vigorous/ 

paee 127, as tliis dwelt on the than the parcnt stock. 

Caspian sea, and that oii the bor- 18. n'ium — conserunt] * They 

dcrs of Persis. mntuaily interlwine.' 

4. ne tnvictus] I. e. if pne na- 20. occuUi] i.e.ofwhichneither 

tion dared to resist, when all the l)cj,'inning nor the end could 

others had yielded. bc seen. 


petna saepe iter claadunt. TJna ratio erat caedendo ' 
aperire saltum, sed hoc quoque magni operis. Crebri 
namque nodi duraverant stipites, et in se inplicati 
arborum rami, suspensis circulis siiniles, lento viminc 
6 frustrabantur ictus. Incolae autem ritn ferarum vir- 
gulta subire solili tum quoque intraverant saltum oc- 
cultisque telis hostem lacessebnnt. 

III. Ille venantium modo Intibula scrutatus plerosque 
confodit: ad ultimum circumire saltum milites iubet, 

10 ut, si qua pateret, ininimperent. Sed ignotis locis pleri- 
que oberrabant, exceptique sunt quidam, inter quos 
equus regis (Bucephalam vocabant), queni Alexander 
non eodem, quo ceteras pecudes, animo aestiraabat. 
Namque ille nec in dorso insidere suo patiebatur alium 

15 et regeni, cum vellet adscendere, sponte genua submit- 
tens excipiebat credebaturque sentire, quem veheret. 
Maiore ergo, quam decebat, ira simul ac dolore stimula- 
tus equum vestigari iubet et per interpretera pronunti- 
ari, ni reddidissent, neminem esse victunim. Hac de^ 

20 nuntiatione territi, cuin ceteris donis equum adducunt. 
Sed ne sic quidein mitigatus caedi silvas iubet agges- 
taque humo e montibus planitiem ramis inpeditam ex- 
agiicerari. lam aliquantum altitudinis opus creverat, 
cum barbari, desperato, regionem, quam occupaverant, 

25 posse retineri, gentem suam dedidere. Rex, obsidibus 

2. operia] Predicate gcnitiye. 12. Bueephdlam] So called 

4. auapenais circulis] * Sus- ftrom the similarity of his head to 

pended hoops.' The blow of the a bull's head. 

axe prodiiced biit littlc cffcct upon 22. exaggerart] He ordered 

the yickling bonghs. th:U a moand ehonld be raiscd 

8. Ille] AlQxsindcr.—plerosqtte] on thc level ground, so that the 

*A grcat numhcr.* eneray, lurliing in the bushes, 

10. Scd — obcfrabarit] *Bnt the could be seen and attacked. 

most (of the Macedoniansoldicrs) 2i. deaperato] Ablative abso- 

lost their way from ignorance of lute wlrh the clause regionem'^ 

thegrouud.' posse retineri. 


acceptis, Phradati parere eos iussit. Inde qainto die in 
stativa revertitur. 


[vU. 6.] 
I. Bactrianortjm regione Artabazo tradita, sarcinas 
et inpedimenta ibi cura praesidio relinquit. Ipse cum 
expedito agmine loca deserta Sogdianorum intrat, noc- 5 
tumo itinere exercitura ducens. Aquarum, ut ante dic- 
tum est, penuria prius desperatione qnam desiderio bi- 
bendi sitira accendit. Per quadringenta stadia ne 
roodicus quidem huraor exsistit. Arenas vapor aestivi 
solis accendit : quae ubi flagrare coeperunt, haud secus 10 
quam continenti incendio cuncta torrentur. Caligo 
deinde inmodico terrae fervore excitata lucera tegit, 
caraporumque non alia quam vasti et profundi aequoris 
species est. Nocturnum iter tolerabile videbatur, 
quia rore et matutino frigore corpora levabantur. Ce- 15 
terum cum ipsa luce aestus oritur, omnemque naturalem 
absorbet humorem siccitas : ora visceraque penitus 

1. in ataHva] * To the station- lying between the Oxns and the 
ary camp,* whence he had set out Jaxaites. 

against the Mardi. 7. deaperatione] They became 

thirsty from the bare thonght of a 
LiBER vn. want of water. 

Aicxanaer pcnetrates the coun- , ,,' ^ , ^,-^ . *u- 

^ ^r.K^ c^„/i;5«i had hcated the sands, everythmg 

tryoftheSogdiani. (carth and nir) was parched by the 

8. Artabazo] Artabfizns, the unabating heat 
most faithful of the friends of 11. Caligo] * A thiclc mist,* 

Darius, aftcrhisdeath,surrender- which dulls the splendor of the 

ed with a sraall band of Grecian sun, but does not diminish the in- 

mercenaries to Alexandcr. tensity of its heat. 

6. Sogdianorum] Sogdiana was 13. aeqttoria] Inasmuch as the 

the northern province of Persia, mist obstructs the sight. 


IL Itaqne primani animi, deinde corpora deiicere 
coeperunt. Pigebat et consisttere et progredi. Pauci 
a peritis regionis admoniti praepararant aquara. Haec 
paullisper repressit sitim: deinde crescente aestu rursus 
6 desiderium huraoris accensum est. Ergo, quicquid vini 
oleique erat, oribus Ingerebatur, tantaque dulcclo biben- 
di fuit, ut in posterum sitis non timeretur. Graves dein- 
de avide hausto huniore non sustinere arma, non ingredi 
poterant, et feliciores videbantur, quos aqua deiecerat, 

10 cum ipsi sine {nodo infusam voniitu cogerentur egerere. 

III. Anxium regem tantis malis circumfusi araici, ut 

meminisset sui, orabnnt : animi sui magnitudinera uni- 

cum remedium deficientis exercitus esse : c(im ex his, 

qui praecesserant ad capiendum locuin castris, duo 

15 occurrunt, utribus aquam gestantes, ut filiis suis, quos 
in eodem agmine esse et aegre pati sitim non ignora- 
bant, occurrerent. Qui cum in regem incidissent, alter 
ex eis, utre resoluto, vas, quod simul ferebat, inplet, 
pori-igens regi. Ille accipit : percontatus, quibus aquam 

20portarent, filiis ferre cognoscit. Tuno poculo pleno, 
sicut oblatum est, reddito, " Nec solus," inquit, " bibere 
sustineo nec tam exiguum dividere omnibus possum. 
Vos currite et liberis vestris, quod propter illos attuli- 
stis, date." 

25 IV. Tandem ad flumen Oxum ipse pervenit prima 

6. ingerebatur] * Was poured spond, since all their safety rested 
in.* upon bim. 

7. in poaterum] Regardless of 17. occurrerenf] * Thcy might 
the fact that soon their thirst relieve.* 

would be just as intense. 21 Nec ^bibere susttneo'] * I can- 

10. sine modo'] Qualifies infu- not bear (consent) to drink alone.' 
«am;.' withoutmoderation,'*with- 2d. Oxum] A river of Asia, 
out restraint.' now the DJihoun, which rises on 

11. M^ meminisset] His follow- the borders of Hyrcania and Sog- 
ers entreated the king not to de- diana, and flows into the Caspian. 


fere vespera. Sed exercitus magna pars non potuerat 
consequi : in edito monte ignes iubet fieri, ut ii, qui ' 
aegre sequebantur, haud procul castris ipsos abesse 
cognoscerent. Eos autem, qui primi agminis erant, 
mature cibo ac potione firmatos, inplere alios utres, 6 
alios vasa, quibuscumque aqua portari posset, iussit 
ac suis opem ferre. Sed quiintemperantius hauserunt, 
intercluso spiritu, exstincti sunt, multoque maior 
horum numerus fuit, quam ullo amiserat proelio. 

At ille thoracem adhuc indutus nec aut cibo re-lO 
fectus aut potu, qua veniebat exercitus, constitit ; nec 
ante ad curandum corpus recessit, quara praeterie- 
rant, qui agmen claudebant : totamque eam noctem 
cum magno animi motu perpetuis vigiliis egit. Nec 
postero die laetior erat, quia nec navigia habebat nec 15 
pons erigi poterat, circum amnem nudo solo et materia 
maxime sterili. Consilium igitur, quod unum necessi- 
tas subiecerat, init. Utres quam plurimos, stramentis 
refertos, dividit. His incubantes transnavere amnem, 
quique primi transierant, in statione erant, dum traice-20 
rent ceteri. Hoc modo sexto demum die in ulteriore 
ripa totum exercitum exposuit. 

4. Eos ataem-^alios] For eo- understood as applicable to mak- . 

rum autem alios ; a frequent con- ing the foundations — driving the 

struction. piles. — nitdo — stenli] * Bare of 

6. vasa, quibmctmqm'] i. e. trees and very destitnte of timber.* 

cuiiiscumque generis vasa. 18. Utres] Both those in which 

13. qtd — claudebant] * Who water was carried and those used 

brought up the rear.* in making the tents. 

16. erigi] This term is to be 20. in statione] * On guard.' 



[vui. 1, 2.] 

I. SoGDiANis ruraus subactis, Alexander Maracanda 
repetit, et in regionem, quae appellatur Bazaira, perve- 
nit. Barbarae opulentiae in illis locis haud ulla sunt 
maiora indicia, quam magnis nemoribus saltibusque no- 

6 bilium ferarum greges clausi. Spatiosas ad hoc eligunt 
silvas, crebris perennium aquarum fontibus amoenas : 
muris nemora cinguntur turresque habent venantium 
receptacula. Quattuor continuis aetatibus intactum 
saltum fuisse constabat : quem Alexander cum toto 
10 exercitu ingressus agitari undique feras iussit. 

II. Inter quas cum leo magnitudinis rarae ipsum 
regem invasurus incurreret, forte Lysiraachus, qui 
postea regnavit, proximus Alexandro venabulum ob- 
ioere ferae coeperat. Quo rex repulso et abire iusso 

15 adiecit, tam a semet uno, quam a Lysimucho leonem 
interfici posse. Lysimachus enim quondam, cum vena* 
retur in Syria, occiderat quidem eximiae magnitudinis 

LiBER VIII. 8. receptacula] •Places of re- 

Alexander hunts the lions in ^a*.' f^»™ ^?^ ai;sa«ijf ^^ "^^}^ 

Bazaira. At a banquet he slays ^^sta. ^actattbua] The Greeks 

QII|.Qg computeu an aetas at thirty years. 

13. regnavit] Aflcr tUe death 

1. ruraus] They had revolted. of Alexander, Lysimftchns, klnK 
— Maracanda] The capital of of Thrace, exlendcd his power 
Sogdiana, now Samarcand. over a part of Asia Minor, and 

2. Bazaira] It is doubtfnl subscqucntly over Macedonia. 
where this region was located. 14. Q\io — repiUso] •Havingre- 
It seems to have been in the vi- fUsed his assistance.' 

cinity of Samarcand. 15. tam — gtmm] * As well — 

^. Jiaxtd tdla] The barbarians as.' — as^nk?^] • That he, without 

think that in no other way can aid, could kill a lion as well as 

they show their opulence. Lysim&chus.' 


feram solus, sed laevo humero usque ad ossa laoeratus 
ad ultiraura periculi pervenerat Id ipsum exprobrans 
ei rex, fortius, quam locutns est, fecit. Nam feram non 
excepit modo, sed etiam uno vulnere occidit. Fabu- 
lam, quae obiectum leoni a rege Lysimachum temere 5 
vulgavit, ab eo casu, quem supra diximus, ortara esse 
crediderim. Ceterum Maced5nes, quamquam prospero 
eventu defunctus erat Alexander, tamen scivere gentis 
Buae more, ne aut pedes venaretur aut sine delectis 
principum atque amicorum. Ille, quattuor milibus 10 
ferarum deiectis, in eodem saltu cum toto exercitu 
epulatus est. 

III. Inde Maracanda reditum est : acceptaqne aetatis 
excusatione ab Artabazo provinciam eius destinat 
Clito. Hic erat, qui apud Granlcum amnem nudo 15 
capite regem dimicantem clipeo suo texit, et Rhosacis 
manum capiti regis imminentem gladio amputavit : 
vetus Philippi miles multisque bellicis oj^eribus clarus. 
Hellanice, quae Alexandrum educaverat, soror eiua, 
haud secus quam mater a rege diligebatur. Ob has20 
causas validissimam inperii partem iidei eius tutelae- 

4. Fabttlam] The story is, that Macedonian custom to establish 

Lysimftcbus, having saved Cal- laws by which kiiigs were bound. 

listlifines from torture hj giving 9. pedes] * On foot.' 

him poison, was shut up in a den 13. reditum eat] From Bazaira. 

with a lion by Alcxandcr'8 order ; 15, wido capUe] His helmet 

the intended victim folded his had been shattercd by a blow of 

Uand in his robe, thrust it into the an cncmy*s sword. 

lion*s mouth, and phiclted out his 16. BJiosdcis] One of Darius*8 

ton>rue. When Alcxander was generals, whom Alexander is said 

informed of the cxploit, liis rage to liave slain with his own hand 

was turned into admiration of at the Grjmicus. 

Lysimrichus's intrcpidity. 21. validissimam — partem]\.e. 

8. defunctus erat] *Hadsccur- Bactriana and Sogdianaj the in- 

ed.* — scivere] Frora sciscot * de- hal>itantsof which had often re- 

crecd.* '-geiUis -^more] It was a belled a^ainst Aloxander. 


que coinmisit. lamque iter parare in posteram iussus 
sollemni et tempestivo adhibetur convivio. 

IV. In quo rex, cum raulto incaluisset mero, inmo- 
dicus aestimator sui, celebrare, quae gesserat, coepit, 
5 gravis etiam eorum auribus, qui sentiebaut, vera me- 
morari. Silentium tamen habuere seniores, donec Phi- 
lippi res orsus obterere nobilem apud Chaeroneam vio- 
toriam sui operis fuisse iactavit, adeniptaraque sibL 
malignitate et invidia patris tantae rei gloiiam. Ulum 

10 quidem, seditione inter Maceddnes milites et Graecos 
mercennarios orta, debilitatum vulnere, quod in ea con- 
stematione acceperat, iacuisse, non alia re quam simu- 
latione mortis tutiorera : se corpus cius protexisse 
clipeo suo ruentesque in illum sua manu occisos. 

15 Quae patrem numquam aequo aninio esse confessum, 
invitum filio debentem salutem suam. 

VI. Itaque post expeditionem, quam sine eo feoisset 
ipse in Illyrios, victorem scripsisse se patri, fusos fuga- 
tosque hostes nec adfuisse usquam Philippum. Laude 

20 dignos esse, non qui Samothracum initia viserent, cura 
Asiam uri vastarique oporteret, sed eos, qui magnitu- 
dine rerum fidem antecessissent. Haec et his similia 

1. in postefum] Sc. diem, ^ count extant of an expedition by 

2. tempeativo] Bcginning In t£e AlexaiidCi* against tliu Illyrians in 
daytime. the lifetirao of Pliilip. 

6. yravis] * Offcnsive.* 19. nec culfuisse] These words 

7. obterere] * To disparagc.* — are to bc considered as a p^rtion 
Chaeroneam] A city of Boeotia of the lctter in wliich Alcxandcr 
where Philip had routed the inveiglicd ag.iinst his fathcr. 
nnited forces of Greccc, B. C. 338. 20. Samothracum initia] The 

8. sui operis] * The rcsult of mysteries of tlic Cablri were cele- 
his eflforts.' * brated in Samothracc. Philip is 

11. constematione] *TumuIt.' said to have bccn initiated into 

12. non aUa re] * By no other these when of the same age with 
means.' Alexander at th^ time of his ex- 

XA. in lUyrioa] There is no ac- pedition into Asia. 


laeti andiere iuvenes, ingrata senioribus erant, raaxime 
propter Philippum, sub quo diutius vixerant : cum 
Clitus, ne ipse quidem satis sobrius, ad eos, qui infra 
ipsum cubabant, conversus EuripKdis rettulit carraen, 
ita ut sonus magis quam sermo exaudiri posset a rege, 5 
quo significabatur, male instituisse Graecos, quod tro- 
paeis regum durataxat nomina inscriberent : alieno 
enim sanguine partam gloriam intercipi. 

yiL Itaque rex, cum suspicaretur, malignius habi- 
tum esse sermonem, percontari proximos coepit, quid 10 
ex CHto audissent. Et illis ad silendum obstinatis 
Clitus pauUatim maiore voce Philippi acta bellaque in 
Graecia gesta commemorat, omnia praesentibus prae- 
ferens. Hinc inter inniores senesquc orta contentio est, 
et rex, velut patienter audiret, quis Clitus obterebatl5 
laudes eius, ingentem iram conceperat. Ceterum cum 
animo videretur inperaturus, si finem procaciter orto 
sermoni Clitus inponeret, nihil eorum omittente, magis 
exasperabatur. lamque Clitus etiam Parmenionem de- 
fendere audebat, et Philippi de Atheniensibus victoriam 20 

4. Ettriptdia — carmen'] * Re- 15. veliU pcUienter audiret] Al- 
peatcd some lines from Euripl- though Alcxanderpeemcdtolisten 
des.' — * Andromache/ line 693. without emotion to thc words of 
See also line 790 of Potter*8 Trans- Clitus, yet hc was deeply exas- 
lation. perntcd. 

5. sermo] i. e. the very words 16. iram conceperaf] A |[iean- 
which he uttered. ing transferrcd from concipere 

6. maleinstituiaae'] 'Hadestab- tynem, applied to combustibles. 
lishcd a bad custom, in that,' etc. 18. omittente] Sc. CUto, 

^. malignius hahitum esae aer- 19. Parmqjiiofiem] Thc bruvest 

monem] 'Thatrcmarkshad bcen of Alcxander's pcncrais, whose 

made with an evil inrent.* death Alexandcr had occasioucd 

11. iUis ad ailendum obstinatis] a short time bcfore upon a bare 

* When they persisted in their suspicion of trc.;son. His deaih 

Bilence.' and that of Philotas filled tho 

13. praesentibus] Alexander^s minds 6f Antipater and the other 

' recent ' exploits. generais of Alexauder with olarm. 


Thebaram praeferebat exscidio, non vino modo, sed 
etiain animi prava contentione provectus. 

VIII. Ad nltimum, " Si moriendum, " inquit, "est 
pro te, Clitus est piiraus : at cura victoriae arbitrium 

5agis, praecipuum ferunt praemium, qui procacissime 
pntris tui niemoriae inludunt. Sogdianam regionem 
niihi adtiibuis, totiens rebellem et non modo indomi- 
tam, sed quae ne subigi quidem possit Mittor ad 
feras bestias, praecipitia ingenia sortitas. Sed quae 

10 ftd me pertinent, transeo : Philippi milites spernis, obli- 
tus, nisi hic Atharrias senez iuniores pugnam detreo- 
tantes revocasset, adhuc nos circa Halicamassum hae- 
Buros fuisse. Qnomodo igitur Asiam etiam cum istis 
iunioribus subiecisti? Vemm est, ut opinor, quod 

l^avunculum tuum in Italia dixisse constat, ipsum ia 
viros incidissej te in feminas." 

IX. Nihil ex omnibus inconsulte ac temere iactis re- 
gem magis moverat, quam Parmenionis cum honore 
meiitio inlata. Dolorem tamen rex pressit, contentns 

2oiu8sisse, ut convivio excederet. Neo quicquam aliud 
adiecit, quam, foreitan eum, si diutius locutus foret, ex- 
probraturum sibi fuisse vitam a semetip^o datam : hoo 
enim superbe saepe iactasse. .Atque illum cunctantem 
adhuc surgere, qui proximi ei cubuerant, iniectis mani- 

1. Thebarum] The Thebans, riving from natnre headlong im- 
shortly afler Philip'8 death, stirred pulsea.' 

up the Greeks tomake war apon 11. Atharrias] He had not long 

Macedonia. before received a ■ prize for his 

2. animi — contentione provee- bravery before Halicarnafisu», a 
tus] * Impelled by a perverse, city of Caria. 

quarrelsome temper/ 15. avuncuhim tuum'] Alexnn* 

4. cum — agia] * When you as- der, king of Epirus, the brother 

Bign the fruits of victory.* of Olympias, who was killed in a 

9. feras bettiaa] i. e. to the war which he carried on against 

inhabitanta of those provinces. — the Lucanians and Bruttii. 

praecipitia ingenia eortiUu] • De- 19. preaaU] * Suppressed.' 


bus, iurgantes monentesque conabantur abducei*e. 
Clitus, curn abstraheretitr, ad pristinam violentiam irS 
qnoque adiecta, 8Uo pectore tergum illius e&se defen- 
Bum, nunc, postquam tanti meriti praeterierit tempuB, 
etiam memoriam invisam esse proclamat. AttillL quo- 5 
que caedem obiciebat, et ad ultimum lovia, quem 
patrem sibi Alexander adsereret, oraculum cludcns, 
veriora se regi, quam patrem eius, respondisso dicebat. 

X. lam tantum irae conceperat rex, quantum vix so- 
brius ferre potuisset. Enimvero olim mero sensibus vic- 10 
tis, ex lecto repente prosiluit. Attoniti amici, ne positis 
quidem, sed abiectis poculis, consurgunt, in eventum 
rei, quam tanto impetu acturus esset, intenti. Alex- 
ander, rapta lancea ex manibns armigeri, Clitum adhuo 
eadem linguae interaperantia furentem percutere cona- 15 
tus, a Ptojemaeo et Perdicca inhibetur. Medium con- 
plexi et obluctari perseverantem morabantur: Lysi- 
m^chus et Leonnatus etiam lanceam abstulerant. Ille 
militum fidem inplorans conprehendi se a proximis 
amicornm, quod Dareo nuper accidisset, exclamat sig- 20 
numqne tuba dari, ut ad regiam armati colrent, iubet. 

XI. Tiim vero Ptolemaeus et Perdiccas genibus ad- 
voluti orant, ne in tam praecipiti ira perseveret spati- 
nmque potius animo det: omnia postero die iustius 
exsecuturum. Sed clausaeerant aures, obstrepente ira. 25 

2. violentiam] Anticipntion of 7. eludena] 'Deriding.' 
TioicDce added angcr to his previ- 10. olim] * Now/ Up to this 
onsly excited feeliugs. 'time he had supprcssed Irs wnith. 

3. terffum] As Alexander, in 20. DarSo] Darius had sliortly 
flight, exposed his back to the before been seized and thrown 
enemy. into chains by Bessus and his 

5. AttaU] The uncle of Cleo- fellow conspirators. 

pati-a, whom Philip m;:rried after 25. obstrepente] The auditors are 

hiti divorco from Olympias. He said obatrepere oratori, whcn by 

was put to death by Alexander outcries and noise they prcvent 

for plocting against liim. his beiug hcai'd. Here Alexan- 


Itaqae inpotens animi procurrit in regiae vestibulum 
et, vigili excubanti hasta ablata, constitit in aditu, quo 
necesse erat his, qui simul cenaverant, egredi. Ab- 
ierant ceteri. Clitus ultimus sine lumine exibat. Quera 
5rex, quisnam esset, interrogat. Eminebat etiam in 
voce sceleris, quod parabat, atrocitas. Et ille iam non 
suae, sed regis irae memor Clitum esse et de convivio 
exire respondit. Haec dicentis latus hasta transfixit 
morientisque sanguine adspersus, "I nunc," inquit, "ad 
10 Philippum et Parmenionem et Attalum." 

XII. Male humanis ingeniis natura consuluit, quod 
plerumque non futura, sed transacta p^*pendimu8. 
Quippe rex, postquam ira niente decesserat, etium 
ebrietate discussa, magnitudinem facinoris sera aesti- 

15 matione perspexit. Videbat tunc, inmodica libertate 
abusum, sed alioquin egregium bello vinjra, et, nisi 
embesceret fateri, servatorem sui bccisum. Detesta- 
bile carnificis ministerium occupaverat rex, verborura 
licentiam, quae vino poterat inputari, nefanda caede 

20 ultus. Manabat toto vestibulo cruor paullo ante convi- 
vae : vigiles attoniti et stupentibus similes procul sta- 
bant, liberioremque paenitentiam solitudo excipiebat. 

XIII. Ergo hastam ex corpore iacentis evulsam 
retorsit in semet, iamque admoverat pectori, cum ad- 
volant vigiles et repugnanti e manibus extorquent ad- 

der*8 anger is represented as over- 14. discusaaj * Had passed oflF.* 

powering every other feclin<f. — sem—perspexit] For sero ctesH- 

1. inpotens animi} * Having mavit et perspexit, 

lost his self-control.* 18. occupaverat'] * Had per- 

5. Eminebat] *Wa8 conspicu- formcd.' 

ous.* 20. convivae] With the an- 

9. I nunc] The regular for- cients the laws of hospitality 

mula eraployed in taunting and were sncred, which here had been 

exnlting over the conqucred. Cf. violated by a king in the impious 

Verg. Aen. VII. 425. murder of his guest. 


levatumque in tabernaculura deferunt. Ille humi pro- 
straverat corpus, gemitu eiulatuque miserabili totam 
personnns- regiam. Laniare deinde os unguibus et 
circumstantes rogare, ne se tanto dedecori superstitem 
esse paterentur. Inter has preces tota nox extracta 5 
est. Scrutantemque, num ira deorum ad tantum nefas 
actus esset, subit, anniversarium sacrificium Libero 
Patri non esse redditum statuto terapore. Itaque inter 
vinum et epulas caede commissa, iram dei fuisse mani- 
festam. Ceterura magis eo movebatur, quod omnium 10 
amicorum animos videbat attonitos : neminera cum 
ipso sociare serraonera postea ausurura : vivendura esse 
in solitudine velut ferae bestiae, terrenti alias, alias 
tiraenti. Priraa deinde luce tabernaculo corpus, sicut 
adhuc cruentura erat, iussit inferri. j5 

XIV. Quo posito, ante ipsura lacrirais obortis, 
*'Hanc," inquit, "nutrici meae gratiam rettuli, cuius 
duo filii apud Miletum pro raea gloria occubuere mor- 
tera, hic frater, unicura orbitatis solaciura, a me inter 
epulas occisus est. Quo nunc se conferet misera ? 20 
Omnibus eius unus supersum, quem solum aequis oculis 
videre non poterit. Et ego, servatorum nieorum latro, 
revertar in patriam, ut ne dextram quidera nutnci sine 
meraoria calaraitatis eius offeiTe possira ! " Et cura finis 
lacrirais querellisque non fieret, iussu araicorura corpus 25 
ablatum est. Rex triduura iacuit inclusus. Quera ut 

11. neminem] Sc. existimabat, 18. Miletum'] A cclebmted <n.';y 

12. 8ociare aermonem] * To of Caria, wliich had bcen takeil 
converse;' inasmuch as he had ijy Alcxandcr. 

punisiied CiitJi8*s liherty of speech 21. Omnibus eittsl i. e. et fratri 

with such cruclty. etfUiis. 

13. aUas] Sc. feras, 22. scrratorum m^rum'] Refers 
17. nutrici^ Hcllanice. — grati" to Clltus alonc. Tlie use of the 

am rettuH] * I liave made this re- plural lor thc siuffulir is not un- 
turn * to hcr for bringing mc up. usual in animatcd disconrse. 


armigeri corporisque castodes ad moriendam obstina- 
tum esse cognoverunt, nniversi in tabemaculum inrum- 
punt diuque precibus ipsorum reluctatum aegre vice- 
runt, ut cibum caperet. Quoque minus caedis puderet, 
6iure interfectum Clitum MacedSnes decernunt, sepul- 
tura. quoque prohibituri, ni rex humari iussisset. 

[viii. 9.] 

XV. India tota ferme spectat orientem, minus in la- 
titudinem, quam recta regione spatiosa. Qune austrum 
accipiunt, in altius terrae fastigium excedunt: plana 

10 sunt cetera multisque inclutis amnibus Caucaso monte 
ortis placidum per campos iterpraebent; Indus gelidior 
est, quam ceteri: aquas vehit a colore maris haud mul- 
tum abhorrentes. 

XVI. Ganges, omnium ab oriente fluvius eximius, ad 
15 meridianam regionem decurrit et magnorum raontium 

iuga recto alveo stringit: inde eum obiectae rupes in- 
clinant ad orientem. Uterque rubro mari accipitur, 
findeus ripas, multasque arbores cum magna soli parte 
exsorbet, saxis quoque inpeditus, quis crebro reverbe- 
20ratur: ubi mollius solum .reperit, stagnat insulasque 
molitur. Acesines Indum auget : decursurum in mare 

1. obstinaturn] * Determined.* 9. in — excedunf] * Rise to a 

6. decemunt] * Pass a (lccree/ — high point of land.* — fa&tigium] 

sepuUurd — prohibituri] Inas- Cape Comorin. 

much as tliey had decreed that 10. Caucdso] Now Hindu Kush, 

he was justly put to dcath. 16. recto alveo] i. e. in a strai^ht 

line. — stringit] * Flows by ; * 

LiBEB VIII. 9. * washe6.' 

A description of India and it» 17. rubro mart] This tcrm may 

inhabitants. I°?1 "f .^"^^'^'^' ^'*^'^'' ^^^* 
but the Indian Ocenn. 

8. recfd rcgione] In a straight 19. reverberatur] * By wbich it is 

line east and west. — Qiiotf — oc- frequently turned f omitscoiirse/ 

cipiwit] i. e. the southern part. 21. Acesines] Thc Acesiocs 


intercipit, magnoqae motu amnis uterque conlidittiry 
quippe asperum os influenti obicit, nec repercussae 
aquae cedunt. 

XVII. Dyardanes minus celeber auditu est, quia 
per ultima Indiae currit: ceterura non crocodilos modo, 5 
uti Nilus, sed etiam delphinos ignotasque aliis gentibus 
beluas alit. Ethimantus crebris flexibus subinde cur- 
vatus ab accolis rigantibus cai-pitur : ea causa est, cur 
tenues reliquias iam sine noniine in mare emittat. 
Multis praeter hos amnibus tota regio dividitur, sedlO 
ignobilibus, quia non adeo intei*fluunt. 

XVIII. Ceterum, quae propiora sunt mari, aquiloni 
maxime decurruut : is cohibitus iugis montium ad 
interiora non penetrat, ita alendis frugibus mitia. Sed 
adeo in illa plaga mundus statas teraporum vices mutat, 15 
ut, cum alia fervore solis exaestuant, Indiam nivea 
obruant, rursusque, ubi cetera rigent, illic intolerandua 
aestus exsistat, Neo, cur ibi se natura inverteriti 
patescit oausa. Mare certe, quo adluitur, ne oolore 
quidem abhorret a ceteris, Ab Erythro rege inditum 20 
est nomen : propter quod ignari rubere aquas credunt. 

XIX. Terra lini ferax: indc plerisque sunt vestes. 

was the chief of the five great «Because they flow through no 

tributaries of the Indus, wliich such extent of country.' 

give the name of Panjab (i. e. 12. aqmloni] By aquiloni ia 

Five Waters) to the great plain of probably meant the south-west; 

N. W. India. monsoon, wliich prevails for four 

4. Dyardanes] It isnotknown months, and causes the principal 

wliat river received this name. rains of the year. 

Tlie same may be said of the Ethi- 16. niveal During the rainy 

mantus, line 7. season snow falls only on tho 

8. riffantibtis] Canals are made mountain tops. 

from the channels of the river for 20. Erythro] A monument to 

the purpose of irrigating the King Erythrus is said to have ex- 

fields. — carpitur] * Is diverted.* isted, in the midst of a grove, on 

11. quia non adeo interjkiunt] onc of the neighboriug islands. 



Libri arborum, teneri haud secus quam chartae, litte- 
rarum notas cnpiunt. Aves ad imitandum humanae. 
vocis sonum dociles sunt. Animalia inusitata ceteris 
gentibus, nisi invecta. Eadem terra rhinocerotas alit, 
5 non generat. Elephantorum maior est vis, quam quos 
in Africa domitant : et viribus magnitudo respondet. 
Aurum flumina vehunt, quae leni modicoque lapsu 
segnes aquas ducunt. 

XX. Gemmas margaritasque mare litoribus infundit : 

10 neque alia illis maior opulentiae causa est, utique post- 
quam vitiorum commercium vulgavere in exteras 
gentes: quippe aestimantur purgamenta exaestuantis 
freti pretio, quod libido constituit. Ingenia hominum, 
sicut ubique, apud illos locorum quoque situs format. 

15 Corpora usqne pedes carbaso velaiit, soleis pedes, cnpi- 
ta linteis vinciunt : lapilli ex aurihus pendent : bracchia 
quoque et lacertos auro colunt, quibus inter populares 
aut nobiUtas aut opes eminent. Capilhim pectunt 
saepius, quam tondent : mentum semper intonsum est : 

20 reliquam oris cutem ad speciem levitatis exaequant. 

1. Libri] * The inner bark/ — 15. tugue pedes] It is only in 

chart(»e'\ * Faper ' made from the poets and late prose writers that 

separated layers of the papyms. usque alone is used for usgue ad. 

6. generat] * Produces/ Cur- — soleis] Arrian says : • Their 

tius assumes that the rhinoceros shocs are made of white leather, 

{taurua Aethioplcus) was a native and those who dcsire to appear 

only of Aethiopia. tall have the solcs thick.' 

9. infundit] This verb, in its 16. bracchia] Bracchium^ the 

strict sense, Curtius means to ap- louer part of the arm, from the 

ply only to margaritas, elbow to the hand ; lacertuSy the 

U. vitiorum] i. e. the incen- fleshy part of the upper arm, in 

tives to vice. the middle. 

12. purgamenta] Spoken con- 17. colunf] * Adorn.' 
temptuously ; * the excretions,* 18. pectunt^ They frequently 
* oflfscourings.* comb their hair, which they sel- 

13. Ingenia] * The natoral char- dom cut. 

acteristics.* 20. reUquam] i. e. they eradicato 


XXI. Regum tamen luxurin, quam ipsi magnificen- 
tiam appellant, super omniura gentium vitia. Cum 
rex semet in publico conspici patitur, turibula argen- 
tea ministri ferunt toturaque iter, per quod ferri destina- 
vit, odoribus conplent. Aurea lectica, margaritis 5 
circunipendentibus, recubat : distincta sunt auro et 
purpura carbasa, quae indutus est : lecticam sequuntur 
armati corporisque custodes, inter quos rarnis aves pen- 
dent^ quas cantu seriis rebus obstrepere docuerunt. 
degisL auratas columnas habet: totas eas vttis aurolO 
caelata percurrit, aviumque, quarum visu maxime gau- 
dent, argenteae effigies opera distinguunt. Regia 
adeuntibus patet, cum rex capillum pectit atque ornat : 
tunc responsa legationibus, tunc iura popularibus red- 
dit. Demptis soleis, odoribus inlinuntur pedes. 15 

XXII. Venatus maximus labor est inclusa vivario 
animalia inter vota cantusque pellicum figere. Binum 
cubitorum sagittae sunt, quas emittunt maiore nisu, 
qnam effectu. Quippe telum, cuius in levitate vis 
omnis est, inhabili pondere oneratur. Breviora itinera 20 
equo oonficit: longior ubi expeditio est, elepbanti 
vehunt currum, et tantarum beluarum corpora tota con- 
tegunt auro. Ac ne quid perditis moribus desit, lecti- 

the beard from the rest of the 8. inter quoa] Strabo states 
face, leaving it smooth. . that tbe boughs were carried in 

2. vitia] i. e. auperat vitia ; wagons. 

* surpasses the luxury * of all na- 9. obatrepere] • To interrupt,' 

tions. and thereby relieve. 

3. turibula] The incense was 12. distinguunt] * Adom/ * set 
carried to the temple in the acerraf oflf.* 

and burned in the turibulum, 13. cum rex — pectit] Strabo 

5. odoribus conplent] Tbis says that the kin^ gives audience 

honor, which was originally be- during the whole' day. 

Btowed upon the images of the 15. odoribus] * Ointments.* 

gods, was soon transferred to 23. auro] i. e. housings pma- 

kings. mented with gold. 


018 anreis pellicam longns ordo sequitur : separatuin a 
reginae ordtne agmen est aequatque luxuriam. Femt 
nae epulas parant. Ab iisdem vinum ministratnr, 
ouius omnibus Indis largus est usus. Regem mero 
5 somnoque sopitum in cubiculum pellices referunt, pa- 
trio carmine noctium invocantes deos. 

XXIII. Quis credat, inter haec vitia curam esse 
sapientiae? Unum agreste et horridum genus est, 
quod sapientes vocnnt. Apnd bos occupare fati diem 

10 pulchruih, et vivos se cremari iubent, quibus aut segnli 
aetas aut incomrooda valetudo est : exspectatam mop- 
tem pro dedecore vitae habent Nec ullus corporibuSi 
quae senectus solvit, honos redditur : inquinari putant 
ignem, nisi qui spirantes recipit. Illi, qui in urbibua 

15 publicis moribus degunt, siderum motus scite spectare 
dicuntur et futura praedicere. Nec quemquam admo- 
yere leti diem credunt, cni ezspectare interrito liceat. 
Deos putant, quicquid colere coeperunt, arbores maxi- 
me, quas violare capital est. Menses in quinos denos 

20 descripserunt dies, anni plena spatia servantur. Lunae 
cursu notant tempora, non, ut plerique, cum orbem 

1. hngus ordo] < A large train/ 9. aapientes] Brahmins, one sect 

2 agmen] The retinue of con- of whom livcd in the open ahr. 

cnbines is kept separate from that — occupare fati diem] * To an- 

of the queen although it equals ticipate the daj of one's death.' 

it in splendor. 10. 8egn\8 aetae] * Old age.' 

4. larffiu e8t tteue] Other wri- 14. lUi] The other Bects of 

ters assert that the Indians abstain philosophcrs, who. devoted to a 

fro/n wine. more liberal culture, live in 

6. noctium — deos] Who have cities. 

care of mortals in the night. 17. hvterrito] Both sects looked 

7. inter haec vitia] * In such upon the suicide as a coward. 
luxury.' 18. Deoa] They think lihat an 

8. agreste et horridum] i. e. object once worshipped is en- 
which did not indulge in the lux- dowed with a divine power. At 
ury and effeminacy which charac- the present day, in India, a painted 
terized the othcr ludians. stone is worshipped as a god. 


mdns inplevit, sed cam se carvare coepit in comaa, et 
idcirco breviored habent menses, qui spatiura eorum ad 
hunc hmae modum dirigUDt. Multa et alia traduntur, 
quibus morari ordinem rerum haud sane operae vide- 
batur. ' 5 

[viU. 11.] 

XXiy. Multa ignobilia oppida deserta a suis venerp 
in regis potestatem. Quorum incolae armati petram, 
Aomin nomine, occupaverunt. Hanc ab Herct&le frus- 
tra obsessam esse terraeque motu coactum absistere 
&ma vulgaverat. Inopem consilii Alexandrum, quialO 
undiqne praeceps et abrupta rupes erat, senior quidam 
peritus locorum cum duobus filiis adit, si pretium 
operae esset, aditum se monstraturam esse promittena. 
OctOginta talenta constituit daturum Alexander, et, 
altero ex iuvenibus obside retento, ipsum ad exsequen- 15 
da, quae obtulerat, dimisit. Leviter armatis dux dar 
tns est MuUlnus, scriba regis. Hos enim, circuitu qui 
iallerent hostem, in summum iugum placebat evadere. 

XXV. Petra non, ut pleraeque, modicis ac molUbus 
clivis in subUme fastigium crescit, sed in metae maxi- 20 
me modum erecta est, cuius ima spatiosiora sunt, 

1. euroare — in comua] * To lie shonld receive an adequate re- 

qnarter.' ward.' 

4. haud—ieaae^videbatwl^Bld 14. daturum] Sc ae, The ac- 

not seem worth the while.' casative of the pronoun is very 

ofDen omitted in this constrnction. 

LiBEB viiT. 11. 17. scribd] Among the Oreeks, 

The capture of the rock Aor- ^^^ especially among the Mace- 

nis in India. donians, the post of. secretary to a 

king was one of honor. 

8. Aomin'] i e. of such height 19. molKbua] * Gently rising.' 

that no bird could reach it. 20. metae] Meta was any ob- 

10. Inopemoomilii] *Atalo6S ject with a broad circular base, 

what to do.' gradoally tapering off to the top, 

12. tipretium operae eseet] * If like a cone. 


altiora in artius coeunt, summa in acntnm cacnmen 
exsurgunt. Radices eius Indus amnis subit, praealtus, 
ntrimque asperis ripis : ab altera parte voragines eluvi- 
esque praeruptae sunt. Nec alia expugnandi patebat 
5 via, quam ut replerentur. Ad manum silva erat, quam 
rex ita caedi iussit, ut nudi stipites iacerentur : quippe 
rami fronde vestiti inpedissent ferentes. Ipse primus 
truncam arborem iecit, clamorque exercitus, index 
alacritatis, secutus est, nullo detrectante munus, quod 

10 rex occupavisset. Intra septimum diem cavernas ex- 
pleverant, cum rex sagittarios et Agrianos iubet per 
ardua niti: iuvenesque promptissimos ex sua cohorte 
tnginta delegit. Duces his dati sunt Charus et Alex- 
ander, quem rex nominis, quod sibi cum eo commune 

15 es^et, admonuit. 

XX VI. Ac primo, quia tam manifestum periculum 
erat, ipsum regem discrimen subire non placuit : sed 
ut signura tuba datum est, vir audaciae promptae con- 
versus ad corporis custodes sequi se iubet primusque 

20 invadit in rupem. Nec deinde quisquam MacedSnum 
substitit, relictisque stationibus sua sponte regem 
sequebantur. Mnltorum miserabilis fuit casus, quos ex 
praerupta rupe lapsos amnis praetei-fluens hausit, triste 
spectaculum etiam non periclitantibus : cum vero aiieno 

25exitio, quid ipsis timeudum foret, admonerentur, in 
metum misericordia versa, non exstinctos, sed semetip- 
sos deflebant. Et iam eo perventum erat, unde sine 

1. in artiua coeutU] * Contract/ precipices. — per ardtm mti\ * To 
< become smaller.' ascend tlie heights.' 

2. svbit] * Washes.' 20. invadit] * Scales the rock.' 

3. voraginea eluvieaque praerup- 24. non pericUtantibus] *To 
tae] * Chasms and ravines.* those * who were not exposed to 

11. Agridnoa] Paeonian monn- danger themselves. — aiieno exi" 
taineers, habitnatcd to scaliog tio] ' By another^e destruction.' 


pernicie, nisi victores, redire non possent, ingentia saza 
in subeuntes provolventibus barbaris, quis perculsi in- 
stabili et lubrico gradu praecipites recidebant. Evase- 
rant tamen Alexander et Charus, quos cum triginta 
delectis praemiserat rex, et iam pugnare comminus 5 
coeperant : sed cum superne tela barbari ingererent, 
saepius ipsi feriebantur, quam vulnerabant. .Ergo 
Alexander et nominis sui et promissi memor, dum 
acrius quam cautius dimicat, confossus undique obrui- 
tur. Quem ut Charus iacentem conspexit, ruere inlO 
bostem, omnium praeter ultionem inmemor coepit mul- 
tosque hasta, quosdam gladio interemit : sed cum tot 
unum incesserent manus, super amici corpus procubuit 

XXVII. Haud secus, quam par erat, promptissimo- 16 
rum iuvenum ceterorumque militum interitu commotus 
rex signum receptui dedit. Saluti fuit, quod sensim et 
intrepidi se receperunt, et barbari hostem depulisse con- 
tenti non institere cedentibus. Ceterum Alexander, 
cum statuisset desistere incepto, — quippe nuUa spes20 
potiundae petrae offerebatur, — tamen speciem ostendit 
in obsidione perseverantis. Nam et itinera obsideri 
iussit et turres admoveri et fatigatis alios succedere. 
Cuius pertinacia cognita, Indi per biduum quidem ao 
duas noctes cum ostentatione non fiduciae modo, sed 26 
etiam victoriae, epulati sunt, tympana suo more pul- 
santes : tertia vero nocto tympanorum quidem strepitus 
desierat audiri; ceterum ex tota petra faces refulge- 
bant, quas apcenderant barbari, ut tutior esset ipsis 
fuga, obscur^ q,octe per invia saica cursuris. Hex,30 

2 quis] Eefers to saxa, 17. tensim] *.Gr^ually.* 

9. undigtte] By wet^poDs' that %l. speciem ostendit] * Made a 
were thrown * from all quarters.* show of contlauing the siege.' 


BalScro, qui specularetar, praemlsso, oognosdt, petram 
fuga Indorum esse desertam. Tum dato signo, ut uni- 
versi conclamarent, iucomposite fugientibus metum 
incussit : multique, tamquam adesset hostis, per lubrica 
5 saza perque invias cotes praecipitati occiderunt : plures 
aliqua membrorum parte mulcati ab integris deserti 

XXVIII. Rex, locorum magis quam hostium victor, 
speciem tamen magnae victoriae sacri6ciis et cultu 
10 deum fecit. Arae in petra locatae sunt Minervae Vio- 
toriaeque. Ducibus itineris, quo subire iusserat leviter 
armatos, etsi promissis minora praestiterant, pretium 
cum fide redditum est. Petrae regionisque ei adiuno- 
tae Sisocosto tutela permissa. 


[X. 6.] 

16 I. Intuentibus lacrimae obortae praebuere speciem 
iam non regem, sed funus eius visentis exercitus. Mae- 
ror tamen circumstantinm lectum eminebat : quos ut 
rex adspexit, " Invenietis," inquit, "cum excessero, 
dignum talibus viris regem?" Incredibile dictu auditu- 

20 quo, in eodem habitu oorporis, in quem se conposuerat, 
cum admissurus milites esset, durasse, donec a toto 
exercitu illud ultimum persalutatus est : dimissoque 

6, mttlcati] * MaDgled.' -«■ iiu libeb x. 

tegris] *VvesW l e,notwQuii4- Aleximder»8 death and char- 

ed or fatigued. ^^^^ 

9, speciem — magnae mctoriae'] "^" 

i. e. he offered sucb sacrifices as \5, Inttientilnu] Bc. militibus, 

Ije would have oflFered bad he ac- 17. eminebcU] * Was corispicu- 

^ally gained a great victory, qus.? 

14. Sisocosto] An Indian, wbo 20. eodem habitu corporit] ♦ In 

I^ gone over to Alexander. the saipe position.' 


Tnlgo, velnt omni vitae debito liberatas, fatigata mem- 
bra reiecit. Propiusque adire iussis amicis — nam et 
vox deficere iara coeperat, — detractum auulum digito 
Ferdiccae tradidit, adiectis mandatis, ut corpus suum , 
ad Hammonem ferri iuberent. Quaerentibus his, cui 5 
relinqueret regnum, respondit, ei, qui esset optimus : 
ceterum providere iam se, ob id certamen magnos 
funebres ludos parari sibi. Rursus Perdicca interro- 
gante, quando caelestes honores haberi sibi vellet, dixit, 
tum velle, cum ipsi felices essent. Suprema haeo vox 10 
fuit regis, et paullo post exstinguitur. 

II. Et hercule, iuste aestimantibus regem liquet, 
bona naturae eius fuisse, vitia vel fortunae, vel aetatis. 
Vis incredibilis animi : laboris patientia propemodum 
nimia : foititudo non inter reges modo excellens, sed 15 
inter illos quoque, quorum haeosola virtus fUit : liberali- 
tas saepe maiora tribuentis, quam a deis petuntur : cle- 
mentia in devictos, tot regna aut reddita, quibus ea 
dempserat bello, aut dono data: mortis, cuius metus 
oeteros exaniraat, perpetua conteraptio : gloriae laudis- 20 
que ut iusto maior cupido, ita ut iuveni et in tantis ad- 
mittenda rebus : iam pietas erga parentes, quorum 
Olympiada inmortalitati consecraro decreverat, Phi- 

1. membra reiecH] * He threw 12. hercttki] * Trnly/ * indis- 

back bis weary frame/ pntably. — iusfe — regfem] * Form- 

3« anuium — Perdiccae tradidit] ing a jast estimate of the king.* 

This fact is mentioned by Arrian> 17. a deis petuntur] * Are asked 

Diodorus» and Jnstin, but npt in of the gods.' 

tbe journal of Alcxander'8 secre- 21, admittendal '10 be al- 

tary. lowed.' 

7. certamen'] According to 23. CHymptdda] Alexander is 

, some, refers to the struggle which quoted as saying that tbc highest 

took place between Alexander^s retum for his toils and works 

successors; according to others, would be to have his mother, 

to the strife that had already be- Olympias, enroUed among the 

gun at his bedside. goddesses. 


lippum nltn? erat : iam in omncs fere amicos benignitas, 
erga milites benevolentia : consilium par magnitudini an- 
imi et, quantam vix poterat aetas eius capere, soUertia. 
nia fortunae : deis aequare se et caelestes honores ao- 

5 cersere et talia suadentibus oraculis credere et dedig- 
nantibus venerari ipsum vehementius, quam par esset, 
irasci: in externum habitum niutare coi^poris cultum, 
imitari devictarum gentium mores, quos ante victoriam 
spreverat. Nam iracundiam et cupidinem vini sicuti 

10 iuventa inritaverat, ita senectus mitigare potuisset. 
Fatendum est tamen, cum plurimum viituti debuerit, 
plns debuisse fortunae, quam solus omnium mortalium 
in potestate habuit. Quotiens illum a morte revocavit ? 
quotiens temere in pericula vectum perpetua felicitate 

15protexit? Yitae quoque finem eundem illi quem 
gloriae statuit. Exspectavere eum fata, dum, Oriente 
perdomito aditoque Oceano, quicquid mortalitas capie- 
bat, inpleret. Huic regi ducique successor quaereba- 
tur : sed maior moles erat, quam ut unus subire eam 

20 posset. Itaque nomen quoque eius et fama rerum in 
totum propemodum orbem reges ac regna diffudit, 
clarissimique sunt habiti, qui etiam minimae parti tan- 
tae fortunae adhaes6runt. 

4. Hlafortunae] * The follow- 16. Exspectavere] * Waited for/ 
Ing (qualities) resulted from his 17. capiebat] *Adraitted of.' 
prospierity .' — accersere] * To cov- 23. gui — adhaeserunt] * Who 

et/ * to court.* partook of.* 




Mabcus Tullifs Cicero was born on the third 
day of January, B. C. 106, at Arpinum, a town of the 
Volsci, in the south-eastern part of Latium. His family 
belonged to the equestrian order, and his father had 
acquired a considerable reputation among the literary 
men of the time by his love of leaming and his devo- 
tion to literary pursuits. In childhood Marcus showed 
such signs of promise that his father was induced to 
take him and his brother Quintus to Rome, in order to 
give them those educational privileges which could not 
be had in a provincial town. Intrusted to the care of 
the most skilful masters of Rome, under the direction 
of the celebrated orator Crassus, a friend of his fother, 
Cicero soon became distinguished for his industry and 
diligence at school. When sixteen years of age, he 
was conducted to the Forum, and, in the presence of 
the praetor, formally laid aside the toga praetexta^ or 
boyish dress, and received the manly gown, or ioga 
virilia^ which was an indication that he had arrived at 
an age proper for introduction into publio life. This 



ceremony, however, did not give to Cicero the impres- 
sion that he had completed his studies. He applied 
himself with greater zeal to the principal object of his 
life, in which the ruling passion was to gain distinction 
and applause. He visited frequently the Forum, where 
he listened to the most celebrated orators of the day, 
and at t15e same time devoted himself earnestly to 
reading, writing, and oratorical exercises. In his nine- 
teenth year, Cicero, according to the usual custom 
which required every citizen to be a soldier, quitted 
his studies for a time, and served his first and only 
campaign under the consul Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, 
the father of Pompey the Great, in the Marsian or 
Social war. After his return from this service, he ap- 
plied himself with untiring industry to those studies 
wiiich he deemed essential to his success as an orator, 
and at the age of twenty-five made his first appear- 
ance at the bar to try his power as an advocate. Little 
satisfied with the results of his firat effbrts, and partly 
on account of the displeasure of Sulla, which he had 
incurred from his successful defence of Roscius of 
Ameria, but covering his intentions under the pretence 
of ill health, he lefl Italy for a time, and visited the 
great masters of eloquence and learning iu foreign 
countries; and soon the philosophers of Greece and 
Asia, striick with admiration of his genius, spoke in 
terms of the highest commendation of the ability and 
eloquence of the youthful orator. 

On his return to Rome, Cicero had reached the age 
requisite for admission to public office. He was first 
appoijited quaestor in Sicily ; aflerwards he became, 
successively, aedile, praetor, and consul, to which last 
ofiice he was appointed by the people, with Gaius Au- 


tonius Hybrifda as colleagne, B. C. 63. Thus, altliough 
a novus homOy he had made his way to the highest 
digiiity of tbe state. At this time occurred the iii- 
famous consjjiracy of Catiline, ih the discovery and 
suppression of whicli Cicero gained the gratitude of all 
well-disposed citizens, while at the same time he in- 
curred the most bitter hatred of the friends of Catiline, 
among whom were many of noble rank, who, on every 
available occasion, assailed him with the charge that he 
had caused Roman citizens to be put to death without 
granting them the privilege of a hearing in their de- 
fence. Among the latter was P. Clodius Pulcher, one 
of the most profligate citizens of Ronie, notorious for 
his corrupt life generally, but especinlly for his scan- 
dalous profanation of the niysteries of the Bona Dea. 
While the wife of C.iesar was celebrating in her house 
the rites of this goddess, from which all males were 
with scrupulous superstition excluded, Clodius at- 
tempted to make his way into the apartment, disguised 
in the garb of a woman, and having been detected, 
escaped through the aid of a female slave. Caesar at 
once divorced his wife. AU Rome was immediately 
in an uproar of consternation. The matter was laid 
before the senate, and Clodius was brought to trial, 
but escaped a merited punishment through the corrup- 
tion of the judges. But Cicero, who had been brought 
forward as a witness against him, now becaine the ob- 
ject of his deadly vengeance, and Cicero's destruction 
formed the chief aim of his life.- In consequence of his 
intrigues, and the bitter calumny of the political par- 
ties which were then disturbing the state, Cicero was 
conipelled to decide between civil war and exile. He 
chose the latter, and, having placed in the Temple of 


Jupiter a small statne of Minerva, with the inscription, 
MiNERVAE CusTODi Urbis, hc lcft Rome about the 
20th of ^arch, B. C. 58, and on the same day Clodius 
brought before the people a bill " interdicting Cicero 
from fire and water," and enacting that " no one should 
receive him in his house within five hundred milea of 
Italy." During his exile he took up his abode at Thes- 
salonlca, with his old friend Gnaeus PJancius, the quaes- 
tor. Reoalled the foUowing year by the solicitations of 
Pompey, to whose party he was attached, he was ap- 
pointed proconsul in Cilicia, in which oflHce he con- 
dacted with sucoess the war against the Parthians. 

On his retum to Rome from this mission, the civil 
war between Caesar and Pompey broke out, B. C. 49. 
At first he flattered himself with the hope of being a 
mediator between the rival chiefs, but was soon obliged 
to renounce this honorable ilhision ; and after having 
had an interview at Formiae with Caesar, who tried in 
vain to win him over to his party, he hesitated no 
longer to join himself to the fortunes of Pompey. Atler 
the battle of Pharsalus, B. C. 48, Cicero abandoned 
Pompey's desperate cause and returned to Brundis- 
ium, wliere he received a letter from Caesar, August 
12, B. C. 47, in which he promised Xo forget the past 
and receive him again into his favor — a promise which 
was faithfully kept upon Caesar^s part, for he treated 
him ever after with the higliest respect and kindness. 

Cicero now withdrew from all public business, and 
gave himself up entirely to literary pursuits. In the 
year B. C. 46, in consequence of some disputes con- 
nected with pecuniary transactions, he divorced his 
wife, Terentia, with whom he had lived for more than 
thirty years, and married a young and wealtby lady, 


Publia by name — a union which resulted nnhappily. 
The death of his much-loved daughter, Tullia, B. C. 45, 
led him to seek consolation in his favorite study of 
philosophy. On the death of Caesar, B. C. 44, Cicero 
again mingled in the political strife of the times, and, 
attaching himself to Octavius, attempted to thwart 
the success of Antony by his powerful Philippics. 
Cicero was included — probably at the instigation of 
Antony — in the list of the proscribed, which was 
made out in the second triamvirate. He was at Tus- 
culum when he heard of this proscription, and instantly 
made preparations for flight. His intention was to go 
to Astiira, a town on the ooast of Latium, with the de- 
sign of embarking at that place for Macedonia. From 
this port he set sail ; but the winds were contrary and 
the sea rough, and he was compelled to put into tho 
harbor of Caieta, near his Formian villa. He rcached 
his villa December 7, B. C. 43, but there learned 
that the pursuers sent by Antony were already in the 
vicinity. He was forced into his litter, and on his way 
through a thick wood to the sea-shore, was oveitaken 
by the assassins. Seeing clearly that his last hour had 
come, he ordered his attendants to set down the litter, 
and, thrusting out his head, called upon his murderers 
to strike. ' Herennius, one of tbe leaders, stepped for- 
ward and severed his head from his body, which, with 
tlie orator's hands, was carried to Rome and delivered 
to Antony,.as he wa« seated iu the Forum. It is re- 
lated that Antony presented the head to his wife, 
Fulvia, who took it, and, placing it on her lap, ad- 
dressed it as thongh it were yet alive, and, drawing out 
the tongue, pierced it with her bodkin, thus evincing 
the rage which she had so often felt at its sarcai»ms. 


The bead and bands were afterwards takeQ to the 
Forura and nailed to the Rostra, there to decay in the 
very plaee which he had rendered renowned by his 

Among his philosophical works, nearly all of which 
were composed between 46-44 B. C, the two dialogues 
De Senectute and De Amicitia occupy a prominent 
place. The agreeable and genial style in which they 
are written, their pure classic taste, and their high and 
ennobling sentiments, have always made them favorite 
treatises. In order to present the theme in its moBt 
practical bearings, and free it from merely abstract 
theory, he has given them to us in a conversational 
forra, and by nuraerous citations of historical facts, and 
apt illustrations from well-known poets, has brought 
the snbject nearer to the popular heart than he could 
havedone by works founded merely on pure reasoning. 


The treatise De Senectute^ or, « On Old Age," was 
wiitten, probably, B. C. 44, when Cicero was sizty- 
tbree years old. It is entitled Cato Mator, from 
the principal character introdaced into the dialogue, 
who is represented as discoarsing on old age with 
P. Scipio Africanns the Tonnger and C. Laelius, one 
of Scipio's friends. The work is dedicated to Titus 
Pomponius Attlcus. 

Marcus Porcius Cato Censorius, called also Sa- 
piENS, and later (in order to distingtush him from Cato 
of Utlcfi) Priscus and Maior, was born at TuscQlum, 
B. C. '234. Upon the death of his father he inherited 
a Bmall estate in the Sabine territory, where he spent 
a great part of his boyhood in the rongh but healthful 
exercises of a farmer^s life. In his seventeenth year, 
B. C. 217, he served his first campaign at Capua, 
nnder Fabius Maxlmus, at that time the le^ding mili- 
tary man in the war against Hannlbal. With this 
general he also served again as a soldier at the siege of 
Tarentum, B. C. 209. Two yeahi later, B. C. 207, he 
accompanied (probably in the capacity of tribunm 
militum) the consul, Claudius Nero, on his mar<4i 
from Lucania to check the progress of Hasdrahal, who 
was defeated and slain at Sena, on the Metaurus, in 
which battle the services of Cato contributed not a 
little to the victory over the Carthaginians. When re- 



leased from warlike Bervice, Cato retarned to his Sabine 
estate, where he engaged in the works of agricalturey 
wearing the plainest dress and sharing the fare of his 
field-hiborers. His neighbors were not slow to rec- 
ognize the stem simplicity and energetic character 
which he here exhibited. Among these was L. Yale- 
rias Flaccus, a nobleman of infiuence, who induced 
Cato to remove to Rome, there to do battle against 
the degeneracy of the times, and to attempt to restore 
the aneient integrity, as well as simplicity, of Roman 
life. In this new field he became the most infiuential 
pleader and greatest political orator of the times, and 
throughout his long life exerted his greatest effbrts in 
opposing the spread of luxury, with all its consequent 
train of vices, and the prevalent eorruption of morals. 

In B. C. 205 he was appointed quaestor, and accom- 
panied P. Scipio Africanus to Sicily and Africa. In 
B. C. 199, he became aedile, and in the following year 
praetor, with Sardinia for his proviqce, in which office 
he discharged his dnties with an absence of pomp 
strikingly in contrast with the ordinary splendor of his 
predecessors. On this island he became acquainted 
with Ennius, from whom he learned the Greek language, 
and by whom he was accompanied on his retuni to 
Rome. Cato was elected consul, B. C. 195, with his 
old friend, L. Yalerius Flaccus, as colleague, in the 
thirty-ninth year of his age, and received for his prov- 
ince Hispania Citerior, and by the successful manage- 
ment of the Spanish campaign, received a triumph the 
following year. After his consulship he accompanied 
Ti. Sempronius Longus, as legatus^ to Thrace ; and in 
B. C. 191, notwithstanding their consular dignity, Cato 
and his friend Yalerius were appointed tribuni mili' 


tareSy nnder M* Acilias Olabrio, wbo bad been sent to 
oppose tbe invasion of AntiSchus, king of Syria. Here, 
at the decisive battle of Thermopylae, Cato exhibited 
extraordinary valor and bigh military genius, and, 
afler tbe action, was embraced, at the head of the 
army, by tbe consul, who ascribed to him the whole 
credit of the victoiy. We have no trustworthy ac- 
counts of any later military acts performed by Cato ; 
but bis valuable services and characteristic genius wero 
aflerwards seen in the censorship whicb he obtained, 
B. C. 184, witb bis friend Yalerius. In this office he 
sbowed bimself such a bitter enemy to the habits of 
luxury and the relaxation of the old code of Roman 
morals, that he met with tbe most strenuous opposition 
of tbe patricians, andwas compelled to live in almost 
constaut warfare agniust the most influential of his 
fellow-citizens. Although a rigid censor of the publio 
morals, be was bimself accused, — prbbably in most 
cases from factious bitterness and political prcjudice, — 
and compelled to stand trial forty-four times, tbe last 
in the eighty-first year of his life, when he uttered 
the complaint that " it was hard to be obliged to defend 
bimself before men of an age difierent from that in 
which he himself had lived." 

After tbis, the public life of Cato was passed cbiefly 
in tbe business of tbe Forum, the senate, and in popu- 
lar assemblies. But his inflexible opposition to luxury 
Btill continued. In B. C. 181, be favored tbe adoptiou 
of the Lex Orchia, by tbe provisions of which the num- 
ber of guests at banquets was to be restricted ; and in 
B. C. 169, when sixty-five yeara of age, he supported 
witb all his youthful vigor the Lex Voconia (v. 14), 
wbich bad for its object to prevent the acoumulation 
of wealth in the hands of women. 


In bis last pablic employment he iicted tm depiitj to 
Carthage, together with nine others, to effect a recoo- 
ciliation of the Carthaginians witfa Masinissa, king o€ 
Nnmidia. On his return from this embassy, Cato, hoT- 
ing observed the warlike preparations and defences of 
that city, became resolute in his opinion, which ho 
never failed to express when an opportunity occurred, 
that Rome would never be safe su loirg as it had a 
rival 80 near, so hostile, and so powerfuL One day he 
drew a bunch of early-ripe figs front beneath his robe, 
and, throwing it upon the fioor of the senate house, 
said to the assembled fathers, who were astonisbed ait 
the freshness and fineness of the fruit, ^ These %s were 
gathered but three days ago at Carthage ; so close is 
the enemy to our walls." From that time forth, wheii>- 
ever he was called upon for his vote in the senate^ 
though the subject bore no relation to Cartbage, Ma 
words were, " Ceterum eenseOy Karthagtnem esse deien' 
dam " — I vote, moreover, that Carthage shouki be 

/ Cato died at the age of eighty-five, B. C. 149. He 
was twice married ; first to Licinia, a lady of Doble 
birth, whose son, M. Porcius Cato Licinianus, the son- 
in-law of Aemilius Faulhis Macedonkus (vi. 15), was 
distinguished as a jurist, and died when prastor deng- 
natus^ abont B. C. 152, a fev years before his father 
(v. 19) ; and aflerwards to Salonia, a daughter of hia 
seribe and client, M. Salonins, who bore him a son, 
M. Porcius Cato Salonianus, the grandfather of Cato 

In person, Cato was anything but prepossessing. 
Hia enemies ridiculed him for his green eyes and red 
halry and bis featores arre said to have indicated that 


obstiaate and anrelenting disposition which he di»- 
played throughoat his long public career. > 

Cato was a voluminoas writer, but only portions of 
his works have corae down to us, and these in a muti- 
lated condition. His treatise De Be Riisticd consists 
mainly of a series of dry rules, relating to domestic and 
rural economy. He composed a vast number of orations, 
one hundred and fifty of which Cicero says that he 
had himself read ; also a work on military discipline^ 
and a book of letters to his eldest son, containing in- 
structions on subjects connected with the education of 
Roman youth. Whcn quite advanced in life, he begaa 
a historical work, often alluded to in De Senectute^ 
entitled " Origines^ or seven books illustrating the 
history and antiquities of Rome. 

Cicero undoubtedly chose the aged Cato as the chief 
speaker in his dialogue out of sympathy with his pub- 
lic life, similar Uterary tastes, and rigid tone of moralsw 
They were both novi hominea ; both had gained the 
highest offices in the state, and each had proved him- 
self a firm fiiend to the llberties of his country, and an 
uncompromising enemy to dissolute morals and politi- 
cal corruption. 

The minor characters in the dialogue, Scipio and 
Lablius, are introduced with gi*eater prominence in 
the treatise De Amicitid. A brief account of their Kves 
is given on pp. 227-232. At the time of this discourse 
they are represented as very young men, not yet hav- 
ing displayed those talents and virtues which gave 
them distinction in their subsequent career. 

The treatise is dedicated to T. Pomfonixjs Atticits, 


a native of Rome, born B. C. 109,three years before 
Gicero, and descendcd from onc of the most ancient 
equestrian farailies of the state. Ho received his sar- 
name from his long residence in Athens and his great 
devotion to the Greek language and literature (i. 1). 
He was a schoolmate of Cicero, and the personal in- 
timacy and friendship contracted in their boyhood con- 
tinued unbroken during their entire lives. In B. C. 
85, Boon afler the breaking out of the first civil war, 
he withdrew to Athens, where for twenty years he 
gave himself up to literary pursuits and the manage- 
ment of a large fortune, which he inherited at his 
father's death. He died at the age of seventy-seven, 
B. C. 32, of vohmtary starvation, when he found that 
he was attacked by an incurable complaint. His sister, 
Pomponia, was married to Q. Cicero, the brother of 
the orator ; but the union was not a happy one, and 
occasioned much trouble and vexation botb to Att!cus 
and M. Cicero. 





L 1. O Tite, si quid ego adiuero curamve levasso, 
Quae nunc te coquit et versat in pectore fixa, 
Ecquid erit praemi ? 

1. O Tite] The hexamctcrs in 
this chapter are firom the Annals 
of Q. Ennius, the father of Latin 
poetry, a native ot Budiae in Ca^ 
labria, bom B. C. 239. The three 
lirst yerses were addressed to T. 
Quinctins Flamininus, who con- 
qnered Philip of Macedon at Cy- 
nosceph&lae, B. C. 197 ; but here 
transferred to Cicero*s friend Ti- 
tus Pomponius Attlcus. — ti quid] 
The accnsative of specification. — 
adiuero] For cidiuvero. — curam] 
Flamininns, in his expedition 
against Philip, could not bring 
him to an engagement on account 
of the natnre of the country; 
hence the anxiety {curam), After 
a delay of forty days before the 
enemy, a herdsman sent by Cha- 

ropns, prince of the Eplrots, of- 
fered for a reward to show him a 
path over the mountains, neither 
dangerons nor difficult, which- 
would lead him to a spotOTcr the 
enemy's head. Cf. Liv. xxxii. U. 
— levasso] For /!eoav^o; althongh 
the ending of the future perfect 
seems originally to have becn -s«o. 
See Madvig, 115, /. 

2. versat] The last syllable of 
this word is made long by the ar- 
sis and the main caesuraof the 
verse. Ennius was the first to 
discard in his poetry the Satumian 
measnre, hitherto the national 
element of Latin verse, using in 
its stead the dactylic hexameter. 

3. praemi] ¥ot praemii, a par- 
titive genitive after ecquid. 



Licet enim mihi yerBibus eisdem ad&ri te^ AttYce, qtii- 
bus adfatur Flaminlnum 

Ille yir haud magna cQxn re, sed plenns fldei. 

Qoamquam certo scio, non, ut Flaminlnum» 

5 SoUlcitari te, Tite, sic noctesque diesque. 

Novi enim moderationcm animi tui et aequitatem 
teque non cognomen solnm Athenis deportasse, sed 
humanitatem et prudentiam intellego. Et taraen te 
Buspicor eisdem rebus, quibus^me ipsura, interdum gra- 

8. lUe vir] The aboye-men- 
tioned herdsman. Spangcnt)erg, 
however, in his edition uf the 
Fragmenta of Ennins, refers tbese 
words to Sextus Aelius Paetns, 
the colleagne of Flamininas, and 
Longto Ennias himself. — tnagna 
cum re] Res, in the sense of ree 
familiariaj is not uncommon in 
classic prose ; cf. ret eos iampri- 
demt Jldes dejicere wuper eoejrit, 
Cic. Cat II. 5, 10.— pfemi»] The 
elision of e in the shoi-t fina! syt- 
htbles '08 and 'U, before a con- 
sonant, in order to avoid the 
lengthening of the vowcl by posi- 
tion, was frcqnently cmployed by 
ihepoetfl before Ciccro's time.— 
Jidei] With the penult long. 
This appears to have been orlgi- 
nally the usuai quantity, even 
after a consonant; bnt in prose, 
and freqnently in the latcr poets, 
it is citstomary to prononnce the 
penult of the fifth declension 
short, nnless an t precedes it. 

4. certo acio] Compare with 
this certe tcioy page 171, line 7. 
Certe\s used subjectively, that is, 
it i-efers ta the mind or b«lief ot 

the writer, as if he had said, * I 
certainly know;' whilst eerto is 
used objectively, referring to the 
real state of the case, « that which 
I know is certain.' 

6. aequitatem] ' The even tem- 

7. cognomen] ARomanhadreg- 
ularly three namcs: 1. Theprae- 
nometif or personnl name of the 
individnal, as Titua, 2. The no- 
meHf or namc of the gens or hoftse, 
as Pomponius, i. e. ®f the Pompo^ 
nia gens, or house of the Pompo«- 
nii. 8. The cognoment or sw- 
name, given from some mental or 
physical pecnliarity, or from some 
remarkable event in the life of the 
person, as in this case Attfcu9f 
from his long residcnce in Atbcns. 
Sometimcs a fourth, and evcn 
fifrh name, cognomen eectindum, 
or agnomenj was given as an hon- 
orary distinction. 

9. me ipeum] The accusative 
by attraction, by vvhich is mcant 
that the verb of the relative 
clause being omitted, its subject 
takes tbe same ease as the subject 
ofthetoadiiigclaiue. Iftheyerb 


Tiits coinmoyeri, qnarnm eonsolatio et maior est et in 
aliud tempas differenda. Nunc autem visum est mihi 
de senectate aliqnid ad te conscribere. 2. Hoc enim 
onere, qnod mibi commune tecain est, aut iam nrguentis 
aut certe adventantis senectatis et te et me ipsum leva- 5 
ri volo : etsi te qaidem id modice ac sapienter, sicat 
omnia, et ferre et latarum esse certe scio. Sed mihi, 
cum de senectute vellem aliquid scribere, ta occarre- 
bas dignus eo munere, qao aterqae nostrum coramuni- 
ter ateretar. Mihi qaidem ita iacanda huius libri con-10 
fectio fait, nt non modo omnes absterserit senectatis 
molestias, sed effecerit mollem etiam et iucandam 
senectutem. Namquam igitar laudari satis digne 
philosophia poterit, cui qui pareat omne tempus aeta- 
tis sine molestia possit degere. 3. Sed de ceteris et 15 
diximas multa et saepe dicemus : hune librum ad te 
de senectute misimas. Omnem autem sermonem tri- 
buimus non Tithono, nt Aristo Ceus, — parum enim 
esset auctoritatis in fabula, — sed M. Catoni seni, quo 

were expressed, it wonld read, in the same mood, after ctti equir- 

qmbm e§o tpae cpmmaoeor. alent to eum ei; U e.. eum ia, qtd ei 

1. qwirum\ The ohjectiye f?eni- pareat, etc. 

tive ; ii the verb were expressed, 18. Tithono] Aurora, by whom 

we might have guae eonaolari^ * to he was beloved^ohtained, througk 

affoed eonsolation in regard to her prayers» his immortnlity ; but 

these,* ^maior eail i. e. maiori» as she had forgotten to aslc for 

operae eat, * ia attended with more perpetual youth, he experienced 

' difflculty.' all the infirmities of old age. 

5. tenectiUis] Cicero was then Whence a decrepid old man wos 

sixty-two years old. often proveibially called Titho- 

7. certe scio] Cf. note, page 170, nus. 

line 4. 19. eseef] This verb may be 

10. uteretur] &ul]!iunctiye in a rcgarded as standing in the apodo- 

relative clauseof result. sis of a conditional clause, of 

12. moUem — iucundam] Pred- which the probisis may be sup- 

lcate adjectives. plied by somc such expression as 

14. pareaf] Subjunctive by at- ei hoc faeeremm. — CatSml See 

Iraction after poeeit^ which is itself Life of Cato, page 163. 


maiorem auctoritatem baberet oratio: apad quem 
Laelium et Scipionem facimus admirantes, quod is tam 
facile senectutem ferat, eisquc eum respondentem. 
Qui si eruditius videbitur disputnre quam consuevit 
5ipse in suis libris, adtribuito litteris Graecis, quaruni 
constat eum perstudiosum fuisse in senectute. Sed 
quid opus est ])lura ? lam enim ipsius Catonis sermo 
explicabit nostram omnem de senectute sententiam. 
II. 4. SciPio. Saepe numero admirari soleo cum 

10 hoc C. Laelio cum ceterarum rerum tuam excellentem, 
M. Cato, perfectamque sapientiam, tum vel maxime, 
quod numquam tibi senectutem gravem esse sensorim, 
quae plerisque senibus sic odiosa est, ut onus se Aetna 
gravius dicant sustinere. 

15 Cato. Rem haud sane, Scipio et Laeli, difficilem ad- 
mirari videmini. Quibus enim nihil est in ipsis opis ad 
bene beateque vivendum, eis omnis aetas gravis est : 
qui autem omnia bona a se ipsis petunt, eis nihil potest 
malum videri, quod naturae necessitas adferat. Quo in 

20g6nere est in primis senectus, quam ut adipiscantur 

7. plura] Sc. dicere ; an eUipsis 13. Aetna] Under which, ac- 

quite common in Cicero*s writings. cording to Yerg. Aen. iii. 578, 

10. ceterarum rerum] .Objeo- lay the giant Encel&dns, who had 
tive genitivc, Ijmiting sapietvtiam, prcsumed to wage war against 

11. vel maxime] An instancc Juptter. Ciccro seems to liave 
of tho supeiiative strengthcncd had in mind a passage from the 
by vel; but the strengthening * Hcrcttles Furens ' of Euripldcs, 
forceof the particle arises from v. 639 — 

the omission of thc correlative , K„f ««-«««• ««o^ „r,^^A 

, « .. . ... • — Dut age everlies on my head 

mcmber of the scntence, which * »,««„{«-T„,,i. « *i, »„ *u/ u 

, 1. 1 *u 1 T ^ hcavicr ourden than the rocks 

may be supplicd thus ; vel mul- ^ Aetna.' 

tumf velpotiua maxime, 

12. senserim] Scipio introduces 16. Quibus] The dative of the 
this observation, not as an actual possessor with est, 

fact, but only as his own thought ; 18. petunt] Cf. page 153, line 17. 

« because, as I said to myself, I 19. adferai] The subjunctive 

have never perceived ; * hence the after nihil qttod, equivalent to m- 

8ul\}unctive. A*7 eiutmodi ut. 


omnes optant, eamdem accusant adeptam : tanta est 
stultitiac inconstantia atque perversitas ! Obrepere 
aiunt eam citius quam putassent. Priraum, quis coegit 
eos falsum putare ? Qui enim citius adulescentiae 
senectus, quam pueritiae adulesceiitia obrepit? Deinde, ^ 
qui miniis gravis esset eis senectus, si octingentesimum 
annum agerent, quam si octogesimum ? Praeterita enim 
aetas quamvis longa, cum effluxisset, nulla consolatione 
permulcere posset stultam senectutem. 6. Quocirca 
si sapientiam meam admirari soletis — quae utinara 10 
digna esset opinione vestra nostroque cognoraine ! — 
in lioc sumus sapientes, quod naturam optimam ducem 
tamquam deum sequimur eique pareraus : a qua non 
verisimile est, cura ceterae partes aetatis bene descrip- 
tae sint, extreraiim aqtum tamquam ab inerti poetal5 
esse neglectum, Sed tamen necesse fuit esse aliquid 

1. adepeam] There is anothcr is used here, not on acconnt of 
reading, cuiepti. But it is not un- cum, which expresses a purcly 
usual for the participles of depo- temporal relation, but by attrac- 
nent verbs to have a passiye signi- tion to poaset, 

fication ; cf. dimensa, xvii. 59. 11. esset] The imperfect is nsed 

2. stuUitiae] For stultomm^ as a modcst disclaimer of the 
the al)8tract for the concrete. epithet sapiens. — coffnomine] Ilis 

4. adulescentiae] Cicero here entire name was Marcus Porciua 

makes but three divisions of hu- Cato Sapiens. The Sopten», there- 

man life : pueritiUf youth ; adules- fore, was the secundum cognomen, 

centiay manhood ; and senectus, or, as it was more frequently 

old age. But Varro makes five : callcd, the agnomen ; cf. note page 

1. pueritia^ to the fifteenth year; 170, line 7. 

2. adulescentia, to the thirtieth; 12. naturam — seguimttr] Itwaa 

3. iuventuSf to the forty-fifth; the fundamental maxim of the 

4. aetas seniorum, to the f^ixticth ; Stoics that man ought to live con- 

5. sefwctus, to the time of death. formably to nature, and * that vir- 
Cicero here regards adulescentia tue and duty are according to 
as the period of increasing, and nature, vice and moral transgres- 
senectus as the period of decUning sion are contrary to nature.* 
power; hence the former would 15, inerti] Here used in its ori- 
alfto inrlude iuventus. ginal signification (tn, ar«) * with- 

8. ejhixitset] The fiubjunctive out art,* * unskilful.' 



extremum et, tnmqnam in arbomm baccis terrneqae 
fructibus, maturitate tempestiva qu:i8i vietum et cadu- 
cum, quod ferendum est molliter Bapienti. Quid est 
enim aliud Gigantum modo bellare cum dis, nisi naturae 
6 repugnare ? 

6. Laelius. Atqfui, Cato, gratissiranm nobis, ut 

etiam pro Scipione pollicear, feceris, si, quoniam spera- 

mu8, volumus quidem certe senes fieri, multo ante a 

te didicerimus, quibus facillime rationibus ingravescen- 

10 tem aetatem ferre possimus. 

Cato. Faciam vcro, Laeli, praesertim si utrique 
vestnim, ut dicis, gratum futurum est. 

Laelius. Yolumus sane, nisi molestum est, Cato, 
tamquara longam aliquam viam confeceris, quam nobis 
15 quoque ingredienJuul sit, istuc, quo pervenisti, videre 
quale sit. 

2. vietum et caulucum] These 
a^jectives agree with tUiguid. 

3. molUter\ * With resignation ; * 
an nnnsnal meaning of this word. 
^eapienti] Dative of agent aftcr 
ferendum ett. — Quid est — niai] 
Tbe idea is, * What else does the 
niTtb of the war of the giants 
agaiiist the gods signify than a 
Btrife ngainst nuture ? ' 

6. Atqiti] * But yet.' Cato has 
here laid down the gcncral rule 
tliat * we must follow naturc.* To 
this Laelius assents, but finds it 
insufilcicnt for practical life, and 
wislics for morc definite instruo- 

8. muUo ante] That is, * long 
before * we become ol J. 

14. confecerie] Subjunctivcafkcr 
tbc particle of comparison tom- 
quam^ as introducing only a con- 
ception, or mere supposition, and 

not an actnal fact. — quani — in- 
grediendum eit] A rare usage 
for the time of Cicero. But in tlija 
treatise expressions are ftequent- 
ly employed which belong to the 
period of Cato'8 life. We should 
bave expected quae noUs ingr^ 
dienda sit. 

15. iatuc] This pronoun, which 
is the subject of slt^ is called the 
demonstrativc of the sccond pcr- 
son. llere tho rcfcrencc is ob- 
vious from tUe following clauFc: 
quo pertenisti. Dut whcn there 
is no explanntory sontciicc, the 
pronoun is almost always to bo 
rcfcn-cd to t!io ])cr8on adUrcssed, 
as, Nihil istac opue est aHe ad 
hanc rem quamparo, * I want none 
of f/our skill in the mattcr which 
I havo in hand.' Terence, An- 
dria,.I. 1, 5. 

16. quale] * Of what nature.' 


in. 7. Cato. Faciam, ut potero, Laeli. Saepeenitu 
interfui qnerellis aeqiialium meonira, — pares au- 
tem vetero proverbio cuni paribus facillime congregan- 
tur, — quae C. Salinator, qnae Sp. Albinus, homines 
consulares, nostri fere aequales, deplorare solebant, 5 
tura quod voluptatibus carerent, sine qnibus vitam 
nullara putarent, tura quod spernerentur ab eis, a qui- 
bus essent coli soiiti. Qui raihi non id vidcbantur 
accusare, quod esset accusandum. Nam si id culpa 
genectutis accideret, eadcm raihi usu venirent reliquis-lO 
que omnibus maioribus natu, quorura ego raultorum 
cognovi senectutera sine querella, qui se et libidinura 
vinculis laxatos esse non raoleste ferrentj nec a suis de- 
spicerentur. Sed omninra istins raodi querellarum in 
moribns est culpa, non in aet.-ito. ' Moderati enim et 15 
nec dlfficiles nec inhumani senes tolerabilera senectu- 

1. FaciaTn] Sapply as oT)ject id^ 
quodvxiUis. — ut potero] * As well 
as I shall be able/ — et%%m\ An 
ellipsis may here be 8nppl!e(l in 
order to give the connection, * And 
I couQQive tltat sucli instructians 
are necessary, /or,* etc. 

4. quae — dfiplorare] An in- 
stance of anacolnthon» or want of 
harmony in the constrnction of 
the different parts ofthe scntence. 
We shonld have cxpecfed qtias, 
as reiferring to querellas ; but after 
interposing thc proverb, the «n- 
thor continues as if he had in niind 
tJie words et praesena audivi. 

5, nostri fere aequales] Cato 
was bom B. C. 234; Salinator 
about B. C. 240; Albinus was 
considerably older than Cato, as 
he died at an advanced age, B. C. 
179, haying been consul B. C. 186. 

6. carereni] * Bccause, as tTiey 
said* This is ImpUed in the sub- 

7. nuUarn] A predicate adjec- 
tive; * life to be no life.' 

8. id^^quod esset acetuanduml 

* That which is of such a nature as 
onght to be/ etc 

9. Nam si id\ The id refera 
to quod voluptatihus carerent. and 
qitod spemerentur, etc. 

10. tisu venirent] Usu venire, 
f >r which we find in Terence usua 
venit (si quid tisus venerit. — Adclf 
phi, V. 6, 7), is to be taken as a 
single word, meaning * to occur,* 

* to happen by experience.' 

14. Sed] The eilipsis may be 
snpplicd thus. *There are those 
who do not endure old age with- 
out complaint ; but* etc. 

16. difficiles] * Hard to pleafie.' 


tem agunt, inportunitas autem et inhumanitas omni 
aetatl molesta est. 

8. Laelius. Est, ut dicis, Cato, sed fortasse dixerit 
quispiam tibi, propter opes et copias et dignitatem 
5 tuam, tolerabiliorem senectutem videri ; id autem non 
posse multis contingere. 

Cato. Est istuc quidem, Laeli, aliquid, sed nequa- 
quam in isto sunt omnia, ut ThemistCcles fertur Seriphio 
cuidam in iurgio respondisse, cum ille dixisset non 

10 eum sua, sed patriae gloria splendorem adsecutum : 
"Nec hercule," inquit, " si ego Seriphius essem, nec tu, 
81 Atheniensis esses, clarus umquam fui/ses." Quod 
eodem modo de senectute dici potest. Nec enim in 
summa inopia levis esse senectus potest, ne snpicnti 

15quidem, nec insipienti etiam in summa copia non 
gra^ds. 9. Aptissima omnino sunt, Scipio ct Laeli, 
arma senectutis artes exercitationesquo virtutum, quae 
in omni aetate cultae, cum diu multumque vixeris, 
mirificos efferunt fructus, non solum quia numquam 

20deserunt, ne extrerao quidem tempore aetatis, — 
quamquam id quidem maximum est, — verum etiam 
quia conscientia bene actae vitae multorumque bene 
factorum recordatio iucundissima est. 

1. inportunitas — inhumanitas] banishmcnt for Roman criminals. 

* Incivility and clmrlishness ; * the 15. non graria] * Otherwise 

former refeiTin^ to thc demcanor, tlian burdensome.' 

the latter to tlie disposition. 17. senectutis] The subjective 

3. diTerit] The sulyunctive is gcnitive ; * the weapons wliich old 
nsed to soften t!ie asscrtion, or age can use asjainst all its evils.* 
render it less positive. 13. diu muUumque] Diu refers 

4. quispiam] Differs from ali- slmply tothc length of life; mul- 
quis in being lcss dcfinite. tumf to the richness of activity 

8. Seriphio] The insignificance and experience. 

of Seriphus was oflen an object of 21. quamguam id] * And yet 

derision to the anrients. In later this indced is somcthing of very 

tunes it was used as a place of great importance.' 



rV. 10. Ego Quintum Max^fmum, eum, qui Tarentum 
recepit, senem adulescens ita dilexi, ut aequalem. Erat 
enim in illo viro coraitate condita gravitas nec senectus 
mores mutaverat; quamquam eura colere coepi non 
adraodum grandem natu, sed tamen iam aetate provec- 
tum. Anno enim post consul primum fuerat, quam ego 
natus sum, cumque eo quartum consule adulescentulus 
miles ad Capuam profectus sum, quintoque anno post 
ad Tarentum. Quaestor deinde quadriennio post fao- 

1. Q^intum Maxfmum] Quin- 
tus Fabius Maxtmus had three 
aguomens : Yerrucosus, from a 
wart on his upper lip; Ovicttla, 
from tbe gentleness of his dis- 
position ; and Cunctator, the De- 
layer, from his prudence and can- 
tion in war. He was appointcd 
dictator B. C. 217, immediately 
after the defeat of the Komans at 
Trasimenus. His plan of war- 
fare against Hanntljal was to act 
always on the defensive. He 
avoided all direct encounters with 
tlie enemy, and by changing his 
camp constimtly to such places as 
would prevent the Numidian cav- 
alry and Spanish infantry from 
following him, he wearied his 
foe, and by his prudent delays in 
coming to action, saved tlie repub- 
lic. He was five times consul, and 
at last invested with the title of 
princeps senatua. He died B. C. 
203. — Tarentum] The citadel of 
Tarentum had fallen into the 
hands of the Carthaginians, B. C. 
212, and was recovered l>y Fabius, 
B. C. 209, during his flfth consul- 

4. q^iamquam] Introduces a 
restriction of the term aenectus 
employed in the preccdinir clause. 

— colere'] * To attach one's self 
to a pcrson with proofs of esteem 
and devotion.' This was the term 
usually employed in the social 
life of the Eomans to designate the 
relations of a client to his patron, 
Here Cato uses it to express his 
highcst; devotion to Fabios, his 
great ideal. 

6. consul primum] B. C. 233. 

7. quarturn constUe] B. C. 214. 

— aduJescentulus] * As a very 
young man.' Cato was then but 
twenty years old. 

8. ad Capuam] * To the neigh- 
borhood of Capua.' The chicf 
city is hcre put for the whole dis- 
trict ; hence thc preposition. Dur- 
ing the year mentioned, Fabius 
and Marcellus invadcd and con- 
quered Casilinura, the modem 
Capua, in thc vicinity of the an- 
clcnt Capua. — Liv. xxiv. 19. In 
thc cnpture of Capua itself, which 
occurred B. C. 212-11, Fabius did 
not particlpatc. 

9. ad Tarentum] * To the army 
before Tarentum.* Whenever eui 
is used with names of towns, it 
mcans * in the vicinity of/ * in the 
dircction of,* etc. — quadriennio 
post factus sum] B. C. 20-5. The 
vcrb factus sum refers to his clec- 



tus sum, quem magistratum gessi consulibus Tnditano 
et Cethego, cum quidem ille admodura senex suasor 
legis Cinciae de donis et muneribus fuit. Hic et bella 
gerebat ut adulescens, cum plane grandis esset, et Han- 
5 nibOlem iuveniliter exsultantem patientia sua molliebat ; 
de quo praeclare familiaris noster Ennius, — 

Unus. homo nobis cunctando restituit rem ; 
Noenum rumores ponebat ante salutem. 
Ergo postque magisque yiri nunc gloria claret. 

10 11. Tarentum vero qua vigilantia, quo consilio recepit ! 
cum quidem, me audiente, Salinatori, qui, amisso oppi- 
do, fugerat in arcem, glorianti atque ita dicenti : " Mea 
opera, Q. Fabi, Tarentum recepisti." " Certe," inquit 
ridens, "nam nisi tu amisisses, numquam recepisseni." 

15 Nec vero in armis praestantior quam in toga, qui cou- 

tion, and not to the time that he 
performed the daties of his offlce, 
which the expression quem magis- 
tr<Uum gesai seems to indicate, for 
it was in B. C. 204 that Tuditanus 
and Cethegus were consuls. 

3. Ugis Cinciae] This law was 
proposed by M. Cincius Alimen- 
tus, B. C. 204. Tt prohibited per- 
Bons from receiving money or 
presents of any kind for pleading 
a cause. — Tacltus, Annals. xi. 5. 
— de donis et muneribus'] Do' 
num is the general word for gift 
or prcsent ; munus, a present as a 
proof of favor or friendship, with 
thc design of gaining the same 
from others. 

6. iuveniliter exsuUantem] 'TVith 
the impetuosity of youth, spring- 
ing, now here, now there.* ^pati' 
entia] * Masterly inactivity ; * cf. 
notQ iv, 10,— molliebat] *Tamed.' 

6. praeclare — Ennius] Sc. dix- 

it, — familiaris] Cato made the 
acquaintance of Ennius in Sar- 
dinia. Secpage 164: 

7. rem] i. e. rem publicam, 

8. Noenum] Archaic for non ; 
a compound of ne and oenumf i. e. 
unum. — rumores] *Popular ru- 
mors,* namely, that he was scek- 
ing to prolong the war through 
cowardice or incapacity. — pone- 
bat] The quantity of the final 
syllable is herelong. 

11. Salinaidri] Cicero has evi- 
dently confounded M. Livius Ma- 
catus with M. Livius Salinator; 
for it was the former who defend- 
ed the citadel for three years after 
Hannlbal took the town, B. C. 
212, which was recovered by Fa- 
bius, B. C. 209. 

15. in armis] Is here used by 
metonymy fbr * in war,' as also in 
toga for * in peacc* — connU ite- 
rum] This was B. C. 228. 


8ul iterura, Sp. Carvilio collega quiescente, C. Flaniinio 
tribiino plebis, quoad potuit, restitit agrum Picentem et 
Galllcum virilim contra senatus auctoritatem dividenti, 
augurque cum esset, dicere ausus est ** optimis auspiciis 
ea geri, quae pro rei publicae salute gererentur, quae 6 
contra rem publicam feiTentur, contra auspicia ferri.'* 
12. Multa in eo viro praeclara cognovi, sed nihil est 
admirabilius quam quo modo ille mortem lilii tulit, 
clari viri et consularis. Est in manibus laudatio; quam 
cum legimus, quem philosophum non contemnimus ? 10 
Nec vero ille in luce modo atque in oculis civium mag- 
nus, sed intns domique praestantior. Qui sermo, quae 

1. C Flaminio] Datiye after sense of the conative imperfbct, 

rettitit, He was afterwards twice qui dividebat, * wlio was using his 

consal, B. C. 22^-217. He waa eflfoits to divide/ 

dlstinghished as the champion of 4. augurqtte cum esaeC] * AI- 

the popular party, having pro- thongh he was augur, he had the 

posed the agrarian law here re- coarage to declare/ Fuhius hcld 

ferred to, as Polybius says, B. C. this oflSce for sixty-two years. 

232, or four years before the date The augur was not expected to 

given by Cicero. In his second interfere at ali in political mat- 

consulship he was defeated by ters ; yet it is well known that he 

Hannlbai, and slain at the battle was often made subservient to the 

of Trasunenus. designs of individoals, and espe- 

3. conJtra sefuxttu auctoritatem] cially of the patricians, against 

* Against the judgment of the sen- the plebs and their tribunes. Cf. 

ate.' The Roman people possessed note on augur, Laelius, i. 1. 

indeed sovereign power {aenatue 8. JUii\ This was the elder son 

cenaett populua iubet), bnt evory of Fabius, and bore the same 

new project of law was subjected name with his father. He was 

to a prcliminary deliberation in cnmle aedile, B. C. 215 ; praetor, 

the senate, and could only be B. C. 214; an(} consul, with Ti. 

bronght before the people by thehr Sempronius Gracchus, B. C. 213. 

proper magistrates {leffem ferre, 9. in manibtu] * In everybody'» 

rogare.) So it had been sinoe hands.' — laudatio] i. e. laudatio 

B. C. 966. Flaminius was the funehrist * the fiineral oration,' 

first tribnne who disturbed this which the father delivered on the 

harmony between patriciana and death of his son. 

plebelans by uitroducing the bill II. in luce] * In the light of the 

eontra eenatus auctoritatemt here world,' or * publicly,' as opposed 

referred to.— dividentt] In the to intus, * in private.' 


praecepta, qnanta notitia antiquitatis, quae scientia 
iuris augurii! Multae etiam, ut in homine Romano, 
litterae : orania memoria tenebat, lion domestica solum, 
sed etiam extema bella. Cuius sermone ita tum cu- 
5 pide fruebar, quasi iam divinarem id, quod evenit, illo 
exstincto, fore unde discerem neminem. 

V. 13. Quorsus igitur haec tam multa de Maximo? 
Quia profecto videtis nefas esse dictu, miseram fuisse 
talem senectutem. Nec tamen omnes pcssunt esse 

lOScipiones aut Maxlmi, ut urbium expugnationes, ut 
pedestres navalesve pugnas, ut bella a se gesta, ut 
tiiumphos recordentur. Est etiam quiete et pure at- 
que eleganter actae aetatis placida ac lenis senectus : 
qualem accepimus Platonis, qui uno et octogesimo anno 

16 sciibens est mortuua : qualem Isocratis, qui eum librum, 
qui Panathenalcus inscribitur, quarto et nonagesimo 
anno scripsisse se dicit, vixitque quinquennium postea ; 
cuius magister Leontinus Gorgias centum et septem 

2. iuris aujurii] • Of the law charactcr. Ekganter (from eligOy 

that related to augury/ — ut m « to choose *), to his taste in in- 

homine Romano] Ut has hcre tellectual pursuits. By atque both 

a restrictiTe force. « Considcring idcas are to be considercd as 

tiiat he was a Roman;' <for a liclon^ring togcther, and supple- 

Koman at least.' mcntinsr each other. 

5. iUo exatincto'] He died B. C. 13. placida ac lenis] Predicate 

203. adjectives. 

%,fore — neminem'] Used as an H. gualem] Sc, aefiectutemfit^ 

' appositlve of id, — unde] Equiv- tsse. 

alent to a gtio. 15. scribens] * While writinp.' 

7. Quorsua — haec] Sc. dixif 16. Panatfienatcus] Su called 

Quora^Uf from quoy versua ; mcans, either becanse it was read at the 

literally, * whitherward,' or • in great festival in Attlca, the Pana- 

what direction ; ' hence • with theniiea, in honor of Athena, the 

what aim,* or *for whnt pui-pose.' protectress of Athcns, or because 

10. Scipibnea avJt Max^mi\ i. e. it was composed to celebrate the 

men like ScipioorMaxImus. praises of the Athenians. This 

12. pure atqtie eleganter] Pure oration is still cxUmt. 

refers to integrity, or puriiy of 17. dicit] Sc. in Panathenaico. 


oonplevit annos, neque umquam in suo studio atque 
opere cessavit. Qui, cum ex eo quaereretur, cur tam 
diu vellet esse in vita : " Nihil habeo," inquit, " quod 
accnsem senectutem.'^ Praeclarum responsum et docto 
homine dignum. 5 

14. Sua enim vitia insipientes et suam culpam in 
senectutem conferunt ; quod non &ciebat is, cuius 
modo mentionem feci, Ennius : 

Sicut fortis equus, spatio qui saepe supremo 

Vicit Olympia, nunc senio confectus quiescit. 1q 

Equi fortis et victoris senectuti comparat suam. Qnem 
quidem probe meminisse potestis. Anno enim undevi- 
cesirao post eius mortem hi consules, T. Flamininus 
et M ' Acilius, facti sunt ; ille autem Caepione et Phi- 
lippo iterum consulibus mortuus est, ciim ego qnidem 15 
quinqne et sexaginta annos natus, legem Voconiam 
magna voce et bonis lateribus suasisRcm. Annos septua- 
ginta natus — tot enim vixit Ennius — ita ferebat duo 
quae maxima putantur onera, paupertatem et senec- 
tntem, ut eis paene delectari videretur. 15. Etenim,20 
cum conplector animo, quattuor reperio causas, cur 
senectus misera videatur : nnam, quod avocet a rebus 

9. tpatio — 9upremd] * At the 15. iterum] This refers only to 
end of the race-coarse.' the consulship of Philippus, B. C. 

10. Ofympid] Acciisative plu- 169. 

ra], in imitation of the Greek con- 16. legem Voconiam'] De mulie- 

strnction *OXbitnia viKav^ * to con- rum hereditatibua. This law was 

quer in the Olympic gnmes.* — named after Q. Voconius Saxa, 

eonfectus] Cf. note on pfentis, i. 1. by whom it was proposed, B. C. 

13. H conetdea] * The prescnt 169. Its main objcct was to limit 

oonsnls,' B. C. 150. Cifcero refers the amount of property that a 

the di:)logne De Seneetute to this woman could receive as heiress. 

date. — r. Ftommfwt»] Nottobe 22. avocet—absit] Suhjunctivca 

confounded with the conqucror of as giving the opinion of others, 

Pliillp of Macfidon, referred to hi and not of Cato. — a rebus geren- 

11. Cf. note, page 169, llne 1. <«•] * From active pursuits.' 


gerendis; alteram, quod corpus faciat infirmius; ter- 
tiam, quod privet omnibus fere voluptatibus ; quartam, 
quod haud procnl absit a morte. Earum, si placet, 
causarum quanta quamque sit iusta unaquaeque videa- 
5 mus. 

VI. A rebus gerendis senectns abstrahit. Quibus ? 
an eis, quae iuventute geruntur et viribus? Nullaene 
igitnr res sunt seniles, quac vel iufirmis corporibus ani- 
mo tamen adrainistrentur? Nihil ergo agebat Q. 

lOMaxlmus, nihil L. PauUus, pater tuus, Scipio, socer 
optimi viri, filii mei? Ceteri senes, Fabricii, Curii, 
Coruncanii, cum rem publicam consilio et auctoritate 
defendebant, nihil agebant? 16. Ad Appii Claudii 
senectutem accedebat etiam, ut caecus esset ; tamen is, 

16 cum sententia senatus inclinaret ad pacem cum Pyrrho 
foedusque faciendum, non dubitavit dicere illa, quae 
versibus persecutus est Ennius : 

7. an] This particle is nsed yonnger son of L. Aemilins Faul- 
here to introduce the second part lus, bnt was adopted by P. Scipio, 
of a disjnnctive qnestion. The el- the son of the Scipio who con- 
lipsis may be snpplied thns : om- qnered Hannlbal at Zama. His 
nUntsne an eis^ etc. — iuventtUe-^ entiro name was Publius Come- 
et viribtul A case of hendiadys, lins Scipio Aemllianns Africanus 
or a rhetorical figure by which Minor. 

the two ideas, consldered separate- 11. JiUi mei\ This was Cato'8 

ly in liatin, are united into one in elder son, M. Porcius Cato, who 

translnting inro English. married Aemilia Tertia, the 

8. rea — aeniles] *Employments dau^htcr of Aemilius Pjiullns, 
for old mcn.* — vel infirmis corpo- under whom he had fought at 
ribua] Opposed to iuventuie — et Pydna. Sce page 166. 

viribus ; the ablative absolute. 12. cum'] * At the timc when.* 

10. L, Paullus] L. Acmilius 13. Appii Claudii] As censor, 

Paullus, surnamcd Maeedonlcus, he bullt the Appian Way to Capna, 

for his victory over Perseus at and the first Roman aqucduct. 

Pydna, B. C. 168. Hewastwice 15. adpacemcumPi/rrho] PjT' 

consul, B. C. 182 and 168 ; censor, rhus, king of Epirus, had sent 

B. C. 164 ; and dicd B. C. 160. Cineas to Eome for this purpose, 

^pater tuus} Scipio was the in the year B. C. 280. 


Quo Tobis mentes, rectae quae stare solebant 
Antehac, dementes sese flexere viai ? 

ceteraque gravissime ; notum enim vobis carmen est ; 
et tamen ipsius Appii exstat oratio. Atque baec ille 
egit septem et decem annis post alterum consulatum, 5 
cum inter duos consulatus anni decem interfuisseut 
censorque ante consulatum superiorem fuisset, ex quo 
intellegitur, Pyrrbi bello grandem sane fuisse ; et tamea 
sic a patribus accepimus. 17. Nihil igitur adferunt, 
qui in re gerend^ versari senectutem negant ; similes- 10 
que sunt, ut si qui gubematorem in navigando nibil 
agere dicant, cum alii malos scandant, alii per foros 
cursent, alii sentinam exhauriant, ille claviim tenens 
quietus sedeat in puppi. Non facit ea, quae iuvenes, 
at vero multo maiora et meliora facit. Non viribus autl5 
velocitatibus aut celeiitate corporum res magnae gerun- 
tur, sed consilio, auctoritate, sententia ; quibus noa 
modo non orbari, sed etiam augeri senectus solet. 18. 
Nisi forte ego vobis, qui et miles et tribunus et legatus 
et consul versatus sum in vario genere bellorum, ces-20 

2. Antehac] In scannin^, to qui ; literally, * as those wonld be 
be reiid as a*dissyilable. — viat\ ifany/etc 

An old form of tlicgcnitive, to 14. Nonfacif] Sc. aenex. 

be connected with guo. 17. qutbus] Observe that this 

3. enim] Gives the reason ablative is connected with the two 
why he did not qnote the other verbs orhari and augeri^ in differ- 
verses. ent relations. 

^. watio] Whicb Appins made \^. Nisiforte] The apodosis is 

Bgainst the peace with Pyrrhus. suppressed, but may be supplied 

5. post alterum consulatum] thus : * the statement which I huve 

The first was B. C. 307 ; the scc- made is worthy of belicf, unlessy 

ond, B. C. 296. etc. — et^et^et — et] The ob- 

7. censorque] Tn B. C. 310. ject of this polysyndeton, or re- 

8. Pyrrhi belh] * At the time dundancy of conjunctions, is evi- 
of the war with Pyrrhus/ B. C» dently to make prominent the 
281-275. yarioas positions which Cato held. 

11. ut ai qtd] Eqaivalent to eia, He was milea, * a private/ at Ca- 


sare nnnc videor, eum bella non gero. At senatni, qnae 
Bint gerenda, praescribo, et quo modo ; Karthaglni male 
iam diu cogitanti bellum multo ante denuntio, dc qua 
Tcreri non ante desinam, quam illam excisam esse cog- 
^novero. 19. Quam palmam utinam di inmortales, Sci- 
pio, tibi reservent, ut avi reliquias persequare ! cuius 
a morte tertius hic et tricesimus annus est ; sed memo- 
riam illius viri omnes excipient anni consequentes. 
Anno ante me censorem mortuus est, novem annis post 

10 meum consulatum, cum consul iterum me consule crea- 
tus esset. Num igitur, si ad centesimum annum vixis- 
eet, senectutis eum suae paeniteret ? Nec enim excur- 
sione nec saltu nec eminus hastis aut comminus gladiis 
uteretur, sed consilio, ratione, sententia. Quae nisi es- 

15 sent in senibus, non summum consilium maiores nostri 
appellassent senatum. 20. Apud Lacedaemonios qui- 
dem ii, qui amplissimnm magistratum gerunt, ut sunt, 
sic etiam nomioantur senes. Quod si legere aut audire 

pua, B. C. 214 ; tribtmus in Sicily, 6. tibi reaervent] Tliat this 

B. C. 208, and at the battle of happcned is wcll known. Scipio, 

Sena, B. C. 207 ; the title of lega- or the younger son of L. Aemilius 

tua probably refers to his quaes- Faullus, completed the conqnest 

torship with Scipio in Sicily and of Carthage as the resuU of the 

Afrlca, B. C. 204 ; he was consul decisive battle of Zama, B. C. 202. 

B. C. 195 ; also legatua consularia 12. Nec enim] The enim intro- 

in Greece, B. C. 191. duces a reason for the suppressed 

3. multo ante] That is * long answer to the preceding question ; 

before * the war was declared. — * this cannot be believed, /or,' etc. 

denuntio] Cato's expression, — exeuraione — saUu — haatis — 

delenda est KarthagOy has become gladiis] Referring to the active 

proverbial. He always concluded employments beloiiging to a sol- 

with it, when he gave his opinion dier's life. 

on any measure before the senate. 18. nomtnantur senes] That is, 

Cf. Life of Cato, page 166, yi^ovrti, The yigovaia consisted of 

5. Quampalmam] The Greek twenty-eight members, each of 

custom of adoming the conqueror whom must havo attained the 

with palm branches was intro- age of sixty years, and the offlce 

duced into Bome B. C. 293. was held by them for life. 


voletifl externa, maxiraas res pnblicas ab adalescetitibus 
labefactatasy a senibus sustentatas et restHutas repe- 

Cedo, qui vestram rem publicam tantam amisistis tam cito ? 

Sic enim percontantur, ut est in Naevii poetae Ludo : 6 
respondentur et alia et hoc in primis : 

ProYeniebant oratores novi, stulti adulescentuli. 

Temeritas est videlicet florentis aetatis, prudentia se- 

VII. 21. At memoria minuitur. Credo, nisi eam 10 
exerceas, aut etiam si sis natura tardior. Themi«tdcles 
omnium civium perceperat nomina. Num igitur cen- 
setis eura, cum aetate processisset, qui Aristides esset 
Lysimachum salutare solitum ? Equidem non modo 
eos novi, qui sunt, sed eorum patres etiam et avos ; nec 15 
sepulcra legens vereor, quod aiunt, ne memoriam per- 
dam ; his enim ipsis legendis in memoriam redeo mor- 
tuorum. Nec vero quemquam senem audivi oblitum, 

4. Cgdci] An old imppratiye, l4. Lf/simdchum] Tbc fatlier of 
eqaivalent to dic. This line is Aristides. 

from Naeyius, one of the oldest 15. qtii sutU] * Who are now 

dramatic writers of Rome. He living.' 

died alx>ut B. C. 204. 16. sepulcra legens] * Heading 

5. Lttdci] The title of onc of the inscriptions on the tomb- 
Naevius*s plays. stoncs.* This Cato was doing 

10. At] This introduccs a fur- whilc preparing his * Origines,* on 

thcr ohjection to the argumcnt of which he was engaged B. C. 150. 

Cato. • We grant what you huve Thcre scems, according to Eras- 

said, butf* etc. — Credo] Sc. hoc mus, to have bcen a supcrsiitious 

itaeasc; hence the following sub- belief with the Romans at tlmt 

jnnctivcs in the subordinate clause timc, that the readlng of such in- 

of the orcUio ohUqtui, scriptions impaired the memury. 

13. qui Aristides esset] Salvtare 17. in memoriam] * I revlve 

takcs two accusatives, one of thc memory of the dead.' 

which is here eum, undcrstood, 18. queniquam senem] ^Anyono 

to which the relative rcfers. as an old man ; * because he is old. 


quo loco thesaararn obruisset. Omnia, qaae curant, 
meminerunt, vadimonia constituta, qui sibi, cui ipsi de- 
beant. 22. Quid iuris consulti, quid pontifices, quid 
augures, quid philosophi senes ? quam multa memine- 
5 runt I Manent ingenia senibus, modo permaneat stu- 
dium et industria, nec ea solum in claris et honoratis 
viris, sed in vita etiam privata et quieta. SophScles ad 
Bummam senectutem tragoedias fecit; quod propter 
Btudium cum rem neglegere familiarem videretur, a 

10 filiis in iudicium vocatus est, ut, quem ad modum nos- 
tro mpre male rem gerentibus patribus bonis interdici 
Bolet, sic ilhim quasi desipientem a re familiaii remo- 
verent iudices. Tum senex dicitur eam fabulam, quam 
in manibus habebat et proxime scripserat, OedYpum 

15 Coloneum recitasse iudicibus quaesisseque, num illud 
carmen desipientis videretur. Quo recitato, sententiis 
iudicum est liberatus. 23. Num igitur hunc, num 
Homerum, num HesiSdum, Simonldem, StesichSrum, 

2. vadimonia constituta'] * Ap- pose of his propcrty in favor of his 
pointmcnts of bail,' or * the bail other sons. 

which liad been lixed upon.* The Ih bonia] Hereinthe ablative. 

vadimonium was a sum of money Interdicere takes thc dative of the 

fixed upon by parties in legiil dis- person and ablative of the thing ; 

putcs to secure the attendance of cf. guibus cum aqua afgue igni in- 

the defendant bcfore tho coiirt at terdixisaet, Caes. B. 6. vi. 44. 

which the case was to I)e decided. 14. Oedipum Cohneum] This 

3. Quid] Some ellipsis may tragedy contains an account of the 
be supplicd, but it is not material. wanderings of the blind Oedtpus 
This use of quid is comraon from Thebes, under tlic guidance 
enough in Latin, and its very of his daughtcr Antigone ; his ar- 
brevity gives it more force. The rival at Colonos, near Athens, 
nominutives are subjects of me/ni- where he dies in tlio grove of tlie 
nerunt. Eumenidcs. This play, however, 

5. modo] Equivalent to « mo- is, generally supposcd to have 

do; * provided that.' been writtcn in the earllcr life of 

9. a Jiliis] Or rather by one Sophocles, and not in his old age, 

of his sons, I5phon by name, who as here represented. SopIiOcles 

feared that the father might dis- lived to be ninety ycars old. 


nuTn, quos ante dixi, laocHltem, Gorgiani, num philo- 
sophorura principcs, Pythagoram, Democritum, num 
Platonem, num .Xenocratem, num postea Zenonem, 
Cleanthem, aut eum, quem vos etiam vidistis Romae, 
Diogenem Stoicum coegit in suis studiis obmuteacere 5 
senectus ? an in omnibus his studiorum agitntio vitao 
aequalis fuit? 24. Age, ut ista divina studia oinitta- 
mus, possum nominafe ex agro Sablno rusticos Roma- 
nos, vicinos et familiares meos, quibus absentibus nura- 
quam fere ulla in agro maiora opera fiunt, non serendis, 10 
non percipiendis, non condendis fructibus. Quamquam 
in aliis rainus hoc mirum est: nemo enim esttam senex, 
qui se annum non putet posse vivere ; sed iidem in eis 
elaborant, quae sciunt nihil ad se omnino pertinere: 

serit jg 

Arbores, quae alteri saeculo prosient, 

ut ait Statius noster in Synephebis. 25. Nec vero 
dubitat agricola, quamvis sit senex, quaerenti cui serat 
respondere : " Dis inmortalibus, qui me non accipere 
modo haec a maioribus voluerunt, sed etiam posteris 20 

4. Ronrne] Diog^^nes was sent 10. serendis — fructibus] The 

by the Athenians as an anib.issa- ablative absolute. An unusual 

dor to Rome witb Came&des construction with the future pas- • 

and Critolaus, 6. C. Ido, to obtain sive participle. 
tbe rcmission of a fine of 500 tal- 12. aliis] Here neuter ; * in 

ents which they were condemned other things.* 
to pay for plundering Oropus, a 16. aaectdo] ' Generation.— pro- 

town on thc borders of Boeotia, gieni] An old form for prosint, 
after the war with Perseus. 17. Synephehis] * The Fellow 

6. obmutescere] * To cease ; ' lit- Youths,* or • Youthful Compan- 

erall}', ' to grow mute.' ions ; * an imitntion of a Greek 

6. agitatio] * The vigorous tragedy of tlie samo title by Me- 

pursnit.* nander, of which only a few frag- 

8. ex agro Sahino] Where Ca- ments are cxtant. Statius was con- 

to*8 estates were situated. temporary with £nuiu8. 


YIII. Melins Caecilms de sene alteri saeculo prospi- 
ciente quam illud idem : 

Edep6l, senectus, si nil quidquam alidd yiti 
Adp6rte8 tecum, cum advenis, unnm id sat est, 
6 Quod diii yivendo multa, quae non yolt, ridet. 

Et multa fortasse quae vult ! atque in ea quidem, quae 
non Yult, saepe etiam adulescentia incurrit. IUud vero 
idem Caecilius vitiosius : 

Tum equidem in senecta hoc d^puto mis^rrimum, 
10 Sentire -ea aetate ^sse se odiosum alteri. 

26. lucundum potius quam odiosum. Ut enim adules- 
centibus bona indole praeditis sapientes senes delectan- 
tur leviorque fit senectus eorum, qui a iuventute colun- 
tur et diliguntur, sic adulescentes senum praeceptis 
15gaudent, quibus ad virtutum studia ducuntur; nec 
minus intellego me vobis quam mihi vos esse iucundos. 
Sed videtis ut senectus non modo languida atque iners 
non sit, verum etiam sit operosa et semper agens ali- 

1. Meliua CaeciUtta] The idea teijection e prefixed, and the 
is, 'Better is the sentiment of whole signifying, *0 god Pol- 
Caecilius in regard to an old man lux ! * — viti] For vitii. 
providing for another generation 5. vole] An old form for vuit. 
(as expressed in vii. 24), than in '^videt] The sn!)ject is some in- 

• the foUowing passage trom the definite pronoun, as aHquia. 

same aathor.' Caecilius is, of 6. muUafortatse} Sc. videt. 

course, Statins. 9. hoc] Points with emphasis 

2. idem] i. e. Caecilius. to aentire ea, etc. — deputo] In 

3. Edepot] Tiiis exclamation, the sense of * esteem * or *consid- 
or its shortened form, Pol, occurs er/ is ante-classical. 
frequcntly in Enniiis and the 18. agens aHguid et moUens] 
comic poets, also occasionally in The difference in meaiiing be- 
Horace, bat never in prose. The tween the verbal forms agat and 
Pol is an abbreviated form of the moUatur^ and the participles with 
Tocative of PoUux. The Ede- is ait^ is, that tbe fomier imply bat 
supposed by Corssen to represent a single act, while the latter ex- 
the vocative of dem^ with the in- pressapermanentctiaracteristic 


quid et moliens, tale scilicet, quale cniusqne studiam 
in superiore vitfi fuit. Qiiid ? qui etiam addiscunt ali- 
quid, ut et Solonem versibus gloriautem videmus, qui 
se cotidie aliquid addiscentem dicit senem fieri, ut ego 
feci, qui litteras Graecas senex didici ; quas quidem sic 5 
avide arripui, quasi diuturnain sitim explere cupiens, 
ut ea ipsa mihi esseut nota, quibus me nunc exemplis 
uti videtis. Quod cum fecisse Socratem in fidibus au- 
direm, vellem equidem etiam illud, — discebant enim 
fidibus antiqui, — sed in litteris certe elaboravi. 10 

IX. 27. Nec nunc quidem vires desidero-adulescen- 
tis, — is enim erat locus alter de vitiis senectutis, — non 
plus quam adulescens tauri aut elephanti desiderabam. 
Quod est, eo decet uti et, quidquid agas,agere pro viri- 
bus. Quae enim vox potest esse contemptior quaml5 
Milonis Crotoniatae ? qui, cum iam senex esset athle- 
tasque se exercentes in curriculo videret, adspexisse 
lacertos «uos dicitur inhicrimansque dixisse: '^At hi 

2. Quidf qtit] <WhatshaIlwe 14. Quodest] 8c, tibi. Observe 

say of those who/ etc. the diffcrence between the indica- 

7. exemplia] * As illastrations ' tive est and the subjunctiye agae, 
in my writinfcs. Tlie former asserts positively ; 

8. Quod — feciase] Tliat is, had «that which you actually have;' 
lcamcd, whcn an old man, to pLiy the latter contains no direct state- 
on tlic lyre. ment or assertion : * whatever you 

9. vellem] Tho potential sulv may do.' The indicative is oftcn 
junctivc. Thc imperfect is used used, very much like the sub- 
to rcprcscnt the wish as unful- junctive,toexpres8generaltruths, 
filled, or of which the fuliilment but is more definite in its charac- 
is no longcr possi:)le. ter; cf. Qmdquid id est, timeo 

10. fdibus] Ablutive of instru- Danaoa et dona ferentes^ Verg. 
ment. Aen. II. 49. — agns] Tlie sccond 

12. locua alter] * The second pcrson is often uscd, as with us, to 
topic ; * rcfcrring to the summary represent nn indefinite subject; 
of the argumcnt in v. 15 : quod * onc/ or * persons generally.' 
corpusfaciat injlrmius. 18. At] If the ellipsis were 

13. adulescetis] In a temporal stippiied, to which at introduces 
relation ; * wliilc a young man.' an oppositiun, it might read : ego 



quidem mortui iam sunt." Non vero tam isti, quam tn 
ipse, nugator. Neque enim ex te umquam es uobiiita- 
tus, sed ex lateribus et lacertis tuia. Niliil Sex. Aelius 
tale, nibil multis annis ante Ti. Coruncanius, nihil modo 
5P* CrassuB, a quibus iura civibus praescribebantur : 
quorum usque ad extremum spiritum est piovecta pm- 
dentia. 28. Orator metuo ne languescat senectute; 
est enim munus eius. non ingenii solum, sed laterum 
etiam et virium. Omnino canorum illud in voce splen- 

10 descit etiam nescio quo pacto in senectute, quod equi- 
dem adhuG non amisi et videtis annos : sed tamen de- 
corus est senis sermo quietus et remissus, facitque 
persaepe ipsa sibi audientiam diserti senis compta et 
mitis oratio. Quam si ipse exsequi nequeas, possis 

15tamen Scipioni praecipere et Laelio. Quid est enim 

gnoque, sicut voa, vellem me exer- 
cere, at, ctc. 

1. isti\ Sc. mortm sunt. 

4. multia annis ante] He lived 
about a hundred years before Ae- 
lius,— modo] ♦ Just now,' * a short 
time a^o.' Crassus died about 
thuty-three years before the date 
of this dialogue ; but here modo is 
to be taken as opposed to muttia 
annie ante, The three Romans 
mentioned here were famous iu- 
risconsuitif or * men leamed in the 

6. a quibus — praescribebantur} 
• By whom the rules of law were 
defined or laid down for the bene- 
fit of their fellow-citizens.' 

6. prudentia] Here, as fre- 
qutntly when the discourse relates 
to BtatesmGn f prudentia is nsed in 
its special or technical sense of 
iurisprudentia, * Itnowledge of the 
law/ 'professipnal acquirements.' 

9. ffirium] * Of physical pow- 
ers.' — Omnino] Used here as a 
particle of concessioui * doubtless 
indeed,' in opposition \jq sed tfi- 
men below. 

11. annos] Cato Maior was at 
this time eighty-four years old. 

— sed tamen] * But although 
what I have said may not be the 
case, yet,' etc. 

12. quietus et remissus] Attrib- 
utive a^jectives belonging to »«•- 
mo ; decorus is in the predicate.— 
facit — avdientiam] *Win8 for 

14. Quam] Relates to oratio. 

— exsequt] It is said that the 
exprcssion orationem exsequi is 
nowhere else to be found in clas- 
sic prose. Hence some critics 
have proposed qtu)d for quam, 

15. Scipioni — et La^Uo] * To 
Scipio and Laelius ; ' as the rep- 
resentatives of youth. 


iucundius senectute stipata studiis luventutis ? 29. 
An ne eas quidem vires senectuti relinquimus, ut adu- 
lescentes doceat, instituat, ad omne officii munus in- • 
struat ? quo quidem opere quid potest esse praeclarius ? 
Mihi vero Cn. et P. Scipiones et avi tui duo, L. Aerai- 5 
lius et P. Africanus, comitatu nobilium iuvenum fortu- 
nati videbantur ; nec ulli bonarum artium magistri non 
beati putandi, quamvis consenuerint vires atque defe- 
cei-int. Etsi ipsa ista defectio virium ddulescentiae 
vitiis efficitur saepius quam senectutis. LibidinosalO 
enim et intemperans adulescentia effetura coi-pus tra- 
dit senectuti. 30. Cyrus quidem apud Xenophontem 
eo sermone, quem moriens habuit, cum admodum senex: 
esset, negat se uraquara sensisse senectutera suara in- 
becilliorera factara quara adulescentia fuisset. Ego L. 15 
Metellura raeraini puer, qui cura quadriennio post alte- 
rura consulatura pontifex maximus factus esset, viginti 
duos annos ei sacerdotio praefuit, ita bonis esse viri- 
biis extremo terapore aetatis, ut adulescentiara non 
requireret. Nihil necesse est niihi de me ipso dicere ; 20 
quamquam est id quidem senile aetatique nostrae con- 

X. 31. Videtisne ut apud Homerura saepissime 
Nestor de virtutibus suis praedicet? Tertiara enim 
iam aetatem horainum vivebat, nec erat eji verendum 

5. avi tui dito] Scipio'B grand- 17. pontifex maximus] B. C. 

father, by adoption, was P. Afri- 243. 

canus Maior; cf. note on pater 19. non requireret] «Did not 

tuus, vi. 15. His own father's feel the want of.' 

father was L. Aemilins Panllus. 20. Nihil] Used adverbially as 

12. Ci/rua] Cyms the Elder is an emphatic non. 

meant. — apud Xenophmtem] * In 21. id] i. e. speaking concemr 

Xenophon*9 worlts,' Cyr. viii. 7. ing one*s self. 

13. admodum senex] He lived 23. apud Homerum] *In the 
till he was seventy years of age. Iliad of Homer.' Cf. II. 1. 260 sq. 


ne vera praedicans de se nimis videretar aut insolens 
aut loquax. Etenim, ut ait Homerus, ^ ez eius lingua 
melle dulcior fluebat otatio ; " quam ad suavitatem nullis 
egebat corporis viribus. Et tamen dux ille Graeciae 
5 nusquam optat ut Aiacis similes habeat decem, at ut 
Nestdiis ; quod si sibi acciderit, non dubitat qnin brevi 
sit Troia peritura. 32. Sed redeo ad me. Quartum 
ago annum et octogesimum ; vellem equidem idem 
posse gloriari, quod Cyrus ; sed tamen hoc queo dicere, 

10 non me quidem eis esse viribus, quibus aut miles bello 
Pun!co aut quaestor eodem bello aut consul in His- 
pania fuerim aut quadriennio post, cum tribunus mili- 
taris depugnavi apud Thermopylas M' Glabrione con- 
sule ; sed tamcn, ut vos videtis, non plane me enervavit 

15nec adflixit senectus, non curia vires meas desiderat, 
non rostra, non amici, non clientes, non hospites. Nec 
enim umquam sum adsensus veteri illi hmdatoque 
proverbio, quod monet " mature fieri senem, si diu velis 
senex esse." Ego vero me minus diu senem esse mal- 

20 lem, quam esse senem ante quam essem. Itaque nemo 

2. ui ait Homenu] II. I. 249. as tributii miUtarea after tbeir 

Here a literal translation of tlie consulship. Cf. Liy. xxxvi. 17, 

passage referred to is given. and xlii. 49. 

6. Mciderit'] The future per- 16. rostra^l A stand in the Fo- 

fect tense. . rum from which orators were 

^, quod Cyrus\ See page 191, wont toaddresspublicassemhlietf. 
line 14. 18. proverbio] Of conrse the 

10. eis — viriiua] Ablative of intended meaning of the proverb 

characteristic ; * although I in- is, tliat 'one must tiave tiie mod- 

deed have not such strength as I eration and wisdom of i\n old man 

had/ etc. if he would livo long ; ' but Cato 

13. apud Thermopylas] This takc^it in anothcr scnse: 'one 

was the battle in which the con- must strive for the comfortable 

sul Glaljrio defeatcd Antiochns, and inactive life of an old man, if 

B.C. 191. Cato had been consnl ; he wonld live long.* 
but it sccms to have been no un- 19. malem'] Cf. note on velleni, 

usual thing for Romans to serve viii. 26, page 189, line 9. 


adhiic oonvenire me voluit, <3ui fuerim K)G0)ip9t)is. ^fc 
minus habeo viriuro, qnam vestrum utervis ! 33. i^p 
VO8 quidem T. Pontii centurioqis vires habetis ; nupi 
idcirco est ille praestantior ? JJioderatio modo virium 
adsit, et:tantum, quantum potest quisque, nitatur; nae (5 
illenoa.magno desiderio tenebitur viiium. Olympiae 
p^.stadium ingressus esse Milo dicitur, cum hiiiperi^ 
3astineret bovem vivum. Utrura igitur has corporis 
an PythagSrae tiW malis yires ingenii dari? Deniqu^' 
iflto bono utare, dum adsit ; oum absit, ne reqi|iras ; nisi^p 
forte adulescentes pueritiam, paullum aetate progressi 
adulescentiam debent requirere. Cursus est ;Cerr 
tus aetatis et un^ via naturae eaque simplex suaqu^ 
cuique parti aetatis tempestivita^ est data, ut et infir- 
mitas puerorum et ferocitas iuvenum et gravitas iam l^ 
constantis aetatis et seaectutis.maturitas naturale quid- 
dam habeat, quod suo temppre peroipi debeat. 3.4. 
Audire te arbitror, Scipio, hospes tuus avitus Masinig^ 
quae faciat hodie, nonaginta natus annos ; cum ingres- 
. sus iter pedibus sit, in equum omnino non adscendere ; 20 
cum equo, ex equo non descendere ; nullo imbre, nuUo 
frigore adduci, ut capite operto sit ; summam esse in ep 

1. cui] Dative of disadyantage. 9. malit] Like vellem, in pa09 

' 3. T, Pontii — vires] Nothing -■ 192, line S, is really the conclusioa 

is linown of Pontius. Probably of asuppressedconditionalelause, 

Cato' had in view the prime requi- which may here be supplied hy. si 

site of such oificers, as afterwards qm deus det optionem, or some 

given by Yegetius, * that he mnst such phrase. The present tense 

be of great strength and exceed- expresses a supposed present pos- 

ingly tall.* &ibility, whilst the imperfect ex- 

4. idcirco] Refers to the pre- presses a possibility now past. 

ceding sentence. — Moderatio] * A 10, utare — reguiras] Horta- 

wise use.' tory subjunctlves. 

7. Mih] Milo was a native of 15. ferocitaa] * Impulsiveness.* 

the same town in which Pythago- 19. nonaginta — annoa] * AI- 

ras had his school of philosophy. tbongh he was ninety years old.' 


corporis siccitatem ; itaque omnia exsequi regis officia 
et munera. Potest igitur exercitatio et temperantia 
etiam in senectute conservare aliquid pristini roboris. 
XL Ne sint in* senectute vires. Ne postulantur 
5 quidem vires a senectute. Ergo et legibus et institutis 
vacat aetas nostra muneribus eis, quae non possunt sine 
viribus sustineri. Itaque non modo quod non possa- 
mus, sed ne quantum possuraus quidem cogimur. 35. 
At multi ita sunt inbecilli senes, ut nullum officii aut 

lOomnino vitae munus exsequi possint. At id quidem 
non proprium senectutis vitium est, sed commune vale- 
tudinis. Quam fuit inbecillus P. Africani filius, is qui 
te adoptavit, qnam tenui aut nulla potius valetudine ! 
Quod ni ita fuisset, alterum illud exstitisset lumen civi- 

15 tatis ; ad patemam enim magnitudinem animi doctrina 
uberior accesserat. Quid mirum igitur in senibus, si 
infirmi sunt aliquando, cum id ne adulescentes quidem 
effugere possint? Resistendum, Laeli et Scipio, seneo- 
tuti est, eiusque vitia diligentia compensanda sunt ; 

1. aiccitateml Literally, * dry- oresy or those between the ages of 

ness.* It hcre rcfers to ' the hard, forty-six and sixty, were required 

elastic, firm condition of the flesh, to perform duty only in dcfence 

as*opposed to soft, flaccid, loose of the city {ad urbis ciistodiam), 

flesh ; it is the result of a good whilst those above sixty years of 

constitution of body, maintained age wcre free from all state ser- 

by exercise and tempcrance.* vice whatever. 

With summam translate : * the 7. non modo] Sc. non, In non 

most healthy condition.' modo nout the second non is usual- 

4. Ne sint"] Sulyunctive of con- ly omitted before sed^ followed by 
cession; ' grant that,* etc. ne^quidemy if the verb in tlie 

5. a senectute] Not the abla- second clause belongs also to the 
tive of agcnt ; postulo often takes first. 

the abhitive of the person, wiih a 9. At multi xta — At id] The 

preposition. — legibus et institutis] first at introduces an anticipnted 

* In accordance with our laws aud objection to Cato*s argument ; the 

customs..* second, Cato*s reply to it. 

6. vacat] * Is exempt from.' 14. alta-um] * Second * in re- 
— muneribus] In war the seni- lation to his father, P. Africanus. 


ptignandam tamquara contra morbum sic contra senec- 
tutem ; 36. babenda ratio valetudinis ; utendum exer- 
citationibus modicis ; tantum cibi et potionis adbiben- • 
dum, ut reficiantur vires, non opprimantur. Nec vero 
corpori soli subveniendnm est, sed menti atqiie animo 5 
multo magis. Nam baec quoque, nisi tamquam lumini 
oleum instilles, exstinguuntur senectute. Et corpora qui- 
dem exercitationum defatigatione ingravescunt, animi 
autem exercendo levantur. Nam quos ait Caecilius 

. . . c6micos stultos senes, 10 

hos significat credulos, obliviosos, dissolutos ; quae vitia 
Bunt non senectutis, sed inertis, ignavae, somniculosae 
senectutis. Ut petulantia, ut libido magis est adules- 
centium, quam senum, nec tamen omnium adulescen- 
tium, sed non proborum, sic ista seuilis stultitia, quae 15 
deliratio appellari solet, senum levium est, non omnium. 
37. Quattuor robustos filios, quinque filias, tantam do- 
mum, tantas clientelas Appius regebat et caecus et 
senex ; intentum enim animum, tamquam arcum, habe- 
bat, nec languescens succumbebat senectuti. Tenebat 20 
non modo auctoritatem, sed etiam inperium in suos; 

3. adhibendum] Sc. corpori. The relative here refers to tbe qual' 

9. CiieciUtui] Statins, already itiea expressed by the acyectives. 
mentioned in viii. 25. The whole 16. deliratio] * Dotage ; ' deU' 
v^rse is quoted in De Am. xxvi. rare was originaHy an ajpriculta- 
99. ral term, meaning *to go astray 

10. comicoa] * As they occur in from a line in ploaghing; ' hence, 
comedies.' * The humor of the generally, * to deviate from a 
ancicnt comedy generally tumed straight lino/ and, tropically, * to 
npon some old man, who was ex- lose une's wits.' 

hibited throughout the piece as 18. Appitui] Appius Clandius. 

perpetually imposcd upon by the Cf. vi. 16. — et caecua etaenex] * Al- 

cunning of an artful valet and in- thoagh both blind aiid old.' He 

triguing courtesan.' — Mclmoth. lost his sight, as Livy says, for 

11. hoa aignificai] * By these having directed the Potitian fam- 
he means ; ' Jioa is one of two ac- ily to instruct their slaves in the 
cusatiyes after aignijicai. — qttae] rites sacred to Herctlles. 


metuebant «ervi, verebantur libcri, carum omnes faabe- 
bant; vigcbat in illa domo mos patrins et disoiplina. 
88. Ita enim senectiis hQnesta est, si se ipsa defendit, 
ei ias suum retinet, si nemini mancipata eat, si usque 
6 ad ultimum spiritum dominatur in «uos. llt enim adu- 
.lescentem, in quo est senile aliquid, sic aenem, in quo 
est aliquid aduleecentis, probo.; quod qni.sequiturcor- 
■pore senex esse poterit, animo numquam ertt. Septi- 
mus mihi ^Origiuum" liber est Jn manibus; omnia 

.lOantiquitatis monumenta colligo, causarum inlustrium, 
quascumque defendi, nunc cum maxime conficio ora- 
-tiones ; ius augurium, pontificium, civile tracto ; multum' 
etiam Graecis litteris utor, Pythagoreorumque more 
exercendae memoriae gratia, quid quoque die dixerim, 

j|[5 audierim, egerim, commemoro vesperi. Hae sunt exer- 
citationes ingenii, haec curricula mentis ; in his desn- 
dans atque elaborans corporis vires non magno opete 
desidero. Adsum amicis ; venio in senatum frequens, 
ultroque adfero res multum et diu cogitatas easque 

JJO tueor ariimi, noncorporis Viribus. Quae si exsequi ne- 
qiiirem, tamen me lectiilus meus oblectaret eaipsa 

1. tnetuebant — verebantttr] The we find in the so-called golden 

'«objectsoTtlMsoverbsBhowclear- verses of Pythagoras. Melmoth 

ly their differe»ce in meaning ; has ^ven e goodparaphrase of 

••metuer^ impUes feor iinom .some ^these in the following iines: — 

extcrnal caase; 'wrm, awverea- ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^,^^^ ^^^^ ^ 

Mial fear. rest 

S, Ita] Refei^to the followillg Ere thou hast «tuestlonedwellthycon- 

fclanaes, H — defemiit, etc. • 8cJ««» ^reast 

4. n«nmt «MmcuMto] ^Sttb- Wbatsacred^utythwluirtleft to*w«, 

jectedtonoone/ Whatacto*«mmedwWcm*ouought,,t 

Q, mihi^in manikwi\ «I am And as falr tmth or error marks the 
•oow engaged cipon.' deed, 

11 . . Mmc— maxime] * At thfs I«et aweet applaiue, or .sharp rcproach, 

very nwment.* ^ orationea] Gice- . v^^!^®®*^I ».., *u. * , 

, j i icn fi ♦K^»^ 8<* *b*" *^y steps, while this great rule 

-rohad read l^ of those. isthine, • 

.\Z. PythagQreQrwn more] Ka Uudovloustreadinvirtue-spathsdivinfc 


c0gif»Titem4.qiiae iam agere non possem; sedmt poRsim^ 
fhcit acta-' vita. Semper enim in his sttidiis laboribus* 
qliG viventi non intellegitur quando obrepat seneetus ; 
ita sensim sine sensu aetas seueseit, neo subito frangitur, 
aed dintumitate exstinguitur. 5 

XII. 39. Sequitur tertia vituperatio senectntis, quod 
eam carere dicunt voluptatibns. O praeclarum munus: 
aetatis, si quidem< id aufert a* nobis, quod est in adules- 
Oentia vitioi^ssimum ! Accipite enim, optimi adulescent-* 
tejr, veterem orationem Archytae Tarentini,. magni in l(B 
primis et praeclari viri, quae mihi tradita' est, eum. 
^Rsem adulescens Tarenti cum Q. Maxlma *^ Nullam 
oaf>italiorem pestem quam voluptatem corpori» homini-- 
bul» " dicebat " a natura datam, cuius vohiptatis avidae' 
li^idines temere et effrenatead potiendum incitarentur. 15r 
40. H4nc patriae proditiones, hinc rerum publicarum 
eversiones, htitc cum hostibus clandestina conloquia' 
aasci; milium deniqne scelus,. nullum malum facinus) 
esse, ad quod suscipiendum non libido Voluptatis in- 
pelleret;, fitupra veroetadulteria et omne tale flagitium20 
nullls excitari aliis inlecebris nisi voluptatis.. Cumque 

3. tiventt] This dative is to IxT 13. eapttaUorem] Properly ap*^ 

jdined iit- senee botb to inteOegitur plies to somctbing iayolving lifO' 

and obrepat^ but tsikes its coni- lcaptU) ; for exampie, pericuium^ 

Btrttction from the latter; morbue^ etc. ; hence, generally,. 

7. tolupfatibua] Cicero himf^elf * dangerous,' ♦•destructive,* etc. 
gives thc deflnition of thjs word, 14. voluptatia] Depends upon. 
as applying both to mind and avidae,- 

body : laetitiam in animOt commo' 15. ad pntiendum\ Sc. ea^ re* 

tionem ewivem iuctinditati» in cor- ferriiifj to voluptate. 

pore. — De Fin. ii. 4, 14. The 18-. mahtm faemus'] * An evil 

pl asurcs of the mind are spolten deed,* by which others are in- 

of in xiii. 45, sq. jured ; fitgitium, one ftom which 

8. aetatis] i. e. senectutia. the pcrson himself whooriginated 
12. TViren^t] Cf. iv. 11. Turen- it recoives the injury. 

tttm wns recapturcd from Hannl- 21. vohtptatia] Sc. inleoebrU. 
ttal by FabiUB» B. Q\ m — €kmqm\ * And- since.' 


homini sive natura sive quis deus nihil raente praesta- 
bilius dedisset, huic divino muneri ac dono nihil tani 
esse inimicum quam vohiptatem. 41. Nec enim libi- 
dine dominante temperantiae locum esse, neque omnino 
5 in voluptatis regno virtutem posse consistere. Quod 
quo magis intellegi posset, fingere animo iubebat tanta 
incitatum aliquein vohiptate corporis, qunnta percipi 
posset maxima. Nemini censebat fore dubium, quin 
tam diu, dum ita gauderet, nihil agitare mente, nihil 

lOratione, nihil cogitatione consequi posset. Quocirca 
nihil esse tam detestabile tamque j^estiferum quam vo- 
luptatem, si quidem ea, cum maior esset atque longin- 
quior, omne animi lumcn exstingueret." Haec cum 
C. Pontio Samnlte, patre eius, a quo Caudino proelio 

15 Sp. Postumiua,T.Veturius consules supcrati 8unt,locu- 
tum Archytr.m, Nearchus Tarentlnus hospes noster, qui 
in amicitia popuh Romaui permanserat, se a maioribus 
natu accepisse dicebat, cum quidem ei sermoni inter- 

6. jfingere animo iubebaf] * He the Roman array was defeated by 
beggcd his hearers to imagine.* the Samnitcs, and compelled to 
The subject of the infinitive after pass undcr the yoke, B. C. 321. 
iubere, when indeflnire, or easily 15. loctitum] This infinitive de- 
supplied from the context, is thus pends upon accepiase, 

often omitted. * 16. Aosp&«] Tliistitlciscommon 

7. quanta — maxtma'] Ciccro in classic writers. One duty of 
frequently uses quantits, instead the person on whom it Avas con- 
of qtiam, to strenjrthen the super- feiTed was to rcceive into his own 
lative, Ijut only when fantus pre- house ambdssadors from tlic state 
cedes. Cf. De Amicitidy xx. 73. with which he was coiniected, if 
— perdpt] Sc aenaihus ; * be they had been scnton pnblicbusi- 
eiyoyed.* ness to the city in which hc re- 

13. Haec] Object of locutum, sided, and to use all thc infiuence 

14. patre eius] * The father of hepossessed in furtliering the pur- 
him by whom,* etc. The gcneral poscs of thcir mission. 

who had command of the Samnite 17. in amicitia] J)unng; tbe 

furces was named Gavius Pontius. Carthaginian occupation of Taren- 

— CaucHno proelio] Thc battle tura ; cf. iv. 10. The phra^e is a 

drihe Caudine Forks, in which tcchnical term for * remaining trae 


fuisset Plato Atheniensis ; quem Tarentura venisse, L. 
Caniillo, Appio Claudio consulibus, reperio. 42. Quor- 
8US haee ? ut intellegatis, si voluptatem aspernari ra- 
tione et sapientia non possemua, magnam habendara 
seneetuti gratiam, quae efficeret, ut id non liberet, quod 5 
non oporteret. Inpedit enim consilium voluptas, ra- 
tioni inimica est, mentis, ut ita dicani, praestringit 
oculos, nec habet ulhim cum virtute commercium. In- 
vitus feci, ut fortissimi viri T. Flaininini fratrem L. 
'Flamimnum e senatu eicerem septem annis post quamlO 
consul fuisset ; sed notandam putavi libidinem. Ille 
enim, cuni esset consul, in Galliri exoratus in convivio 
a scorto est, ut securi feriret aliquem eorum, qui in vin- 
culis essent damnati rei capitalis. Hic Tito, fratre suo, 
censoro, qui proximus ante me fuerat, elapsus est; mihil5 
vero et Flacco neutiquam probari potuit tam flagitiosa 
et tam perdita libido, quae cum probro privato coniun- 
geret inperii dedecus. 

and faithful to the Roman peo- 11. notandam] * Tt is mentioned 

ple.' as a practice institutcd in the 

1. L. Camillot Appio Claudio'] memoiy of our forcfathers, that 

They were consuls, B. C. 349. the ccnsors should annex marks 

But Ciccro is probably in error of ccnsure tp the names of such as 

hcre, as Piiito diedtwoyearsafter they degi-aded from the senate.' 

flt an extreme old nge, and we Liv. xxxix. 42. 

hnve no account of his visit to 12. Gallia] i. e. GaiUa Cisalpi- 

Sicily latcr than B. C. 361. nd. — exoratus — est] * Allowed 

4. magnam — gratiam] * We himself to bc prevailcd upon.* 
on<rht to fecl very grateful to/ 13. securi feriret]' *Cause(i to 
etc. Cf. Curtiiis, page 113, line be bcheaded.' The whoie story is 
24, note. relited by Livy, xxxix. 43. 

5. quae efficeret] Qmeiscquiv- 15. elapsus est] * He escaped* 
nlcnt to cum ea; hcnce tlie sub- merited punishmcnt. 
junctivc. 16. 1'lacco] A collcague of Cato 

8. Inntus feri tit] * I acted re- in the censorship. , 
luctantly in expelling.' 18. inperii dedecus] As he gov- 

10. e senatu eicerem] Cato was emed the province in the name of 

then censor, B. C. 184. the Roman pcople. 


XllT. ^. Saepe andiVr a maioribiis natn, qul se 
porro pucros a senibus audisse dicebant, mirari solitum 
C Fabrioiura, quod, curii apud i'egem Pyrrhiim lei^a- 
€us esset, audisset a Thessrdo Cinefi, esse quendam 
5 Athgnis, qui se sapientem profiteretur, eumqUe dicere 
omnia, quae faceremus, ad vohiptatem esse roferenda. 
Quod' ex eo audientes M' Curium et Ti. Conmcanium 
Optare solitos, ut id Samnit^bus ipsiqu^ PyiTho persua- 
deretur, quo facilius vinci possent, cumse voluptatibus 

10 diedissettt. Vixerat M' Curiiis cum P. D^cio, qui quin- 
<|uennio ante eum consulem se pro re publica quart<y 
dbnsulatu devoverat ; norat eundem Fabi icius, norat 
Coruncanius; qui cum ex sua vita, tum ex eius, queni- 
dic6, Diecii Ikcto iudicabant esse profecto aliquid naturS' 

f^pultjhruniatquepraeclarum, quod sua sponte peteretur, 
(Juodque, spreta et contempta voluptate, optimus quis* 
(JUe sequeretur. 44. Quonsum igitur tara multa de vo- 
luptate ? Quia non modo vituperatib niiUa, sed etihm- 
Bumma laus senectutis est, quod ea voluptates nullas 

, 2-. porro] Reckoned backwards. sense * he did not mean 8imply 

Porro is used not only of thc fu- the gratification of our scnsual 

ture, but also, as here, though nature, but ^pleasure witb him 

more rareiy, of past etents. was something lastinjj and im- 

5. qttod] Here a relative; perishable, consisting in pure and 
* wondered at what he had heard.* noble mental enjoymcnts/ Sce 
— legattis] Aftcr the battle of Smith^s Dx-t. ii. p. 35. 
Heraclea, B. C. 280, when he was 10. P. Decio] The story of his 
sent to Tarentum to negotiate with dcath is told by Livy, x. 28. Ciccro 
Pyrrbus. means to say that be sacriticed his 

4. Cinea] An appositive of life from a conviction of duty to 

Thessalo ; * A Thessalian of the his country, while a resard for his 

name of Cineas.* — guendam] Epp own happiness would have led him 

icuinis is meant, the founder of the to savc it. 

Epicurean school of philosophy. 15, sua sponte] * For its own 

6. advoluptatem] *TothQfilet\8- sake,' or * for its own intrinsic 
ure of sense.* This is not a fair worth.' 

statement of the doctrine of Epi- 18. vituperatio] * Disparage- 
curus, for by thb «'pleasure of ment * or * imputation against.' 


cfldgfH> o|>ere desiflerat. Caret epnliff exstrnctisqae 
liii^tlBis et ffequcntibuB poculis. Caret ergo etiani vino* 
l^tltia et cruditate et insOinniis. Sed si aliquid- dan* 
dnm est voluptati, quon-iam eins blanditiis non facile 
obsistimus, — divine enim Plato " escam malorum " 5 
appellat "voluptatem, quod ea- videlicet homines capi- 
antiir ut pisces," — quamquam inmoderatis epulis caret 
^enectus, modicis tamen conviviis delectari pot^st. C. 
Duellium, Marci filium, qui Poenos classe primus devi- 
cerat, redeuntem a cena senem saepe videbam puer ; 10 
delectabatur crebro funali et tibicine, quad sibi nullo 
exemplo privatiis sumpserat ; tantum licentiae dabat 
gloria; 45. Sed quid ego alios ? ad me ipsnm 
TOvertar. Primum habui semper sodales. Sodalitates 
satem me quaestore constitutae sxmt, sacris Idueis Mag- 15 
nae Matris acceptis. Epulabar igitur cum sodalibus 

I. exstructis mensis'] *Ilichly appear with such ostentatious 
ibaddd tablcs.* 

3. si aUquid] Ohserve that* we 13; alios] Sc, commemoro. 

have here aliquid^ instcad of the 14.- Sodalitates]. * Fraternities/ 

usual quid\ after «i, which scrvcs or * banqufeiting clubs/ 

to give emphasis to the word ; 15. Magnae Matris] CyT)Clc, tho 

*'ifreaUy anything.* mdthcr of the gods, Who was wor'- 

II. crebrofunaltettibicine]*'^^ shippcd at Pcsslnus, iil ^hrygia, 
many atorch and piper/ the cu6- undcr the form 6f'a rude stone, 
tomary procession by which in ttie which rcportdd to hiive fdllcn 
evening aftcr his suppcr, he was from hcaven on Motmt Idli. — 
accompanicdtohis home. Florus sacris — acceptis] Irt'conse<iuenco 
snys of this hcro : * Ducllius, n:.t of thc discovcry Of a prcdictlon in 
contcnt wlth ono day's triumph, the Sibyi:ine books, which ran 
ordcrcd, all the rcst of his life, thus: * \VhensDcvcraf;reigncnc- 
whcn he returncd froiii suppcr, my shall bring war int) the la!id 
lightcd turchcs to be carricd artd of Italy, he may bc driven out of 
fliitcs to play before him, ns if ttaly andconquercd, if theldaean 
lie would have a triumph every M(^thcr shall be bronght from 
day.' — nu/lo exemplo] * AVithout Pesslnus to Romc* — Liv. xxix. 
any prccedcnt.* This waa tho U. A solcmn procession was ap- 
first instance of a man, who, in a poirttcd for the purpose, and the 
private capacity, hud vferttured to statue, of shapelbss stbnc, was aii- 


omnino niodice, sed erat quidam fervor aetatis ; qua 
progrediente omnia fiunt in dies mitiora. Neque enim 
ipsorum conviviorum delectationem voluptatibus cor- 
poris magis quara coetu amicorum et semionibus metie- 
5bar. Bene enim maiores " accubitionem epularem 
amicorum," quia vitae coniunctionem haberet, " convi- 
vium " nominarunt ; mdius quam Graeci, qui hoc idem 
tum " compotationem," tum " concenationeni " vocant, 
ut, quod in eo genere minimum est, id maxime probare 

10 videantur. 

XIV. 46. Ego vero propter sermonis delectatio- 
nem tempestivis quoque conviviis delector, nec cum 
aequalibus solum, qui pauci admodum restant, sed cum 
vestra etiam aetate atque vobiscuni ; habeoque seneo- 

15 tuti magnam gratiam, qnae mihi sermonis aviditatem 
auxit, potionis et cibi sustulit. Quod si quem etiam 
ista delectant, ne omnino bellum indixisse videar vo- 
luptati, cuius est fortasse quidara naturalis modus, non 
intellego ne in istis quidem ipsis voluptatibus carere 

20 sensu senectutem. Me vero et magisteiia delectant a 

cordingly obtained and escorted 9. in eo genere] * In this kind * 

by a magnificent procession to of pleasnres. — minimum] *Ofthe 

Rome. The* ycarly festival in least importame.* — ii] That is, ' 

her honor was cclcbrated from the the eating and diinking. 

foartli to the ninth of April, calied 12. tempeativis} Those which 

Megalesia, or Megalenses Ludi. began before the usual dining 

1. omnino] Here equivalent to hour (3 P. M.) and were kcpt up 
quidem, * indeed.* latc into the night. Translate 

2. omnia] i. e. omnes fervidi here, * protracted.' 

motus animi. 14. vestrd — aetate] * Those of 

4. sermonibus] * Convcrsation.* yourage.* 

5. accubitionem] The attitude 20. sensu] i. e. *enjoyment.* 
usually adopted by the Romans — magisteria] *The custom of 
at their meals, instead of our sit- haviug prcsidents at feasts.* The 
ting posture. master of thc rcvels, who was gen- 

8. compotcUionem] In Greek erally chosen by a throw of dice, 
ffvnviaio»; concenatio is avaalna, regulated all the proceedings of 



maioribus instituta, et is sermo, qui more maiorum a 
summo adhibetur in poculo, et pocula, sicut in Symposio 
Xenophontis est, minuta atque rorantia et refrigeratio 
aestate et vicissim aut sol aut ignis hibernus. Quae 

the entertainment, siich as iixing 
the proportions in which the wine 
and water were to be mixed, pro- 
posing sobjects fur dii^cussion, or 
topics for conversation, etc. 

1. a 8ummo\ * Which is kept 
up ovcr the cup from tho top of 

the table/ Tho company at a 
Koman dinner usually consisted 
of nine pcrsons, who rcclined on 
three couches so arran^ed as to 
form thrcc sides of a square, with 
the table in tho midille, aud the 
fourth side opcn, thus : — 



1 3 

2 2 

3 I 

The slavcs, in serving tlie wino, 
bc^an at thc fartbest seat, or No. 
1 in the lectm summus, and went 
round till they came to No. 3 on 
the lecius imua, The host occu- 
pied No. 1 on the lectua imus, and 
the place of honor was at his lcfl, 
No. 1 on tho mediua lectua. 

2. Si/mposio] Cf. Symp., ii. 26. 

3. minuta a^que rorantia] 
* Light and dewy,* not drcnching, 
like the heavy rain ; as descrip- 
tive of pocula ; refrigeratio^ sol, 
and iffnis are to bc rcfcrrcd to rfe- 

4. Quae] Practices *which.' 


quidem etiam in Sabinis perseqiii soleo, conviviumqne 
viciiiorum cotidie conpleo^ quod ad multam noctein. 
quam marime possumus vario sermono proddcimus. 
4?7. At non est voluptatum fanta qnasi titillntio in seni- 
5 bus. Credo; sed ne desideratio quidem. Nihil auteni 
est molestum, quod non desideres. . . . Cupidis 
enim rerumv talium odiosum fortasse et mol^Unp 
est carere ; satiatis vero et expletis iucundius est carere 
qjiam frui. Quamquam non oaret is, qui non desiderat ; 

10 ergo hoc non desiderare dico esse iucundius. 48'. Quod* 
si istis ipsis vohiptatibus bona aetas fruitur libentius, 
primum parvuli* fruitur rebus, ut dl-xlmus, deinde eis, 
quibus senectus^^ si non abunde potitur, non omnino 
caret. Ut Turpione Ambivio magis delectatur, qui in 

15 prima cavea spectat, delectatur tamen etiam, qui in 
ultiitia,, sic adulescentia voluptates propter intuens 
magis fortasse laetatur, sed* delectatur etiam senectus 
proOul eas spectans tantum, quantum sat est. 49. At 

I. in Sabiniti] * On my Sabine Cato, frequently ediployed by 
fafm.* Terence in ttie rcprdsentlitioii of 

% ticinorwn] Genitive, de- Lis comedie^ 
pending upon con;)fco,;instead of 15. primd cavea] *'Intheffent 

the fl1>lative,< the more common seats of the oavea,' usuaily given 

constl-uction. * I fill up my table to the senatbrs and persons of 

by inviting ihy neighbors to a rank, whilst the nieditif uUima\ or 

banquet.* summa caved^ were fOr tiie lower 

4. At non\ Anothei* objection classes. Wooden theatres, adom- 

urged by his opponent. ed with the most proftise magnifii- 

6. €8t moUitum] The subject cence, were erected at Rome even 

is Nihil, quod non desideres, dnring the last period of the Re- 

10. non desiderare'] The sn1)ject public. Tlie cavea of the splen- 

of eaae, After itunnidius, supply did wooden theatre, which M. Ae- 

gtmmfrui. milius Scaurus bnilt in his aedile- 

II. bonaaetas] Thatis, *youth- siiip B. C. 58, would hold 80,00» 
ful age.' spectators. 

14. Turptone Amhivio] L. Am- 16. propter] Here used advcr- 
biviiis Turpio, a famous actor and' bially {prop-i-ter, from prope) m 
theatl*ical]bana^r in tho^timeof opposition to'/iroo«/» 


illa qnanti sant, animum, tamqnam emeritis stipendiis 
libidinis, ambitionis, contentionis, inimicitiarum, cupidi- 
tatum omnium, secum esse secumque, utdicitur, vivere I 
•Si vero habet aliquod tamquam pabulum studii atque 
doctrinae, nihil est otiosa senectute iucundius. Yide- 5 
bamus in studio dimetiendiipaene caeli atque terrae C. 
Galum familiarem patris tui, Scipio! Quotiens illum 
lux noctu ^liqnid describere ingressum, quotiens no;c 
oppressit, cum maneicoepisset I Quam.delectabat enm 
defectiones solis et lunae multo ante nobis praedicere I<10 
50. Quid in levioribuSvStudits,43ed tamen acnlis ? ^Quam 
gaudebat bello suo Punlco Naevius ! .quam Truculento 
PlautuSj.quam PseudSlo! Vidi etiam senem Livium, 
qui, cum^ex annis ante quam ego natus sum fabulaiii 
docuisset Centone Tuditanoque consulibus, usque adl5 
adulescentiam meam processit aetate. Quid de P. 
liicinii Crassi et pontificii et civilis iuris studio loquary 
aqt de huius P. Scipionis, qui his paucis diebus ponti- 

I. illa] The following plcas- First Punic "War, the earliest flt- 
ureSy yiz, seciim essBf secum — rt- tempt to introduce into heroic 
'V§re. *— emeritia etipendiis] * Hiiv- poetry a snbject t^iken 'from (Bo- 
.ing iervcd his time nndcr Inst/ mQxi history. 

etc. Scrvice in war is here trans- 13. Livium'] Livias Androni- 

"ferredtoUbidOfanibitiOtetc^under cus, who flourished at Komc 

whose command tiie yonng serve about B. C. 240. Ho was a Greck 

their time. and was brougfat -from Tarentum 

6. paefui] Belengs to both cotf /» to Rome, wliere he becamc the 

-and terrae, slave of Livius Salinator, whoso 

10. drfectiones '^ et htnae'] Ac- chiidren he tanght, and from 

cordini? to Livy, Oalus predicted whomhe reeeived his name. 

an ecllptfe <if the moon with great 14. fabulam docuieset] ' Had 

«cearacy diiring the Macedonian brought « play upon the stage?' 

war, B. C. 168. — muUo ante] i. e. an exprcssion usedof the one who 

* long before ' thelr occurrence. wrote the play and snpervised its 

II. aed tamen acutia] * But stlll proper representation in the thea- 
such as sharpen tbe intcllect.* tre. 

12. Punfco] The Bettum Punt- 18. hia -^diebua] * Within these 
cum is an epic poem upon the few days,' or * a fcw days ago.' 


fex maximus factus est ? Atqui eos omnes, quos com- 
memoravi, his studiis flagrantes senes viJimus. M. 
vcro Ccthegura, quera recte " Suadae medullam '' dixit 
Ennius, quanto studio exerceri in dicendo videbamus 
5ctiam senem! Quae sunt igitur epularum aut la- 
dorum . . . voluptates cum his voluptatibus com- 
parandae ? Atque haec quidem studia doctrinae ; quae 
quidem prudentibus et bene institutis pariter cum 
aetate crescunt, ut honestum illud Solonis sit, quod ait 

10 versiculo quodam, ut ante dixi, " senescere se multa in 
dies addiscentem ; " qua voluptate animi nulla certe 
potest esse maior. 

XV. 61. Venio nuno ad voluptates agricolarum, 
quibus ego incredibiliter delector ; quae nec ulla inpedi- 

15untur senectute et mihi ad sapientis vitam proxime 
videntur accedere. Plabent enira rationem cum terra, 
quae numquam recusat inperiura nec umquam sine 
usura reddit quod accepit, sed alias minore, plerumque 
maiore cum fenore. Quamquam me quidem non fruo- 

20 tus modo, sed etiam ipsius terrae vis ac natura delectat. 
Quae, cum gremio mollito ac subacto sparsum semea 
excepit, primum id occaecatum cohibet, ex quo " occa- 
tio " quae hoc efficit nominata est ; deinde tepefactuoi 

8. prttdentibtu et hene inetitutW] 21. gremio] The ablatire here 

In the dative atUr crescunt. Cf. expresses both a local and instru- 

mihi abaenti crevisee inimicos, mcntal relation ; hence it is used 

Cic. pro Scstio, xxxii. 69. without the prcposition m. — «<6- 

10. ta ante dizi] In vili. 26. acto] * Subdued/ i. e. aratris, 

14. qttibtis — delector] Cato had Cf. segetes agricolae svhigunt aro' 

himself written a book, De re nts^ tris multo ante, gttam serant, Cic 

tica. Frag. p. 981, 12, H. 

16, Hahent — rationem] *Have 22, occatio] A fknciful etymol- 

dealings.' The rclation of cred- ogy. Occatio is without doubt de- 

itor {agricola) to the debtor {ter- rivcd froin occOf * to haiTow, ' pcr- 

ra), is also implied in the follow- haps nl<in t» thc root ac-, which 

ing words : nec umquam sine twu- appears in ac-ies ; whilst occaeco is 

ra reddit quod accepit. aliied with caecus^ * blind.' 


Tapore et conpressu suo diffindit et elicit herbescentem 
ex eo viriditatem ; qune nixa fibris stirpiura sensim 
adulescit, cuTraoque erecta geniculato vaginis iara quasi 
pubescens includitur, e quibus cum emersit, fundit fru- 
geni spici ordine stnictam et contra avium minorum 5 
morsus munitur vallo aristarum. 62. Quid ego vitium 
ortus, satus, incrementa commemorera ? Satiari delec- 
tatione non possum, ut.meae senectutis requietem oblec- 
taraenturaque noscatis. Oraitto enira vira ipsam omni- 
um, quae generantur e terra,' quae ex fici tantulo grano 10 
aut ex acini vinaceo aut ex ceteranim frugum ac 
stirpium minutissirais seminibus tantos truncos ramos- 
que procreet ; malleoli, plantae, samienta, viviradices, 
propagines, nonne ea efficiunt, ut queravis cura adraira- 
tione delectent? Vitis quidem, quae natura caducal5 
est et, nisi fulta est, ad terram fertur, eadem, ut se 
erigat, claviculis suis quasi manibus quidquid est nacta 
conplectitur ; quam serpentem multiplici lapsu et erra- 
tico ferro amputans coercet ars agricolarum, ne silve^ 
cat sarraentis et in omnes partes nimia fundatur. 63. 20 
Itaque ineunte vere in eis, quae relicta sunt, exsistit 
tamquam ad articulos sarmentorum ea, quae gemraa 
dicitur, a qua oriens uva sese ostendit ; quae et suco 
terrae et calore solis augescens prirao est peracerba' 
gustatu, deinde maturata dulcescit, vestitaque pampinis 25 
nec modico tepore caret et nimios solis defendit ar- 
dores. Qua quld potest esse cum fructu laetius tum 

1. diffindit] The subject is equvialent to * And 1 tell you 

Quaef in iine 21, pape 206. , tliis/ or the like, to be supplied. 

7. orttiSf seUtis] Ortus refers to 21. in eis] i. e. partibus, or viti- 
the power of nature ; satua to the bus, 

work of man. 22. ea] Attracted into the fem- 

8. tU — noscatis] This does inine gender by gemma, which 
not depend npon satiari — pos- foilows. 

«um, but upon an expression 27. Qua\ Befers to uva, line 23. 


&dspecta pulchrius? 'Cuius quidem non utilitaa m^ 
Bolum, ut «inte dixi, sed etiam cultura et natur^ ips^ 
delectat : adminiculorum ordines, capitum iugatio, reli- 
gatio ot propagatio vitium, sarmentorumque ea, quam 
5 dixi, aliprum amputatio, aliorum inmissio. Quid ego 
inrigationes,quid fossiones agri repastinationesque pro- 
.feram, quibus fit raulto terra fecundior ? 64. Quid de 
.utilitAte loquar etercorandi? Dixi in eo libro, qaem 
^ de Tebus rusticis " ^cripsi : de qua doctus Hesiddu§ 

10 ne verbum qpidem fecit, cvim de culturfi ^gri scriberet* 
At Homerus, qui multis, ut mibi videtur, aute ^aeculis 
fuit, Laertem lenientem desiderii^m, quod .capiebat q 
.filio, coleptem agrum et eum stercorantem facit. N«p 
vero segetibus ,$olum et pratis et vineis^Qt avbustis ree 

l*y rusticae laetae sunt, sed hortis etjam et pomarjis, tuip 

«pecuduni pastu, apium examinibus, florum omniiiip. 

varietate. Nec consitiones modo delectant, .sed.eti^q;! 

•insitiones, qpibus.nihil ipvenit agri cultura.sollertius. 

XVI. 55. Possum persequi permulta oblectam^nt^a 

20 rerum rusticarum, sed ea ipsa, quae dixi, sentio fuisse 
)ongiora. Ignoscetis.autem ; nam et studio rerum rusU- 

2. ut ante dixi] Cf. page 206, dicative is thus emplayed in the 

(line 19, i»q. ^podosis of ^implied cofiditional 

•3. capitum ittgaiid] The join- .sentences, where we.should ex- 

Jng of the tops of the supports pect the subjunctive. Cf. Pluri- 

with cross-lattiecs. maquidemproferreposaemua, N^p. 

12. e Jilio] i. e. Uli^ces. The Bpam. iy. 6. — persegui] For.a 

passnge referred to is in the Odys- similar nse of the word, cf. vi. 16, 

sey, xxiv. 226, sq. page 182, line 17. 

IS.facit] * Represents/ 20. guae dixi] Subordinate 

17. consUionea — inntiones] The clauses in thc oratio obliqua usual- 
pkirals are used as referriog to ly stand in the gubjunctive; but 
the varioas methods of planting when they contain statemcnts 
^nd grafting. which are true, independent of 

18. quibus] The ablative after the quotation, tho ludicative can 
•Ihe comparative soHertius. be used. 

19. Possum] Frequcntly thc in- 21. lonffiora] *R:ithertoo long.' 


csiTnm provectna snm, et senectns est natnra loqnacior, 
ne ab omnibus eam vitiis videar vindicare. Ergo in 
hac vita M' Curius, cum de Samnitibus, de Sabinis, de 
Pyrrho triumphasset, consnmpsit extremum tempus 
aetatis. Cuius quidem ego villam contemplans — 5 
abest enfm non longe a me — admirari satis non pos- 
sum vel hominis ipsius continentiam vel temporura dis- 
ciplinam. Curio ad focum sedenti magnum auri pon- 
dus Samnites cum attulissent, repudiati sunt. Non 
enim aurum habere praeclarum sibi videri dixit,10 
sed eis, qui haberent aurum, inperare. 66. Poteratne 
tantus animus non efficere iucundam senectntem? 
Sed venio ad agricolas, ne a me ipso recedam. In 
agris erant tum senatores, id est, senes ; si quidem 
aranti L. Quinctio Cincinnato nuntiatum est, eum dio- 15 
tatorem esse factnm ; cuius dictatoris iussu magister 
equitum C. Servilius Ahala Sp. Maelium regnum adpe- 
tentem* occupatum interemit. A villa in senatnm 
arcessebatur et Curius et ceteri senes ; ex quo qui eos 

2. ne — videar] Cf. note on his second dictatorship, B. C. 439, 
page 207, line 8. — Ergo] * Hence/ when at the age of eighty he was 
i. e. on account of the pleasures appointed to oppose Sp. Maelins. 
of rustlc life. 17. Sp, MaeUuin\ Sp. Maelins, 

3. hac] * Snch/ i. e. in a life a Roman knight, was extreme- 
dcvotcd to rural pursuits. ly rich, and at the time of a famine 

10. hahere — inperare] Subjects in Kome, B. C. 440, he purchased 

of videri^ of which praeclarum is a large amount of grain, wliich he 

the predicate adjective. distributcd among tho pcople, and 

12. fum efficere iucundani] * Fail thus gaining their favor, aspired 

to render old age plensant.' to royal power. He was slain, 

14. id estf senes] Cf. vi, 19. while trying to avoid a trial on 

15. aranti] The principal idea this charge, by Servilius Ahala, 
is contained in the participlc; whohad been appointed *master 
hcnce we can translate, * For Cin- of horse * by Cincinnatus. 
cinnatus was ploughing when it 18. occupatum inieremit] *He 
tvas announced,' etc. cut hini short in his ambitioiis de- 

16. dictatoria iuasu] This was in signs and slew him.' 



aroesBebant yiatores nominati snnt. Nam igitar horam 
BenectuB miserabilis fuit, qui se agri cultione oblecta- 
bant ? Mea quidem sententia haud scioJ an ulla beatior 
possit esse,^neque solum officio, quod bominum generi 
^ universo cultura agrorum est salutarisj sed et deleeta- 
tione, quam dixi, et saturitate copiaque rerum oroninm, 
quae ad victum hominum,. ad cultum etiam deorum 
pertinent,)ut, quoniam haeo quidam desiderant, in gra- 
tiam iam oum voluptate redeamus. Semper enim boni 

10 adsiduique domini referta cella vinaria, olearia, etiam 
penaria est, yillaque tota locuples est ; abundat porco, 
haedo, agno, gallina, lacte, caseo, melle. lam hortnm 
ipsi agricolae succidiam alteram appellant. Conditiora 
facit haec supervacaneis etiam operis aucupium atque 

15 venatio. 67. Quid de pratorum viriditate aut arbonim 
ordinibus aut vinearum olivetorumve specie plura 
dicam ? Brevi praecidam. Agro bene culto nihil po- 
teat esse nec usn uberius neo specie oniatius, ad quem 
fruendum non modo non retardat, verum etiam invitat 

20 atque adlectat senectus. Ubi enim potest illa aetas aut 
calescere vel apricatione melius vel igni aut vicissim 
umbria aquisve refrigerari salubrius? 58. Habeant 

1. viatores] * Pnblic messen- 13. swcidiam akeram] * Thcir 

gers/ whose ofBce it waa to exe- second flitch of bacon ; * because 

cutc the commands of Roman they always had it at hand from 

magistrates. The name was dc- which to obtiiin a supply for their 

rived from the circumstance of table. — CondUiora facit] * Makes 

their being chiefly employed on more rclishable/ *gives greater 

mcssages to call scnators together, spice to.* 

to summon thc pcopie to thc com/- 14. haec] These pleasures of 

tia, etc. Viator is not identical rustic lifc. 

with Uctor,yf]io served only the 14. operis] Ablativeof means; 

dictator, consul, or practor, whilst * by thcir lcisure employments un- 

the viator was employed also by dcrtakcn in the inten-als of theu: 

the tribune and aedile. more important business.' 

4. neque solum officio] * And 18. tisu] * In proflt.' 

not only in rcspect to thcu- duty.' 22. Uabeant] Sc iwenea. 


igitnr sibi armfi^ Bibi eqaos, sibi hastas^ sibi clayam et 
pilam, sibi natationes atque cursus ; nobis senibus ex 
lasionibus multis tnlos relinquant et tesseras ; Id ipsnm 
utrum llbebit» quoniam sine eis beata esse senectus 
potest. 6 

XYII. 59. Multas ad res perntiles Xenophontig 
libri sunt, quos legite, quaeso, studiose^ nt facitis. 
Quam copiose ab eo agri cultura laudatur in eo libro^ 
qui est de tnenda re familiari, qui Oeoonom!cas in- 
ftcribitur! Atque ut intellegatis nihil ei tam regalelO 
yideri qaam sturlium agri colendi, SocrStes in eo libro 
loquitur cum Critobulo, Cyrum minorem, Persaram 
regem praestantem ingenio atqne inperii gloria, cum 
Lysander Lacedaemonius, vir summae virtutis, venisset 
ad eum Sardis eique dona a sociis attulisset, et ceteris 13 
in rebus comem erga Lysandrum atqne humanum fuisse 
et ei quendam consaeptum agrum diligenter consitum 
ostendisse. Cum autem admiraretar Lysander et pro^ 
ceritates arborum et directos in quincuncem ordines et 

I. clavam] Tbis refers to an 13. regem\ Notking,batprince. 

exercifle of flghting with a sword He hcld a satrapy tinder hitf 

against a post iixed in the groand brother» Artaxerxes. 

and used to represent an enemy. 15. Sardi»] Archaic form of 

3. talos — et tesseras] Tlie tes- the accusative; here nsed as the 
$erae had six sides, marked 1» 2, limit of motion after venisset. -^ 
3, etc, like our dice ; the tali hiid a sociis'] Cyros, in tho Pclopon* 
four sides, lcngthwise, the ends nesian war, had lent his aid to 
Bot being regnrded. The lowest Sparta against Athens. 

throw (unio), the ace, was callcd 19. m qvincuncem] This was- 

eanis ; the highest (senio) was such an arrangement of indirid- 

called Venus ; the dice-box,/nY»^ ual objects, that tho lines connect- 

his. — id ipsum] Accnsative of ing them always gave the Ibrm of 

speclfiaition. V {quinque) thus : — 

4. utrum] Tor larumcumquefthQ 

object of hahere undcrstood. * In ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ • 

regard to this sort of pleasures, let « # « # 

the yonng have whichsoever kind 
of gamea shall best please them.' « « « « # 


hamum subactam atque pnram et suavitatem odornm, 
qui adflarentur ex jfloribus, tum eura dixisse, mirari se 
non modo diligentiam, sed etiam BoUertiam eius, a quo 
essent illa dimensa atque descripta ; et C yrum respon- 
5 disse : ^ Atqui ego ista sum omnia dimensus ; nici sunt 
ordines, mea descriptio ; multae etiam istarum arborum 
mea manu sunt satae.'* Tum Lysandrum, intuentem 
purpuram eius et nitorem corporis ornatumque Persl- 
cum multo auro multisque gemmis, dixisse: ^Recto 

10 vero.te, Cyre, beatum ferunt, quoniam virtuti tuae for- 
tuna coniuncta est I " 60. Hao igitur fortuna frui licet 
senibug neo aetas inpedit, quo minus et ceterarum 
rerum et in primis agri colendi studia teneamus usque 
ad ultimum tempus senectutis. M. quidem Valerium 

15 Corvum accepimus ad centesimum annum perduxisse, 

cum esset acta iam aetate in agris eosque coleret; 

cuius inter primum et sextum consulatum sex et quad- 

, raginta anni interfuerunt. Ita, quantum spatium aeta- 

tis maiores nostri ad senectutis initium esse volnerunti 

20tantus illi cursus lionorum fuit. Atque huius extrema 
aetas hoc beatior, quam media, quod auctoritatis habe- 
bat plus, laboris minus. Apex est autem senectutis 
auctoritas. 61. Quanta fuit in L. Caecilio Metello I 
quanta in Atilio Calatino ! in quem illud elogium: 

25 Unum hunc plurimae consentiunt gentes populi 
PBiMABiuM FuissE viBUM. Kotum cst carmcn incisum 

1. pvram] * Clear of weeds.* 19. ad senectutis iniHum] That 

4. dimensa] Used passively. Is, Qt tlie ago of sixty. 
Cf. adeptam^ ii. 4. 21. media] Tlie time of life be- 

8. omatum] Here a substantiye. twcen adulescentia and senectua. 

16. acta iam aetate] * Although 25. Unum] Cf. inscription on 

he was now advanced in ycars/ the tomb of L. Oomelius Scipio : 

' his (active) life had been spent ; ' Honc oino [unum] ploirumb 

aetate is in the ablatiye absolute cosbntiont K[omai] uuonoro 

wiVi aeta. oftumo flisb yiuo [viroro]. 


in sepulchro. Iiire igitur gravis, cuius de laudibus 
omnium esset fama consentiens. Quem virum nuper 
P. Crassum, pontificem maximum, quem postea M. 
LepWum, eodem sacerdotio praeditum, vidimus ! Quid 
de PauUo aut Africano loquar, aut, ut iam ante, de 5 
Maxlmo ? quorum non in sententia solum, sed etiam in 
nutu residebat auctoritas. Habet seucctus, honorata 
praesertim, tantam auctoritatem, ut ea pluris sit, quam 
omnes adulescentiae voluptates. 

XVIII. 62. Sed in omni oratione mementote eam 10 
me senectutem laudare, quae fundamentis adulescen- 
tiae constituta sit. Ex quo efficitur id, quod ego magno 
quondam cum adsensu omuium dixi, ^^miseram esse 
senectutem, quae se oratione defenderet/' Non caui 
nee rugae repente auctoritatem arripere possunt; sed 16 
honeste acta superior aetas fructus capit auctoritatis 
extremos. 63. Haec enim ipsa sunt honorabilia, quae 
videntur levia atque communia, salutari, adpeti, decedi, 
adsurgi, deduci, reduci, consuli ; quae et apud nos et in 
aliis civitatibus, ut quaeque optime morata est, ita dili- 20 
gentissime observantur. Lysandrum Lacedaemonium, 
cuins modo feci mentionem, dicere aiunt solitum, Lace- 
daemdnem esse honestissimum domicilium senectutis ; 
nusquam enim tantum tribuitur aetati, nusquam est 
Benectus honoratior. Quin etiam memoriae proditum 25 

1. etnvs — essef] A relative 12. comtitvta 8if\ A relative 
clause, expressing the reason of clause of result. 

iiare gravis ; hence the subjunc- 14. defenderetl * Which needed 

tive. any defence.' The imperfect is 

2. Quem virtm'] Predicate ac- here used with dixi by attraction. 
cusative after eate undcrstood, — can%\ As a substantive, is used 
depending on vidimus, principally by the poets. 

6. iam ante'] In chapter iv. ; 20. ta quaeque — morata'] * In 
8c. dixi, proportion as each (state) is most 

7. konoraia] With the force of advanced in manners ; ' morata is 
a conditional clanse ; ' if honored.' a predicate a^ective. 


est, cum Athenis ladis quidam in theatram grandis 
natu venissetf magno consessu locum nusquam ei dsr 
tum a suis civibus ; cum autem ad Lacedaemonios ac- 
cessisset, qui, legati cum essent, certo in loco consede- 
5 rant, consurrexisse omnes illi dicuntur et senem sessum 
recepisse. 64. Quibus cum a cuncto consessu plausus 
esset multiplex datus, dixisse ex eis quendam ^ Athe- 
nienses scire quae recta essent^ sed facere nolle." Mul- 
ta in nostro collegio praeclara, sed hoc, de qno a^mus, 

10 in primisi quod, ut quisqne aetate antecedit, ita senten- 
tiae principatum tenet, nequc sohim honore anteceden- 
tibus, sed eis etiam, qui cum iuperio suot, maiores natu 
augures anteponuntur. Quae sunt igitur voluptates 
corpoi-is cum auctoritatis praemiis comparandae ? Qui- 

15 bus qui splendide usi sunt, ii mihi videntur fslbulam 
aetatis peregisse nec taniquam inexercitati histriones in 
extremo actu corruisse. 65. At sunt morosi et anxii 
et iracundi et difficiles senes ; si quaeriraus, etiam avari. 
Sed haec morum vitia sunt, non senectutis. Ac mo- 

20 rositas tamen et ea vitia, quae dixi, habent aliquid ex- 
cusationis, non ilUus quidem iustae, sed quae probari 
posse videatur. Contemni se putant, despici, inludi, 

1. hidis] Ablatiye of time. dignity : ' honore and inperio here 

2. magna conseeau^ Ablatiye stand in opposition ; the latter re- 
absolute of cause. feiTing to the military commaxMi, 

4. cum essent] * As they were.* bnt yested only in consuls, pi*ae- 

5. aessum] A sapine after re- tors, and goyemorft of pjrovinces ; 
cepissef which implies motion. the former is used in a more re- 

9. coUegio] Sc. augurcdi ; stricted sense, refcrring to the 
'collcge of the augurs.'— j»ra«- offlce of censor, aedile, quaestor, 
clara] * Excellent rules.* — hoc] tribune, etc. 

i. e. est in primis praeclarum. 15. fabulam — peregisae] * To 

10. quod] 'Thefjictthat.* — aen^ have played to tlie yery ead of 
- tentiae principatum] *The priy- thc drama of life.* 

ilege of yoting first.' 17. coi-ruisse] * To have brokea 

U. honore antecedentibus] ' To downr.' — At] IntroduAea aaother 
those who outraal& them.iAeffldal otyGictioa to old age. 


praeterea in fragili corpore odiosji omkiid offensio est. 
Quae tamen omnia dulciora fiunt et moribus bonis et 
artibus ; idqne cum in rita tum in scaena intellegi potest 
ex eis fratribus, qui in Adelphis sunt. Quanta in altero 
diritas, in altero comitas I Sio se. res habet ; ut enim 5 
non omne vinum, sic non omnis natura vetustate coa- 
cescit. Severitatem in senectute probo, et eam, sicut 
alia, modicam; acerbitatem nuUo modo. 66. Avaritia 
yero senilis quid sibi velit, non iutellego. Potest enim 
qnidquam esse absurdius quam, quo viae minus restet, 10 
eo plus viatici quaerere ? 

XIX. Quafta restat causa, quae maxime angere 
atque solllcitam habere nostram aetatem videtur, ad- 
propinquatio mortis, quae certe a senectute non potest 
longe abesse. O miserum senem, qui mortem contem-15 
nendam esse in tam longa aetate non viderit ! quae aut 
plane neglegenda est, si omnino exstinguit animum, aut 
etiam optauda, si aliquo eum deducit, ubi sit futurus 
aetemus. Atqui tertium certe nihil inveniri potest. 
67. Quld igitur timeam, si aut non miser post moitem 20 
aut beatus etiam futurus sum ? Quamquam quis est 
tam stultus, quamvis sit adulescens, cui sit exploratuiti 
se ad vesperum esse victurum ? Quin etiam aetas illa 
multo plures, quam nostra, mortis casus habet. Facilius 

4. ex eisfrairibua] Demea and clanse here expresses the rcAson 

Micio arethe names of the two ot mieertim; hence the subJBne- 

brothers in the phiy here allud- tiye. 

ed to. 18. sit ftdurus] Sc. animuB, 

10. quo-^eo] Ablatives to de- The subjunctive of result. 

noto the degree of difference, with 19. tcrtium — nUhH] * N6 third 

comparativcs ; they may often bc choice.' 

best rendered by our definito arti- 20. Quid — timeam'] * Why need 

cle ^A^ ; ' the less — the more.' I fear;* the subjunctive, in a 

12. Quarta — cauea] Cf. v. 15. dubitative question, imj^lymg a 

15. qui — viderW] The relative negakive aoswer. 


in morbos incidant adulescentes ; gravius aegrotant; 
tristius curantur. Itaque pauci veniunt ad senectutem ; 
quod ni ita accideret, et melius et prudentius viveretur. 
Mens enim et ratio et consilium in senibus est ; qui si 
5nulli fuissent, nullae omnino civitates fuissent. Sed 
redeo ad mortem inpendentem. Quod est illud crimea 
senectutis, cum id ei videatis cum adulescentia esse 
commune? 68. Sensi ego in optimo filio, tu in ex- 
spectatis ad amplissimam dignitatem fratribus, Scipio, 

10 mortem omni aetati esse communem, At sperat adu- 
lescens, diu se victurum, quod sperare idem senex non 
potest. Insipienter sperat. Quid enim' stultius quam 

• incerta pro certis habere, falsa pro veris ? At senex 
ne quod speret quidem habet. At est eo meliore con- 

15 ditione quam adulescens, cum id, quod ille sperat, hic 
consecutus est. Ille vult diu vivere, hic diu vixit. 69. 
Quamquam, o di boni! quid est in hominis vita diu? 
Da enim supremum tempus, exspectemus Tartessiorum 
regis aetatem; fuit enira, ut scriptum video, Argan- 

20 tbonius quidam Gadibus, qui octoginta regnaverat an- 
nos, centura viginti vixerat; sed mihi ne diuturnum 
qiiidem quidquam videtur, in quo est aliquid extre- 

2. paud — ad senecttttem] The 9. fratribus] His two youngcr 

average of human life has been brothers, ono of whom died nt the 

found, by statistical computation, age of twelve, five days before his 

to be, in Europe, somewhere be- father*s triumph over Perseus, and 

tween twenty six and thirty-three the othcr at the age bf fourteen, 

years. Of course a large major- three days after the same triumph. 

ity of mankind must die in in- 16. lUe — hic] When these pro- 

fancy. nouns are thus contrasted, hic 

5, nuUi] Sc. senes. refers to the main subjcct of dis- 

8. in optimo Jilio] This was course, or to what is more prom- 

Cato*s elder son, M. Porcius Cato, inent in the mind of the speiUter; 

referred to in vi. 15. He died here to senex. 

when praetor elect, B. C. 152, 18. Tartessidrum] Tartessus, on 

about two years bcfore the date the southem coast of Spain. 

of this dialogue. 19. scriptum] HerodOtus, L 163. 


mnm. Cum enim id advenit, tum illud, quod praeter- 
iit, effluxit ; tantum reflianet, quod virtute et recte fac- 
tis consecutus sis ; horae quidem cedunt et dies et 
menses et anni, nec praeteritum tempus umqunm re- 
vertitur, nec, quid sequatur, sciri potest. Quod ciiique 5 
temporis ad vivendum datur, eo debet esse contentus. 
70. Neque enim histrioni, ut placeat, peragenda fabu- 
la est, modo, in quocumque fuerit actu, probetur, neque 
sapienti usque ad "Plaudite" veniendum est. Bre,ve 
enim tempus aetatis satis longum est ad bene honeste- 10 
que vivendum ; sin processeris longius, non magis do- 
lendum est, quam agricolae dolent, praeterita verni tem- 
poris suavitate, aestatem autumnumque venisse. Ver 
enim tamquam adulescentiam signiiicat ostenditque 
fructus futuros; reliqua autem tempora demetendisl5 
fructibus et percipiendis adcommodata sunt. 71. 
Fructus autem senectutis est, ut saepe dixi, ante par- 
torum bonorum memoiia et copia. Omnia autem, 
quae secundum naturam fiunt, sunt habenda in bonis. 
Quid est autem tam secundum naturam quam senibus 20 
emori? quod idem contingit adulescentibus adversante 
et repugnante natura. Itaque adulescentes mihi mori 
sic videntur, ut cum aquae multitudine flammae vis op- 
primitur; senes autem, sic ut cum sua sponte, nulla ad- 
hibita vi, consumptus ignis exstinguitur; etquasi poma25 
ex arboribus, cruda si sunt, vix evelluntur, si matura et 
cocta, decidunt, sic vitam adulescentibus vis aufert, 
senibus maturitas ; quae quidem mihi tam iucunda est, 

2. tantum remanef\ * Only so 11. processeris] Sc. (utate. 

much remains.* 19. habeitda'] * Are to bc rcck- 

7. peiagenda] * To be perfonned oned among.* 

entire.* 21. adversante — natura\ *A1- 

9. Plaudite] The nsnal expres- though nature,' etc. 

Bion wlth which a dramatic per- 25. qtiasi] Here equivalent to 

formance was closed. quemadmodum ; an arohaism. 


ut, qao propias ad mortem acoeddm, qaftsi terram vi- 
dere videar aliquandoque in portum ex longa naviga- 
tione esse venturus. 

XX. 72. Senectutis aatem nullas est certus termi- 

5 nus, recteque in ea vivitur, quoad munus officii exseqai 
et tueii possis mortemque contemnere ; ex quo fit, ut an- 
imosior etiam senectus sit» quam adulescentia et fortior. 
Hoc illud est| quod Pisistr&to tyranno a Solone respon- 
sum est, cum illi quaerenti ^ quS, tandem spe fretus sibi 

10 tam audaciter obsisteret" respondisse dicitur :/^ Seneo- 
tute." Sed vivendi est finis optimus, cum integrii 
mente ceilisque sensibus opus ipsa suum eadem, quae 
coagmentavit, natura dissolvit. Ut navem, ut aedifici- 
um idem destruit facillime, qui construxit, sic homi- 

15 nem eadem optirne, quae conglutinavit, natura dissolvit. 
lam omnis conglutinatio recens aegre, inveterata facile 
divellitur. Ita fit, ut illud breve vitae reliquum nec 
avide adpetendum senibus nec sine caasa deserendum 
sit. 73. Vetatque Pythag5ras '^iniussu imperatoris, 

20 id est dei, de praesidio et statione vitae decedere.^ 
Solonis quidem sapientis elogium est, quo se negat 
velle saam mortem dolore amicorum et lamentis va- 
care. Y ult, credo, se esse carum suis ; sed haud scio, 
an melius £nnius : — 

25 Nemo me dacrumis decoret, neque funera fleta 


5. vimiur] Thongh called an 20. id est dei] Snicide was not 
impersonal yerb, really contains forbidden by the Koman law, ex- 
its pwn subject ; i. e. * life is cept in case of soldiers, nor was 
passed.' it discountenanced by public 

6. poaais] The second person opinion. 

is thus often nsed, as in English, 21. ne^] *He aays that hedoes 

of an indefinite subject, * one/ or not wish.' 

*anyone.' 25, dacrumis] Anoldformfor 

12. metO^^aensibusl AblatiTes lacrifmM* 

absolute. 26. Faxif] Tos /eeerit. 


Non censet Ingendam esse mortem qnam inmortalitas 
conseqaatnr. 74. lam sensus moriendi aliquis esse 
potest, isque ad exiguum tempus, praesertim seni : post 
mortem quidern sensus aut optandus aut nullus est. 
Sed hoc meditatnm ab adulescentia debet essc, mortem 5 
nt neglegamus ; sine qna meditatione tranquillo esse 
anirao potest nemo. Moriendum enim certe est, et id 
incertum, an hoo ipso die. Mortem igitur omnibus 
horis inpendentem timens qut poterit animo consistere ? 
75. D^ qua non ita longa disputatione opus esse vide- 10 
tur, cum recordor non L. Brutum, qui in liberanda pa- 
tria est interfectus; non duos Decios, qui ad volun- 
tariam mortera cursura equorum incitaverunl; non M. 
Atilium, qui ad suppliclum est profectus, ut fidem 
hosti datam conservaret; non duos Scipiones, quil5 
iter Poenis vel corporibus suis obstruere voluerunt; 
non avum tuum L. Paullum, qui morte luit col- 
legae in Cannensi ignominia temeritatem ; non 
M. Marcellum, cuius interitum ne crudelissimus 
quidem hostis honore sepulturae carere passus est, 20 
sed legiones nostras, quod scripsi in •' Originibus," 
in enm locum saepe profectas alacri animo et erecto, 

2. aenma] * Consciousness.' ro, who, contrary to the ndvice of 

9. timena qin] * How will one Paallus, fought against Hannlbal 

who fears be able,' etc. at the battle of Cannae, B. C. 216, 

11. L. Brutum] Slain by the in which the Koman army was 
8on of Tarquhiias Saperbns, the almost annihilated. Faullns and 
last of the Boman kings. ahnost all the officers perished ; 

12. duoa Decioa] i. e. father and but Yarro, with about seventy 
8on. Cf. xiiL 43. horsemen, escaped to the Roman 

13. M. Atiliua] Better known camp at Canusium. 

by the name of Re^tilus. 19. trUeritum] Marcellus was 

15. duos Scipidnea] The brothers drawn into an ambnscade by Han- 

Cneius and P. Comelius Scipio nlbal, near Tarentum, and kiiled, 

already mentioned in ix. 29. B. C. 208. HannTbal caused aU 

17. eoUegae] HIs colleagne in duo honors to be paid to his re- 

the consolship, C. Terentius Yar- malns. 


nnde se namqnam redituras arbitrarentnr. Qaod igi- 
tur adulescentes, et il quid(3in non solum indocti, sed 
etlam rustici, contemnunt, id docti senes extimescent ? 
76, Omnino, ut mihi quidcm videtur, rerum omnium 
5.satietas vitae facit satietatem. Sunt pueritiae certa 
studia : num igitur ea desiderant adulescentes ? Sunt 
ineuntls adulescentiae : num ea constans iuni requirit 
aetas, quae media dicitur? Sunt etiam eius aetatis ; ne 
ea quidem quaeruntur in senectute. Suiit extrema quae- 

lOdam stndia scnectutis; ergo, ut superlorum aetatum 

studia occidunt, sic occidunt etiam senectutis ; quod cum 

evenit, satietas vitae tempus raaturum morlis adfert. 

' XXI. 77. Equidem non vidco, cur, quid ipse sentiam 

de mortc, non audeam vobis dicere, quod eo raihi raelius 

15 cernere videor, quo ab ea propius absum. Ego vestros 
patres, P. Scipio, tuque, C. Laeli, viros chirissimos 
mihique amicissimos, vivere arbitror, et eara quidera 
vitara, quae cst sola vita norainanda. Nam, dum 
Buraus iuclusi in his conpagibus corpoiis, raunere quo- 

20 dara necessitatis et gravi opere perfungiraur ; est enim 
aniraus caelestls ex altissirao doraicilio depressus et 
quasi demersus in terram, locum divinae naturae aeter- 
nitatique contrarium. Sed credo deos inraortales spar- 
sisse animos in corpora huraana, ut essent, qui terras 

25 tuerentur, quique caelestium ordinem contemplantes 

7. comtans — ctetaa] * Settled — eo — qtio'] Qt qtio — co, xviii.65. 
pcriod of lifc ; ' cf. x. 33. 15. propius absum] * Less dis- 

8. eius aetatis] i. e. medias taiit froin it.' 

aetatia, 18. vitarn] Accasative of cog- 

14. audeam] Tbe subjanctive nate signification after vivere un- 

stands here for a doublc reason : dcrstood. 

first, in a dependent clausc con- 21. caelestis] * Of heavenly ori- 

taining an indirect qucstion ; and, gin.' 

secondiy, as the so-called dnt)ita- 25. tuerentur] Archaic and po- 

tive subjunctive of direct dls- etic for intuerentur. — caelestium] 

couise.— quod] The conjunctioii. < Of the heavenly bodies.' Anax- 


imitarentar enm vitae modo atqne constantia. Neo 
me solora ratio ac diaputatio inpulit, ut ita crederem, 
sed nobilitas etiam suramorum philosophorum et ancto- 
ritas. 78. Audiebam PythagCram Pythagoreosque, inco- 
las paene nostros, qui essent ItaHci philosophi quondam 5 
nominati, nuraquam dubitasse, quin ex universa mente 
divina delibatos animos haberemus, Deraonstrabnnlur 
mihi praeterea, quae Socrates supremo vitae die dc 
inmortalitate animorura disseruisaet, is qui esset orani- 
nm sapientissimus Apolllnis oraculo iudicatus. Quid 10 
multa? sic mihi persuasi, sic scntio, cum tanta celeritas 
animorum sit, tanta memoria praeteritorum futurorum- 
que prudentia, tot artes, tantae scientiae, tot inventa, 
non posse eam naturam, qnae res eas contiueat, esse 
mortalem; curaque seraper agitetur aniraus nec princi-15 
pium raotus habeat, quia se ipse moveat, ne $nem qui- 
dem babiturum esse motus, quia numquam se ipso sit 

agdras, the philosopher, in an- 8. de inmortalitate] Iix the 

swer to a qnestion for what end Phuedo of Plato, in which Soc- 

hc was born, said, * To contem- r&tes, jast befure his death, dis- 

plate the sun, moon, and the courses on the immortality of the 

heavens/ soul. 

1. modo — conatarUia] Abla- 9. diaaertdsset'] Subjunctive, as 

tives of specification. containing a statement quoted from 

3. aummorum phUosophorum] the Phaedo. 

Pythagoras, Socratcs, Plato, and 10. oracuki] Cf. Laelius, ii. 7. 

Xenophon. 13. tantae acientiae] Some edi- 

4. incolat paene nostros] Py- tors regard this as the genitive 
thagoras established his school at singular, on the ground tliat the 
Croton, in Southem Italy. plural does not occur elsewhere ; 

7. delihatoa] * Which were por- but tlie plural seeras to find a jus- 

tions of.* Arcording to the Py- tification in the expressious tot 

thngorcans, the souls of men were artea and tot inventa, 

llght particles of the nnivcrsal soul 15. semper agitetur] * Is evcr iu 

difiused through the wholc world. action.' — nec — motus] That is, 

— Demonstrahantur] • Those ar- Arom without. It does not derive 

gnments were conclusive to me, its activity from any extemal 

which,' etc cause. 


reliotnnis;. et, oum umplex animi natnra esset, neqae 
haberet in se quidqaam admixtum dispar sni atque dis- 
simile, noh posse eum dividi ; quod si non possit, non 
posse interire ; magnoque esse argumento homines scire 
5 pleraque ante quam nati sint, quod iam pueri, cum artes 
difficiles discant, ita celeiiter res innumerabiles arripi- 
ant, ut eas non tum primum «iccipere videantur» sed 
rominisci et recordari. Haec Platonis fere. 
XXII. 79. Apud Xenophontem antem moriens Cy^ 

lOrofi maior haec dicit : "" Nolite arbitrari, o mei carissimi 
filii, me, cum a vobis discessero, nusquam aut nullnm 
fore. Neque enim, dum eram vobiscum, animum meum 
videbatis; sed eum esse in hoo corpore ex eis rebus, 
quas gerebam, intellegebatis. Eundem igitur esse cre- 

15ditote, etiam si nullum videbitis. 80. Kec vero cla- 
rorum virorum post mortem bonores permanerent, si 
nihil eorum ipsorum animi eiiicerent, quo diutius me- 
moriam sui teneremus. Mihi quidem nuraquam per- 

1. M«e/— ^a6«r»<| Thescimpcr- 9. Apud Xenophontem] In the 

fect tenses depend upon perntcuif Cyropacdia, viii. 7, sq. The pas- 

regarded as a perfect indeflnite, a sagc bas bcen translated Ycry frcc- 

change of construction from the ly I)y Cicero, wltli some portions 

preceding claoses, where we find omittcd or abhreviatcd. 

the present tense depending on 10. Xolite arbitrart] In classic 

the same vcrb. pi*ose the most usumI way of ex- 

5. ante quam nati nn^ •That prcssin^ir a commnnd ncgativcly. 

the soul had an existenoe prlor to 12. fore"] Thc subject is me un- 

hcr conncction with thc body, dcrstood. 

Ecems to havc licen an opinion of 14. Eundeni] * The same pcr- 

the highcst antiquity ; as it may son.' 

be traccd in the Chaldean, Egyi>- 15. nuttuni] 'No trace of me.* 

tian, nnd Grccian theology, as far 17. eorum ipeonim animi] The 

back as thcre are any records re- Komans bclicvcdthat ccrtaintute- 

maining of thcir spoculative te- lary divinities, or taresfamiliareSf 

ncts.* — Mclmoth. imagincd to bc the sonls of the 

8. reminiaci et recordari] Re- virtuous, watched ovcr and pro- 

minisci, * to reeall to mind ; ' of a tected the fhme of thcir own good 

momcntary act ; recordari, <to dceds as wcU as thoso of their 

contemplate ' when so recalled. descendants. 


soaderi potuit, animos, dum in corporibus essent mor- 
talibus, vivere, cura exissent ex eis, emori, nec vero, 
tum animum esse insipientem, cum ex insipienti cor- 
pore evasissct; scd, cum omni admi^^tione corporis libe- 
ratns purus et integer esse coepisset, tum esse sapien- 5 
tem. Atque etiani, cum hominis natura morte dissol- 
vitur, ceterarum rerum, perapicuum est, quo quaeque 
discedant ;.abeunt enim omnia illuc, unde orta sunt; 
animufl vero solus nec, cum adest, nec, cum discedit, ad- 
paret. lam vero videtis, nihil esse morti tam simile 10 
qoam Romnnm. 81. Atqui dormientium animi maxi- 
me declarant divinitatem Buam ; multa enim, cum re- 
oiissi et liberi eunt, futura prospiciunt. Ex quo intelle- 
gitur, quales futuri sint, cum se plane corporis vinculis 
relaxaverint. Qua re, si haec ita sunt, sic me colitote, 15 
inquit, ut deum : sin una est interiturus animus cum 
corpore, vos tamen deos verentes, qui hano omnem 
pulchritudinem tuentur et regunt, memoriam nostri pio 
inviolateque servabitis.'* Cyrus quidem haec moriens. 
Nos, 81 placet, nostra videamus. 20 

XXIII. 82. Nemo mihi umqaam, Scipio, persuade- 
bit aut patrem tuum Paullum, aut duos avos, Paullura 
et Africanum, aut Africani patrem aut patruura aut 
multos praestantes viros, quos enuraerare non est ne- 
cesse, tanta esse conatos quae ad posteritatis memo-25 

1. dum — essent] "We have, in the imperative aervatote, to ex- 

line 12, page 222, dum eram, Ob- press t^e contident expectation of 

serve tbe differcnce in moods. the fulfilmentof theact. — Cyrtw] 

3. insipientij * Void of sense.* Sc. dizit. 

4. sed] Sc, miJd persuetmm eat. 23. patruum'] This was Cn. 
7. ceterarum rerum] Gcnitive, Scipio, who was killed in Spain 

depending upon quaeque. B. C. 211. 

, 17. hanc — pulchriiudinem'] * AU 25. esse concUoa] In the oraiio 

this beantiflil world.' obUqua conditional sentences reg- 

19. aervabitis] The fatnre for ularly change tbe imperfect and 


riam pertinerent, nisi animo cemerent, posteritatem ad 
se pertinere. An censes, ut de me ipso aliquid more 
senum glorier, me tantos labores diurnos nocturnoaquo 
domi militiaeque suscepturum fuisse, si eisdem finibus 
5 gloriam meam, quibus vitam, essem terminaturus ? 
Nonne multo melius fuisset, oliosam aetatem et quie- 
tam sine ullo aut labore aut contentione traducerc? 
Sed nescio quo modp animus erigens se posteritatem 
ita semper prospiciebat, quasi, cum excessisset e vita, 

lOtum denique victurus esset. Quod quidem nl ita se 
haberet, ut animi inmortales essent, haud optimi cuius- 
qne animus maxime ad inmortalitatem gloriae nitere- 
tur. 83. Quid, quod sapientissimus quisque aequissimo 
animo moritur, stultissimus iniquissimo ? nonne vobis 

15 videtur animus is, qui plus cernat et longius, videre, se 
ad meliora proiicisci; ille autem, cuius obtusior sit 
acies, non viclere ? Equidem efferor studio patres 
vestros, quos colui et dilexi, videndi ; neque vero eos 
solos convenire aveo, quos ipse cognovi, sed illos etiam, 

20 de quibus andivi et legi et ipse conscripsi. Quo qui- 
dem me proficiscentem haud sane quis facile retraxerit, 
neque tamquam Peliam recoxerit. Et, si quis deos 

pluperfect subjunctives into the has a more extended yiew, mast 

pcriphrastic infinitivcs iu -nu esse see that it is departing to a better 

ond -rusfuiaee. Hence we should world, whilst on tho otlier hand/ 

have cxpccted here conattiros etc. 

esse. Comparo in the following 17. acies] 'Disccrnment.*— />a- 

Ecntcnce the forms susce^turum tres vestros — videndi] A con- 

fuisse — esaem termincUurus. struction rare in Cicero for the ge- 

4. domi miUtiaeque] Cf. note rundive. 

on humif Ovid I. 207. 20. conscripsi\ In the * Origt- 

11. ut — essent] A clause in ap- nes.' 

position with quod. 22. Peliam] Accordinff to Ovid 

15. qid — longius] The idca is, it was not Pclias who was restored 

' Do you not thinlc tliat such a to vigor and youth, but his half 

mind as is more enllghtened, and brothcr, Aeson, Jason^s &tber. 


mihi largiatar, ut ex hac aetate repuerascam et in cania 
vagiara, valde recusem, nec vero velim, quasi decurso 
spatio, a calce ad carceres revocari. 84. Quid enim 
vita habet coraraodi? quid non potius laboris? Sed 
habeat sane ; habet certe taraen aut satietatem aut 5 
modura. Non libet enim mihi deplorare vitam, quod 
multi et ii docti saepefecerunt; neque me vixisse pae- 
nitet, quoniam ita vixi, ut non frustra me natum existi- 
mem ; et ex vita ita discedo tamquara ex hospitio, non • 
tamquam ex domo. Commorandi enim natura deverso- 10 
rium nobis dedit, non habitandi. 85. O praeclarum di- 
em, cum in illud divinum animorum concilium coetum- 
que proficiscar, cumque ex hac turba et colhivione disce- 
dam! Proficiscar enira non ad eos solum viros, de 
quibus ante dixi, verum etiam ad Catonem meum, quo 15 
nemo vir melior natus est, nemo pietate praestantior ; 
cuius a me corpus crematum est, quod contra decuit, 
ab illo meum, animus vero non me deserens, sed re- 
spectans in ea profecto loca discessit, quo mihi ipsi 
cemebat esse venicndunu Quem ego meum casum20 
fortiter ferre visus sum, non quo aequo animo ferrem, 
sed me ipse consolabar, existimans, non longinquum in- 

3. a calce ad carceres] * From with vitam, to be snppUed as tho 

the goal to the starting-place/ A ohjQct ut dedit, 

iigure talcen from the race-course. 15. Catonem meum] Cato'8 son. 

Th? carcerea were staUs, or en- Cf. vi. 15; page 182, line 11. 

closures, from which the horses 17. corpus crematum] Both 

or chariots started in the race ; buming and intcrment were prac- 

the calx (chalk linc), or, as it was tised by the Romans at this time, 

oftencallcd, a/&a/2n«amarkedthe biit neither was allowed by the 

ciose of the course. Twelve Tables to take place with- 

5. habeat] Suhjunctive of con- in the city. 

cession ; * grant that it has.* 18. meum] Sc. corptts cremari. 

9. ex hospUio] * From a tem- 21. non quo aequo ammo fer" 
porary lodging.' rem] 'Not that I bore it with in- 

10. deveraorium] In apposition difference/ H. 520, II. 3. 



ter nos digressam et discessam fore»^ 86. His mihi 
rebus, Scipio, — id enim te cum Laelio admirari solere 
dixisti, — levis est senectus, nec solum non molesta, sed 
etiam iucunda. Quod si in hoc erro, qui animos homi- 
5num inmortales esse credam, libenter erro nec mihi 
hunc errorem, quo delector, dum vivo, extorqueri volo ; 
sin mortuus, ut quidam minuti philosophi censent, nihil 
sentiam, non vereor, ne huno errorem meum philosophi 
' mortui inrideant. Qnod si non sumus inmortales futuri, 

10 tamen exstingui homini suo tempore optabile est. Nam 
habet natura ut aliarum omnium rerum, sio vivendi 
modum. Senectus autem aetatis est peractio tamquara 
fabulae, cuius defectionem fugere debemus, praesertim 
adiuncta satietate. 

15 Haec habui de senectute quae dicerem ; ad quara 
utinam perveniatis, ut ea, quae ex me audistis, re ex- 
perti probare possitis. 

1. mihi] lAmits levis, molestaf This word was probably first used 

and iucunda. by Cicero, as it occnrs in no other 

4. jMt — credam] 'Because I writer belbre his time. It is a 

believe/ or * in belicving.' Many verbal formed from the supine of 

editions have qttod — credam ; but perago, Cf. xix. 70. - 
this reading is Madvig's, and 13. ctdus] Equivalent to in qua, 

restson the authority of the best '—defectionem] This word, like 

manuscripts. peracHOf is transferred from the 

7. minuH philosophi] *Narrow- stage to human life, and tlie 

minded philosophers/ such as the thought is : the old man can avoid 

Epicureans. the defectio, or * failure/ only by 

10. suo tempore] *In a fit or death; consequently he should 

proper time.* wish for death in its fitting time, 

12. peractio] * Old age is the especially if he has lived to the 

' last act of life, as of a drama.' full age of man. 


The treatise De Amicitia was written shortly after 
the De Senectute^ and, like it, was dedicated to T. 
Pomponius Attlcus. The scene of the diajogue is laid 
in the tirae of the Gracchan revolution, when the differ- 
ent political factions were embroiled in discord, civil 
strife, and deadly feuds, and when bitter personal ani- 
mosities, arising from the conflict of opinions in regard 
to the agrai-ian law, were severing the ties of friendship 
between the different classes of citizens, *and even be- 
tween the raembers of the same household. 

The chief speaker in the dialogue is Caius Laelius 
Sapiens, to whom his two sons-in-law, Q. Mucius Scae- 
v6la and C. Fannius, are represented as making a visit 
a few days after the death of Scipio Africanus Minor, 
and telling him how anxious everybody is to know how 
he bears the death of his most intimate friend. This 
opens the way for the request which they make, that 
he will give thera his views on the subject of Friend- 
ship, 80 well exeraph"fied between himself and one, 
who, as Paterculus ^ays, " never uttered a sentiraent, 
nor performed an action, that was not worthy of ap- • 

Caius Laklius Sapeens was bora about B. C. 186, 
and died B. C. 115. In his early age he studied under 
Diogenes of Babylon and Panaetius of Athens, from 
whom he leamed the doctrines of the Stoic school 



of philosophy, Although he was chiefly distingnished 
as a philosopher, he frequented the Forum, where ho 
gained considerable celebrity as an orator. His mili- 
tary career, though brief, was eminently successful. 
He accompanied his friend Scipio Aemilianus on bis 
voyage to Carthage, and proved hiraself in that cam- 
paign a valiant soldier. He was tribune of the poople 
B. C. 151, praetor B. C. 145, and consul B. C. 140, 

His political affiliations were at iirst with those who 
were in favor of making the plebeians landed proprie- 
tors ; but afterwards, alarmed by the violence of the 
agrarian measnres of the elder Gracchns, he changed 
his views, and became a firm supporter of the aristoo* 
racy. He assisted the consuls, B. C. 132, in examin* 
ing C. Blossiiis of Cumae (xi. 37), and in B. C. 130 ho 
opposed the Papirian Rogation (xxv. 96), whicb had 
for its object the re-election of the same persons as 
tribunes from year to year. It was from his wise and 
moderate views in these political agitations that he re- 
oeived the surname of Sapiem. 

But it is principally as a refined and accomplished 
scholar that Laelius has the greatest reputation, In 
common with his friend Scipio, he had drawn deep 
from the sources of Greek leaming, and in literary 
history he has been considered as the representative of 
the Ilellenic culture of his century. 

His friendship for Scipio never faltered, and Cicero 
has immortalized this trait of his character by placing 
his name at the head of the dialogue De Amicitia. 

Scipio Africanus Minor was the younger son of 
L. Aemilius PauUus, the conqueror of Macedonia, but 
was adopted by P. Scipio, the son of Africanus Maior, 


and hence was distingaished by the names of the tw6 
families, P. Cornelius Scipio Aerailianus. He was bom 
about B. C. 185. His first lessons in the art of war he 
received from his father, with whom !ie was present at 
the battle of Pydna, B. C. 168, when scarcely seven^ 
teen years of age. On his return to Rome from thia 
campaign, he devoted himself eagerly to the study of 
literaturc, and had for his instructors the Greek histo- 
rian Polybius and the Stoic philosopher Panaetius^ thus 
mingling the refining influences of the Greek culture 
with the "sterner and more Fobust peculiarities of his 
native character. 

Scipio first attracted notice as a soldier in the war 
against the Cantabrians and Iberians. As Rome had 
experienced severe disasters in the Spanish campaign, 
hardly any one was willing to enlist as a soldier or 
serve as a tribune or legate. At this crisis Scipio 
promptly offered to serve in any capacity in which 
the consuls might choose to employ lum. Ile was 
consequently made a military tribune, B. C. 151. In 
this campaign he showed remarkable courage and in- 
trepidity. He gained a mural crown by being the first 
to mount the walls at the storming of Intercatia. Also 
in the first year of the third Punio war, B. C. 149, he 
was found again serving in Africa, with liis former 
rank, where hc showed such military skill, sense of jus- 
tice, and personal courage, as to gain from the commis- 
sioners, who had been sent to inspect the Roman camp, 
a most favorable report as to his abilities and military 
conduct. In the year B. C. 147, he was made con- 
Bul, when thirty-seven years old, before he had reached 
the age requisite for that Office, and intrusted with 
Africa as his provincey and empowered to complete 


the war against Carthage. Accompanied by Laelius 
and Polybius, he set sail for Africa, where militiry 
operations were resumed with incrensed vigor. Al- 
though the Carthaginians held out till the spring of 
the following year, they at length yielded to the supe- 
rior valor of their assailants. They defended them- 
selves, however, with the courage of despair, and when 
the work of destruction was completed, Scipio, antici- 
pating that a similar fate might befall Rome, is said to 
have repeated over the ruins of Carthage these lines 
of Homer (II. vi. 448) : — 

The day will coroe when sacred nium will perish, 

And Priam, and the people of Priam, of the good ashen epear. 

On Scipio's retum to Rome he was rewarrled 
with a splendid triumph on account of his victory, and 
received the surname of Africanus, which he had al 
ready inherited by adoption from the conqueror of 

In B. C. 133 Scipio met with equal success in the 
war against Numantia, from which he received the sur- 
name Numantlnus. He was engaged in this last cam- 
paign when the disturbances sprang up at Rome in 
consequence of the measures proposed by Tiberius 
Gracchus, and ended in the death of this political agi- 
tator. Although Scipio had married Sempronia, the 
sister of Gracchus, he did not adopt his political views, 
and showed no sorrow at his death. 

From this time Scipio became thoroughly aristocratic 
in his views, and was thus brought into close intimacy 
with Laelius, although, previously, he had with him 
raaintained a middle gronnd between the aristocracy 
and the agitators for reforni. 


Scipio's death occurred B. C. 129, wben he was but 
fifty-six yeai-s of age. He had spoken in publio the 
day before, and, in full health and vigor, had retired to 
his apartments to prepare the outline of a speech which 
he was to deliver on the following'day. Those apart- 
ments he never left alive. In all probability he was the 
victira of assassinatiori, as he himself was well aware, 
and had publicly stated, that there was a plot to mur- 
der him. The assassin was never discovered, but was 
supposed to belong to his political opponents of the 
Gracchan party. 

" The multitude," says Mommsen, " and men of mod- 
erate views, were shocked; none more so than Quiutus 
Metellus, who had disapproved of Scipio's interference 
against reform, but tumed away with horror from such 
confederates, and ordered his four sons to carry the 
bier of his great antagonist to the funeral pile. The 
funeral was hurried over ; with veiled head the last of 
the family of the conqueror of Zama was borne forth, 
without any one having been previously allowed to see 
the face of the deceased, and the flames of the funeral 
pile consumed the remains of the illustrious hero, and 
with them the traces of the crime." 

"The history of Rome presents various men of 
greater genius than Scipio Aemilianus, but none equal- 
ling him in moral purity, in the utter absence of politi- 
cal selfishness, in generous love of his country, and 
none, perhaps, to whora destiny has assigned a more 
tragic part. Conscious of the best intentions, and of no 
common abilities, he was doomed to see the ruin of his 
country carried out before his eyes, and to repress 
within him every earnest attempt to save it, Jbecause 
he clearly perceived that he should only thereby aggra- 


yate the evil ; doomed to the neeessity of sanctioning 
outrages like that of Nasica, and at the same time of 
defending the work of the victim agninst his murder- 
ers. . . . It was his lot to fight for his country on 
many a battle-field, and to return home uninjured that 
he might perish there by the hand of an assassin ; but 
in his quiet chamber he died no less for flome than if 
he had fallen before the walls of Carthage." 





L 1. Q. Mucius augur multa narrare de C. Laelio 
socero suo memoriter et iucunde solebat, nec dubitare 
illum iu omni sermone appellare sapientem. Ego 
autem a patre ita eram deductus ad Scaevdlam sumpta 
viiili toga, ut, quoad possem et liceret, a senis latere 

1. augur] Tbe bnsiness of tbe 
aagnrs was to interpret tbe will 
of tbe gods, or reyeal fVitnre eyents 
trom obsenrations taken fh>m the 
fligbt and singing of birds. They 
were formed into a colle^e or cor- 
poration, and beld tbeir office 
for life. Tbeir fhnctions were in- 
timately connected witb roatters 
of state, as they not only revealed 
wbat the state should or shonld 
not do by divine will, but also bad 
the power of a Teto upon all pub- 
lic matters. Cicero considered 
tbis offlce (de Leg. ii. 12) as the 
higbest dignity in tbe state. 

2. aocero] The two danghters 
of Laelius were married, tbe one 

to Q. Mucins ScacyJSIa, tbe otber 
to C. Fannins Strabo. 

4. tte — trf] «Witb tbe pur- 
pose tbat I sbonld not/ etc— 
eram eleductus] A word ased of 
a f^ther wbo placed bis son in 
charge of some eminent scbolar 
or statesman to receive instruc- 
tion. Cicero, after assuming tbe 
toga viriUst was placed ander 

6. quoadpoaaem et liceref]' The 
former verb refers to tbe possi- 
bility as conditioned by thc sub- 
ject {perme) the latter to thc pos- 
sibility as conditioned by the ob- 
ject {per Mucium). — a — latere] 
An expression used to imply a 



namqnam discederem. Itaque multa ab eo pmdenter 
disputata, multa etiam breviter et commode dicta memo- 
riae mandabam, fierique studebam eius prudentia doo- 
tior. Quo mortuo me ad pontificem ScaevQlam contuli, 
5quem unum nostrae civitatis et ingenio et iustitia 
praestantissimum audeo dicere. Sed de hoc alias; 
nunc redeo ad augurem. 2. Cum saepe multa, tum me- 
mini domi in heraicyclio sedentem, ut solebat, cum ego 
essem una et pauci admodum familiares, in eum sermo- 
lOnem illum incidere, qui tum fere multis erat in ore. 
Meministi enirn profecto, Attice, et eo magis, quod P. 
Sulpicio utebare multum, cuni is tribunus plebis capi- 
tali odio a Q. Pompeio, qui tum erat consul, dissideret, 

close intimacy with a person ; cf. 
a latere aticuitis essey ' to be most 
intimate with any onc/ 

2. tmdta — dicta] *Many brief 
and pithy sayings.' 

3. prudentia] * By his legal 
skill and cxperience.' 

4. mortuo] * After his death.' 
— pontificem] The pontiffs were 
an order of priests, institated by 
Kama, the second Icing of Rome, 
nnder whose sapervision all reli- 
gioas observancesy both pablic and 
private, were placed. The word 
oridnally signified < a bridge- 
bailder/ as the college of pontiffs 
had charge of the constraction 
and demolitionof thebridges over 
the Tiber, a fanetion held sacred, 
and of great political importance. 

5. unum — praestafUissimum] 
The numeral unus is often thus 
ased to strengthen the superla- 

6. alias] * Another time.* In 
classical Latin, aUas is always a 
temporal paiticle. 

7. muUa] An anacoluthon, in 
which colloqui may be supplied. 
— memini domi — incidere] The 
present infinitivc is ased with 
memini, in reference to p&st 
events, to represent *the sabject 
as hfmself present, and participat- 
ing in thera. 

8. hemicycUo] A semicircalar 
alcove or place to sit in, for per- 
sons who wcre engaged in conver- 
sation either in private hoases or . 
in places of pablic resort. 

10. fere] This qaalifies erat in 
ore ; * was the gcneral subject of 

12. utebare multum] * You were 
very intimate with.' For Anicia, 
a coasin of Pomponius, had mar- 
ried M. Servias, the brother of 
Pablius Salpicius ; cf. Ncpos, At- 
ttcas, ii. 1. — is] Hcre used sub- 

13. odio] To be joined with 
dtssideret, as ablative of cause, 
wlth tho incideutal notiou of 


qnocnm coninnctissime et amantissime vixerat, qnanta 
esset hominum vel admiratio vel querella. 3. Itaque 
tum ScaevQla, cum in eam ipsam mentionem incidisset, 
exposuit nobis sermonem Laelii de amicitia habitum ab 
illo secum et cum altero genero C. Fannio, Marci filio, 5 
paucis diebus post mortem Africani. Eiiis disputa- 
tionis sententias memoriae mandavi, qnas hoc libro ex- 
posui arbitratu meo ; quasi enim ipsoa induxi loquentes, 
ne " inquani " et " inquit " saepius interponeretur, at- 
que ut tamquam a praesentibus coram haberi sermo 10 
videretur. 4. Cum enim saepe mecum ageres, ut de 
amicitia scnberem aliquid, digna mihi res cum omnium 
cognitione tum nostm familiaritnte visa est. Itaque 
feci non invitus, ut prodessem multis rogntu tno. Sed 
nt in Catone Maiore, qui est scriptus ad te de senec- 15 
tute, Catonem induxi senem disputantem, quia nuUa 
videbatur aptior persona, quae de illa aetate loqneretnr, 
qnam eius, qui et diutissime senex fuisset et in ipsa se-. 

2. admiraiiovelquerella] ^Won- an account of his death, see page 
der,* because men who had be- 231. The date of the dialogue is 
fore been noted for the closcst in- thus fixed at B. C. 129. 
timacy, were now cherishing fccl- 8. ipsos — logueniea] * Speak- 
ings of the deepest hatred towards ing in their own pcrson.' 

each othcr ; and * re^ret/ becanse 14. feci non invitus] Cf. De Se* 

tlie hostility of such influential nectutet xii. 42. 

citizens might bring disastrous 15. acriptua ad te] Tho Tcrb 

consequences upon the state. here includcs thc idca of missusy 

3. in eam ipsam mentionem] as misimus^ in De Senectute, i. 3, 
Equivalent to in eius ipsius rei inclndes that o{ scripsimus, 
mentionem, 16. ae^nem] * Whcn an old man.' 

7. senterUias] *The main ideas' 17. persona] Ncvcr used of a 

or *thoughts.* — hoc Ubro] The person as an individmil, but al- 

ablative with a modificr, such as ways with refcrence to tho part or 

hoc, primOf tertio, etc, is used charactcr which Ke sustains. — 

without the preposition in wlien hqueretur] Aftcr dignuSf aptus, 

the whole book is mcant ; and and idoneus, rclative clauses take 

with »M, when only a passage in it the subjunctive. 

is referred to. — Zumpt, § 481. 18. diutissime] Cato lived to the 

%, post mortem Africant] For age of eighty-flve. ^fuiaset — 


nectnte praeter ceteros floruisset, sic, cum accepissemus 
a patribus maxime memorabilera C. Laelii et P. Scipio- 
nis familiaritatem fuisse, idonea mihi Laelii pei*sona 
visa est, quae de amicitia ea ipsa dissereret, quae dispu* 
5tata ab eo meminisset Scaevola. Genus autem hoc 
BermoDum positum in hominum veterum auctoritate et 
eorum inlustriiim plus nescio quo pacto videtur habere 
gravitatis. Itaque ipse mea legens sio adficior inter- 
dum, ut Catonem, non me, loqui existimem. 5. Sed, nt 

10 tam ad senem senex de senectute, sic hoc libro ad ami- 
oum amicissimus scripsi de amicitia. Tum est Cato 
locutus, quo erat nemo fere senior temporibus illis, 
nemo prudentior ; nunc Laelius et sapiens — sio enim 
est habitus — et amicitiae gloria excellens de amioilii. 

15loqaetur. Tu velim a me animum parumper avertas, 
Laelium loqui ipsum putes. C. Fannius et Q. Mucius 
ad Bocerum veniunt post raortem Africani : ab his ser- 
mo oritur, respondet Laelius, cuius tota disputatio est 
de amicitia, quam legens te ipse cognosces. 

JlortUsaet'] Causal sentences in- \2, quo erat^aenior] A strbng 

troduccd hyqtd; hence tho sub- supcrlative isoftcnthusexpressed 

junctive. by the comparative with a nega- 

2. mcucime memontbilem] Of tive particle. 
a^jectivca In -6/&'«, only amabiUs, 15. velim] A modcst expression, 

mobilis, and nobilia have a tcrmi- nsed to cscape tho positiveness of 

national superlative. the iiidicative. — avertas — ptUca] 

6. kominum veterum] Not *old In the subjunctive with tU omit- 
mcn,' but * men of tho olden time.' ted after velim, 

7. nescio quo pacto] Thisclause, 17. ad aocerum] 1. e. Laclius. 
wliich is adverbial in its charac- 19. te ipse cognosces] Jpscy whcn 
ter, has no influence on the mood joined with pcrsonal pronouns, 
of the following verb ; translate as a gencral rule, stands in tho 
'somchow.* , case of thc subject or objcct ac- 

8. gravitaiis] Partitive genitive cording as one or tlie othcr is to 
9StJ&rplus, be mado prominent; but Ciccro 

10. ad senem senex de senectute] shows a prcfercnce for connecting 

A so-callcd polyptotou, tliat is, a it with the subjcct, evcn whcn 

ligure by which the same word is thcre is a dccidcd opposition im« 

rcpcated in diffcrcnt flexions. plicd in the object. 


II. 6. Fannius. Sunt ista, Laeli ; nec enim melior 
vir fuit Africano quisquam nec clarior. Sed existimare 
debes omnium oculos in te esse coniectos unum; te 
sapientera et appellant et existimant. Tribuebatur hoc 
modo M. Catoni, sciraus L. Aciliura apud patres nos- 5 
tros appellatura esse sapientem ; sed uterque alio quo- 
dam modo.* Acilius, quia prudens esse in iure civili 
putabatur : Cato, quia multarura rerum usum habebat ; 
multa eius et in senatu et in foro vel provisa pruden- 
ter vel acta constanter vel responsa acute ferebantur ; 10 
propterea quasi cognomen iam habebat in senectute 
sapientis. Te autem alio quodam modo, non solum 
natura et moribus, verum etiam studio et doctrina esse 
sapientem, ncc sicut vulgus, sed ut eruditi solent appel- 
Lare sapientem, qualem in reliqua Graecia neminem — 15 
7. nam qui septem appellantur, eos, qui ista subtilius 
quaerunt, in numero sapientium non habent, — Athenis 
unum accepimus et eum quidem etiam ApoIlYnis ora- 

1. Suni iata] *What you say capacity of jurist in the Foram. 

istrae.* Cf. note, page 174, llne 12. Te autem — eaae aapientem] 

15. This depends upon nnd is closely 

4. hoc\ * This appellation/ connected with existimant, in line 

namely, Sapiena, 4, above. 

b, modd] This particlc is here \5. quaJem — nemtnem] Con- 

antithetic toa;nM^^a^r0«,andmay strae: qualem {aecepimua) nemi' 

be rendercd, * in our own times/ nem {esse)^ etc. — m reliqttd Grae- 

It means, literally, *just now ;* eia\ As opposed to Athens, men- 

but Cato had been dcad twenty tioned below. 

years. 16. qid — quaeruntl *Who In- 

8. multarum rerum usum'] * Ex- quire Into such things with great 
perience in ayariety of subjccts.* nicety.' 

9. muUa^ferebantur] *Many 18. unum] Socrates. Theora- 
instanccs wcre reportcd of his cle has becn hanued down to us 
Bhrcwd forethoui^ht, or persever- in tlie Scholia to Aristophanes'8 
ing action, or kcen legal opinions.* Clouds in the fullowing form : — 
The provisa prudenter and acto ,,„,,. 
eonBtunter were shown in ttie So^Xo^oaiJi^ao^rfpoja K6(».irtfw. 
senate ; the reaponaa acute, in hl8 *Am6p&v 31 ir&vrfav J^mKpAnn ew^arot. 


culo sapientissimum iudicatum ; hanc esse in te sapien- 
tiam existimant, ut omiiia tiia in te posita esse ducas 
humanosque casus virtute inferiores putes. Itaque ex 
me quaerunt, credo ex hoc item ScaevOla, quonam pacto 
Smortem Africani ferns, eoque magis, quod proximis 
Nonis, cum in hortos D. Bruti aiiguris coramentandi 
causa, ut adsolet, venissemus, tu non adfuisti, qui dili- 
gentissime semper illum diem et illud munus solitus es- 
ses obire. 

10 8. ScAEVOLA. Quaerunt quidem, C. Laeli, multi, ut 
est a Fannio dictum ; sed ego id respondeo, quod ani- 
mum adverti, te dolorem, quem acceperis cum summi 
viri tum amicissimi morte, ferre moderate, nec potuisse 
Bon commoveri ncc fuisse id humanitatis tuae ; quod 

15 autem Nonis in collegio nostro non adfuisses, valetudi- 
nem respondeo causam, non maestitiam fuisse. 

Laelius. Recte tu quidem, ScaevOln, et vere ; nec 
enim ab isto officio, quod semper usurpavi, cum vale- 
rem, abduci incommodo meo debui, nec ullo casu arbi- 

20tror hoc constanti homini posse contingere, ut uUa 

2. lUomnia — ptUea] This was place outside of the city having 

one of the chief doctrines of the a clcar jind unintciTupted vicw. 

Stoics includcd in thcir gencral — commentandi causa] * For 

schcmc of * living conformably to thc purpose of dclibcrating ' upon 

nature.* The sense hcre is, <that such matters as belonged to thcir 

you consider all your Iiappiness offlce. Thc results of huch com- 

biised upon yourself, and regard mentationea were laid down in 

hunian evcnts as suboidinate to books callcd cornmentarii, 

virtue.' 7. qtd — soUtus esses'] * Although 

5. proximis Nonis] Tho Nones, you wcre accustomed.* 

the usual tirae of mceting of thc 8. diem — obire] Hcre a case 

augural collcgc, fcll on the seventh of zeugma, in which obire bclongs 

of March, May, July, andOctober, propcrly only to munus. 

and the fifth of the otjicr months. 14. humanitatis] The predicate 

6. in hortos D. Bruti] Thc gcnitive of charactcristic. 
augurs, in order better to take the 18. quod — valerem] * Which I 
auspices, usually selected some always fulfiUed whcn I was wcll.' 


intermissio fiat officii. 9. Tu autera, Fanni, quod mihi 
tantum tribui dicis, qunntum ego nec agnosco nec pos- 
tulo, facis amice ; sed, ut milii videris, non recte iudicas 
de Catone. Aut enim nemo, quod quidem magi& credo, 
aut, si quisquam, ille sapiens fuit. Quo modo, ut alia 5 
omittam, mortem filii tulit! Memineram Paullum, 
videram Galum ; sed hi in pueris, Cato in perfecto et 
spectato viro. 10. Quam ob rem cave Catoni antepo- 
nas ne istum quidem ipsum, quem Apollo, ut als, sapi- 
entissimum iudicavit. Huius enira facta, illius dictaj^Q 
laudantur. De me autem, ut iam cum utroque vestrum 
loquar, sic habetote. 

III. Ego si Scipionis desideno me moveri negem, 
quam id recte faciam videiint sapientes, sed certe men- 
tiar. Moveor eniin tali amico orbatus, qualis, ut arbi- X5 
tror, nemo umquam erit, ut confimiare possum, nemo 
certe fuit. Sed non egeo medicina ; me ipse consolor 
et maxime illo solacio, quod eo errore careo, quo ami- 
corum decessu plerique angi solent. Nihil mali acci- 

1. qttod — dicis] *In that you denial ; the imperfect, n n^^aram, 
8ny.' Cf. Zumpt, § 627, noto 2. would excludc it, and be equiva- 

6. mortem JiHi] Cato*s elder lent to conjiteor, 

Bon is here mcant. See page 166. 14. viderint] The hortatory sub- 

— PauUum — Galum] Sc. mor- junctive. He appeals, of course, 

tes Jiliorumferentea. Cf. note on to the Stoics {^Sapientes)^ who 

frairibusy page 216, linc 9. niaintained tliat it was the duty of 

7. in pueris] i. e. in puerorum a wise man to be undisturbed 
mortibus moderati fuerunt et aapi' eithcr by joy or grief. — mentiar] 
entea. Thc apodosis of si — negem. 

8. spectato'] 'Who had given 18. solacio'] * Source of com- 
proof of his mcrit.* fort.* — eo errore] Thatdeathis 

10. Iluius — illius] Iluius refers an evil. — guo — decessu] ' Both 

to Cato, as bcing morc prominent ablatives of cause ; but decessu in- 

in time and circumstances ; illius volves also thc idea of time. 
to Socrates. 19. mali] The author scems to 

13. si — neffem"] In this form of have had in mlnd the doctrine of 

a conditional sentence, thc present Socr&tos, that there is no evil fbr a 

tense admits the possibilily of a good man either living or dead. 



diflse Scipioni pnto ; mihi accidit, si qnid accidit ; suis 
autein incommodis graviter angi non amicum, sed se 
ipsum amantis est. 11. Cum illo vero quis neget ac- 
tum esse praeclare ? Nisi enim, quod ille rainime 
6 putabat, inmortalitatem optare vellet, quid non adeptus 
est, quod homini fas esset optare ? qiii summam spem 
civiuin, quam de eo iam puero habuerant, continuo 
adulescens incredibili viitute superavit ; qui consulatum 
petivit numquam,factus consul est bis, pnmum ante tem- 
10 pua, iterum sibi suo tempore, rei publicae paene sero ; 
qui duabus urbibus eversis, inimicissiinis huic inperio, 
non modo praesentia, verum etiam futura bella delevit, 
Quid dicam de moribus facillimis, de pietate in ma- 

2. angi] The subject of eat. — 
non amicum'] Thc objcct of amart' 
tist and in opposition to se ipsum. 

3. Cum illo — <tctum esae prae- 
clare] * That liis career has beon 
a glorious one." 

6. inmortalitatem'] 'Excmption 
from death.' — optare vellet] * Had 
chosen to desire.' The imperfect is 
often put for the pluperfect where 
the idca of a continuance or repe- 
titlon of an act is to be conveyed, 
as opposcd to the completion 
which would be implied by the 

6. /aa esset] i. e. per naturam ; 
Uceret would imply per leges. 

7. continuo] * Immediatcly af- 
terwards;' with no intcrruption 
betwecn puero and adulescens, 

8. superavit] Has quam as its 

d.factus consuX est b!s] First 
B. C. 147, and a-fain B. C. 134. — 
ante tempus] * Before the age re- 
quired by law.' When he was 
tliirty-six years old, whilst, in ac- 

cordance with the Lex VilUa^ he 
couid not liave held that office 
until he had reached the age of 

10. sibi 8UO tempore] * At aprop- 
er time as regards himself ; ' inas- 
mnch as thc ten years required by 
law had clapsed between his iirst 
and second consulship. — paene 
aero] In consequence of the great 
disgrace which the successful de- 
fcnce of Numantia, alrcady in 
thc eighth year of its siege, had 
brouglit upon the Roraan arms. 

11. duabus urbibus] i. e. Car- 
thage, dcstroyed B. C. 146; and 
Numantia, B. C. 133. 

13. facilUmis] * Most affable.* 
—de pietate] * Filial affcction,' 
which was shown towards his 
mothcr, Papiria, afler her divorce 
from his fathcr, inasmuch as he 
Kupported her from his own 
means, and presented hcr with tlie 
inheritance of Aemilia, his adopt- 
ed grandmother, and wife of 
Scipio Africanus the Elder. 


trem, liberalitate in sorores, bonitate in suos, iostitia in 
omnes ? Nota sunt vobis. Quam autem civitati carus 
fuerit, maerore funeris indicatum est. Quid igitur 
hunc paucomm annorum accessio iuvare potuisset? 
Senectus enim quamvis non sit gravis, ut memini Ca- 5 
tonem anno ante quam est mortuus mecum et cum 
Scipione disserere, tamen aufert eam viriditatem, in 
qua etiam nuno erat Scipio. 12. Quam ob rem vita 
quidem talis fuit vel fortuna vel gloria, ut nihil posset 
accedere; moriendi autem sensum celeritas abstulit;10 
quo de genere mortis difficile dictu est ; quid homines 
suspicentur, videtis. Hoc vere tamen licet dicere, P, 
Scipioni ex multis diebus, quos in vita celeberrimos 
laetissimosque viderit, illum diem clarissimum fuisse, 
cum senatu dimisso domum ad vesperum reductus est 15 
a patribus conscriptis, populo Romano, sociis et Latinis, 
pridie quam excessit e vita; ut ex tam alto dignitatis 
gradu ad superos videatur deos potius, quam ad inferos 

1. Uberalitate in sorores] After the relative clanse to render them 

he came into possession of an in- more emphatic. Celeberrimi diea 

heritance a second time by tbe aro tbose days on which large 

death of his mother, Papiria, he crowds of pcople were assembied, 

presented it to his two sisters. — especially festive days. Render, 

bonitate in tuoa] He gave his < Of the many most festive and 

own portion of his patemal inher-* joyons days/ etc. 

itance to his elder brother. 16. a patribtu eonacriptis] The 

6. non nt gravia] • May not bo form was originallypcrfrg* et eon- 
burdensome ; ' cf. De Sen, ii. 4. — scripti, * the scnators and those en- 
memini — diaaerere'] Cf. note on rolled with them.* On the aboli- 
line 7, pn^e 234. tion of tho monarchy, the senate 

7. viriditaiem] * Freshness.' was enlargcd, and plebeians were 
10. moriendi] To bo joined admitted into that body ; bnt, as 

with aensum, and anderstood in the times of the kings It was 

with celeritaa. In regard to his considcrcd unconstitutional for 

death, see lifc of Scipio, pagc 231. non-scnators to take part in itii 

13. celeterrimos laetisaimoaque] dcliberations, it was providcd that 

Tbese adjectives are attracted into there should be joined to the pa- 


IV. 13. Neque enim adsentior eis, qui nuper haeo 
disserere coeperunt, cum corporibus simul animos in- 
terire atque omnia morte deleri. Plus apud me anti- 
quorum auctoritas valet, vel nostrorum maiorum, qui 
5 mortuis tam religiosa iura tribuerunt, quod non fecissent 
profecto, si nihil ad eos pertinere arbitrarentur ; vel eo- 
P rum, qui ui hac terra fuerunt magnamque Graeciam, quae 

nunc quidem deleta est, tum florebat, institutis et prae- 
ceptis suis erudierunt; vel eius, qui ApolUnis oraculo 

10 sapientissimus est iudicatus, qui non tum hoc, tum illud, 
ut in plerisque, sed idem semper, animos hominum 
esse divinos, eisque, cum ex corpore exccssissent, redi- 
tum in caelum patere, optimoque et iustissimo cuique 
expeditissimum. 14. Quod idera Scipioni videbatur^ 

15 qui quidem, quasi praesagiret, perpaucis ante mortem 
diebus, cura et Philus et Manilius adesset et alii plures, 
tuque etiam, ScaevSla, mecura venisses, triduum disse- 
ruit de re publica, cuius disputationis fuit extremura 
fere de inraortalitate aniraoruni, quae se in quiete per 

20 visura ex Africano audisse dicebat. Id si ita est, ut op- 
timi cuiusque aniraus in morte facillirae evolet taraquam 
e custodia vinclisque corporis ; cui censeraus cursura ad 

trician senators a nnmber of non- 10. tum hoc^ tum iUud] * Who 

patricianSy to whom the title coiv- did not maintain at one time this, 

acripti (* added to the roll *) should ' al another time that.' 

be given. W, inplerisque] 'OnmostBub- 

1. eis\ He means the Epicu- jccts.' 

reaiis, who, in thc timeof Laeliiis, 18. de re pttblica] Thls conver- 

wcre introducing their doctrincs sation formcd the suhjcct of Cice- 

at Rome. ro*s De Rcpublica. — cuiua — ex' 

6. eorum] Refcrs to the Italic tremum] * Thc last part of wliich 

school of philosophers, or the Py- discussion.' He alludes to the 

thagoreans, and tlieir doctrine *of * Dream of Scipio,' which forms 

metempsychosis or transmigration the sixth and last boolt of the 

of souls. above-mentioned treatise. 

9. eius] i. e. Socratcs. Cf. note 19, quietepervisum] 'Through 

on Ime 18, page 237. a vibion in his slecp.' 


deos faciliorem fuisse quaiii' Scipioni? Quocirca mne- 
rere hoc eius eventu vereor, ne inviJi magis quam amici 
sit. Sin autem illa veriora, ut idem iiiteritus sit ani- 
morum et corporum, neo ullus sensus maneat, ut nihil 
boni est- in morte, sic ceite nihil mali, Sensu enim 5 
amisso fit idem, quasi natus non esset omnino ; quem 
tamen esse natum et nos gaudemus, et haec civitas, 
dum erit, laetabitur. 15. Quam ob rem cum illo qui- 
dem, ut supra dixi, actum optime est ; mecum incom- 
modius, quem fuerat aequius, ut prius introieram, siclQ 
pnus exire de vila. Sed tamen recordatione nostrae 
amicitiae sic fruor, ut beate vixisse videar, quia cura 
Scipione vixerim ; quocum mihi coniuncta cura de pub- 
lica re et de privata fuit ; quocum et domus fuit et 
militia communis et, id in quo est omnis vis amicitiae, 15 
voluntatum, studiorum, sententiarum summa consensio. 
Itaque non tam ista me snpientiae, quam modo Fannius 
commemoravit, fama delectat, falsa praesertim, quam 
quod amicitiae nostrae memoriam spero sempiternam 
fore ; idque eo mihi magis est cordi, quod ex omnibus 20 
saeculis vix tria aut quattuor nominantur paria ami- 
corum, quo in genere sperare videor Scipionis et Laelii 
amicitiam notam posteritati fore. 

16. Fannius. Istuo quidem, Laeli, ita necesse est. 
Sed, quoniam amicitiae mentionem fecisti et sumus25 

3. iUa] The doctrincs of the ly as it is nndcservcd.* — ^m 

Epicureans. gtiod — spero] *As that I hope,' 

6. JU idem] * It is the snrae as or bettcr, * as the hope that/ etc 
if,* etc. — nflrftt* non esaet] The 21. tria aut quattuor] Theseus 

Bubject is not necessariiy ScipiOf and Firithous, Achillcs and Pbp 

but may be taken fh>m the rela- troclus, Damon and Phintias, are 

tive clause, guem — gaudemua, some of the wcll-known examplcs 

9. actum optime est] Cf. note, to which Cicero nlludcs. 
page 240, line 3. 24. Muc] * That hope of yours 

IS, fahapraeaertim'] <£special- cannot fail of being realizcd.' 


otiosi, pergratum milii feceris — spero itera ScnevSlae, 
— bi, qiicm ad modura solcs de cetcris rcbus, quae 
cx te quaeruntur, sic de amicitia disputaris: quid sen- 
tias, qualera existimes, quae praecepta dcs. 
5 ScAEVOLA. Mihi vero ; atqiie id ipsura cum tecum 
agere conarer, Fannius antevertit : quara ob rem utri- 
que nostrura gratura iadraodum feceris. 

V. 17. Laelius. Ego vcro non gravarer, si mihi 
ipse confiderem ; nam ct pracclara res est, et sumus, ut 

10 dixit Fannius, otiosi. Sed quis ego sum aut quae est 
in me facultas ? Doctorum est ista consuetudo eaque 
Graecorum, ut eis ponatur, de quo disputent quamvis 
subito. Magnum opus est egetque exercitatione non 
parva. Quam ob rera quao disputari de amicitia pos- 

15sunt, ab eis censeo petatis, qui ista profitentur; ego 
vos hortari tantum possum, ut amicitiam omnibus rebus 
humanis anteponatis. Nihil cst enim tam naturae ap- 
tum, tam conveniens ad res vel secundas vel adversas. 
18. Sed hoc primura sentio, nisi in bonis amicitiam esse 

20non posse. Neque id ad vivum reseco, ut illi, qui 
haec subtilius disserunt ; fortasse vere, sed ad commu- 
nem utilitatem parum ; negant enira quemquam esse 
virum bonum nisi sapientem. Sit ita sane. Sed eam 
sapientiara interpretantur, quam adhuc mortalis nemo 

25 est consecutus ; nos autem ea, quae sunt in usu vitaque 
communi, non ea, quae finguntur aut optantur, spectare 

6. antevertit] Sc. m« as ohject. 20. yeqtte id ad vivum reseco] 

12. quamvia subito] The Grcek * Nor do I cut to the quick/ that 

Bophists professed to be able to is, * I do not examine the mattcr 

answer any qucstion at a mo- too closely/ but wish to take a 

mcnfs noticc. practical view of the sulyect. — 

\5, qui ista profitentur'] Lnclius qui ^ subtiUus disserunt] i. e. 

refers to the Grcck philosophcrs the Stoics. 

who resided at Romc, and taught 23. Sit ita sane] Subjunctive of 

philosophy aud rhctoric tiicre. concession. 


clebemiis. Numquam ego dicam C. Fabricinm, W 
Curium, Ti. Coruncanium, quos sapientes nostri maio- 
res iudicabant, ad istorum normam fuisse sapientes. 
Qua re sibi habeant sapientiae nomen, et invidiosum et 
obscurum; concedant ut bi viri boni fuerint. Ne id 6 
quidem facient: negabunt id nisi sapienti posse con- 
cedi. 19. Agamus igitur pingui, ut aiunt, MineiTfi. 
Qui ita se gerunt, ita'vivunt, ut eorum probetur fides, 
integritas, aequitas, liberalitas, nec sit in eis ulla cupi- 
ditas, libido, audacia, sintque magna constantia, ut iilO 
fuerunt, modo quos nominavi; hos viros bonos, ut 
habiti sunt, sic etiam appellandos putemus, quia se- 
quantur, qnantum homines possunt, naturam, optimam 
bene vivendi ducem. Sic enim mihi perspicere videor, 
ita natos esse nos, ut inter omnes esset societas quae- 15 
dam, maior autem, ut quisque proxime accederet. Ita- ~ 
que cives potiores quam peregi-ini, propinqui quam alie- 
ni ; cum his enim amicitiam natuia ipsa pcperit ; sed ea 
non satis habet firmitatis. Namque hoc praestat ami- 
citia propinquitati, quod ex propinquitate benevolentia20 
tolli potest, ex amicitia non potest ; sublata enim bene- 
volentia amicitiae nomen toUitur, propinquitatis manet. 
20. Quanta autem vis amicitiae sit, ex hoc intellegi 
maxime potest, quod ex infinita societate generis hu- 
mani, quam conciliavit ipsa natura, ita contracta res est25 
et adducta in angustum, ut omnis caritas aut inter duos 
aut inter paucos iungeretur. 

4. invidwsnm et obsduruni] * Ar- one approachcs ncarcst to us ; * cf. 

rogant aiid unii t lligiblc' note on line 27, bclow. 

7. pingui — Alinerva] A pro- 18. cum his\ 1. e. propinqtds, 

verbial expression, eqnivalcnt to 27. iungeretur'] An instance of 

our expres.sion : • witli plain cora- thc partiality of the Latin for a 

mon sense,* or * mothcr-wit.* past tcnse after thc present pcrfect 

15. societas'] * Social tie.* whcre in English we eraploy tlio 

\Q, ut — accederetl 'As each prcsent. — Zumpt, { 514. 


VI. Est enim amicitia nihil aliud, nisi omnium divi- 
narum humanarumqne rerum cum benevolentia et 
caritate consensio : qua quidem haud scio an, excepta 
sapientia, quidquam melius homini sit a dis inmoitali^ 
6 bus datum. Divitias alii praeponunt, bonam alii vale- 
tudinem, alii potentiam, alii honores, multi volup- 
tates. Bcluarum hoc quidem extremum ; illa autem 
supenora caduca et incerta, posita non tam in consiliis 
nostris quam in fortunae temeiitate. Qui autem in 

10 virtute summum bonum ponunt, praeclare illi quidem ; 
sed haec ipsa virtus amicitiam et gignit et continet, 
nec sine virtute amicitia esse ullo pacto potest. 21- 
lam virtutem ex consuetudine vitae nostrae sermonis- 
que nostri interpretemur, nec eam, ut quidam docti, 

15 verborum magnificentia metiamur, virosque bonos eos, 
qui habentur, numeremus, Paullos, Catones, Galos, 
Scipiones, Philos : his communis vita contenta est, eos 
autem omittamus, qui omnino nusquam reperiuntur. 
22. Tales igitur inter viros amicitia tantas opportuni- 

20tate8 habet, quantaa vix queo dicere. Principio qut 
potest esse " vita vitalis," ut ait Ennius, quae non in 
amici mutua benevolentia conquiescat ? Quid dulcius 
quam habere quicum omnia audeas sic loqui ut tecum ? 

3. consensio] * Agreement of U. quidam docti] The Stoics. 
opinion/ 18. qui — reperiuntur] * Who 

7. Beluarum] The predicate are nowhere foiind to exist,* ex- 

gcnitive of characteristic. — hoc ecpt in the theory of the Stoics. 
— extremnm] Rcfcrring to volup- 19. Tales — viros] * Such men * 

tates, * scnsual plcasurcs.* —-illa as a Paulhis, a Cato, a Galus and 

autem supariora] i. e. diiitias, the lil^e. — opportwiitates] *Ad- 

bonam valetudinem, potentiam, ho- vantages.' 
nores. 21, vita vitilis] *A lifc worth 

9. Qui — ponunf] Tlic Aca- living,* * worth calling lifc* 
demicsandPcripatcticsarcmcant. 23. quicum] An old form of tho 

l^. sermonis nostri] * Of our al «lativc for 9?«) with c«i». Cicero 

common mode of talking.' ' ncver uscs this form whcn refer- 


Quis esset tantus frnctus in prosperis rebns, nisi habe- 
res qui illis aeqne ac tu ipse gauderet ? Adversas vero 
ferre difficile esset sine eo, qui illas gravius etiam quam 
tu ferret. Denique ceterae res, qnae expetnntnr, op- 
portnnae sunt singulae rebus fere singulis : divitiae, ut 5 
utare; opes, ut colare; honores, ut laudere ; voluptateS) 
nt gandeas; valetndo, nt dolore careas, et muneribns 
fungare corporis ; amicitia res plurimas continet, qnoquo 
te verteris praesto est, nullo loco excluditur, numquam 
intempestiva, numquam molesta est. Itaque non aqna, 10 
non igni, ut aiunt, locis pluribus utiniur quam amicitia. 
Neqne ego nunc de vulgari ant de mediocri, qnae ta- 
men ipsa et delectat et prodcst ; sed de vera et per- 
fecta loquor, qnalis eorura, qui pauci nominantnr, fuit. 
Nam et secundas res splendidiores facit amicitia, et 15 
adversas partiens communicansquo leviores. 

• VII. 23. Cumqne plnriraas et maximas commodita- 
tes amicitia contineat, tnm illa nimirum praestat omni- 
bns, quod bonam spera praelncet in posterum, nec 
debilitari animos aut cadere patitur. Verum enim20 
amicum qui intuetur, tamquam exemplar aliqnod intne- 
tnr sni. Qnocirca et absentes adsunt et egentes abnn- 
dant et inbecilli valent et, quod difficilius dictu est, 

ence is madu to a dciinitc or pnr- fricndship is somcthing that man 
ticular mdividual. cannot do without. 

2. aeque — ipse] * As much aa 11. locis] * Occasions.* 

you yourself/ 12. vulgari — mediocrilSc.ami^ 

3. essef] Tlic conclusion of a citia. 

condirioiial clausc, of which thc 14. qia — nominantur] * Of 
coiidifon is iniplicd in siiie eo ; whora a few arc rccordcd;' cf. 

* if you liad no onc* notc, pagc 243, linc 21. 

5. singulae — singtdis] * Aro 16. partienst communicajis] * By 

severally suited fur particular dividing and sharing it.* 

ends.* 18. illd] Sc. commoditaie, 

10. non aquat non igni] "Water 19. spem praelucet] i. e. pra^" 

and flro are indispensable rcqui- lucendo spem praebet : * it alfords 

sites for human existcnco ; so hope by dispcllhig thc gloom.' 


mortui vivant ; tantus eos honos, mcmoria, desiderinm 
prosequitur amicorura. Ex quo illorum beata more 
videtur, horum vita laudabilis. Quod si exeraeris ex 
rerum natura benevolentiae coniunctionem, nec doraus 
6 ulla nec urbs stare poterit ;.ne agri quidem cultus per- 
manebit. Id si niinas intellegitur, quanta vis araicitiae 
concordiaeque sit ex dissensionibus atque ex discordiis 
percipi potest. Quae enim domus tam stabilis, quae 
tam firma civitas est, quae non odiis et discidiis fundi- 

lOtus possit everti? Ex quo quantura boni sit in araici- 
tia iudicari potest. 24. Agrigentinuni qui<lem doctum 
qaendam virum carminibus Graecis vaticinatum esse 
ferunt ; quae in rerura natura totoque raundo consta- 
rent, quaeque moverentur, ea contrahere amicitiam, 

15 dissipare discordiam. Atque hoc quidem omnes mor- 
tales et intellegunt et re probant. Itaque, si quando 
aliquod oiiiciara exstitit amici in periculis aut adeundis 
aut comraunicandis, quis est qui id non raaxitnis efierat 
laudibus? Qui clamores tota cavea nuper in hoapitis 

20 et amici mei M. Pacuvii nova fabula ! cum ignorante 

11. Agrigentinurn] Keference Artemis, after having been doom- 

is here made to Empeducles, the ed to dic upon tbe altar. All 

celebrated philosopher and poet strangers arriving in this coantry 

of Agrigentum, a town of Sicily. wcre seized by the natives as vic- 

Empedocles wrote a poem on the tims for sacritice to tliis goddcss. 

doctrines of PythagcSras, in which Orestes, having lK?en directed by 

he called the uniting powers of the oracle of Apollo to carry otf 

the univcrse ifnXd-njs^ friendship; the stiitne of ArtCmis from hcr 

and the separating principle vtiKost temple in Taurus, in expiatioi) of 

discord. his parricide, arrived in this coim- 

20. nova fabula\ The play to try, accompanied by his fricnd 

"which Laclius ' refcrs was the PyWdes. ^ After having concealcd 

Orestes or Dulorestes of Pacu- thcmsclves, for a time, in a cave, 

vius; and the scene, the contest they were at length discovered 

bcfore Thoas, king of the Tauric and brought betore the king. It 

Chcrsonese, into whose dominion seems from the allusion here that 

Iphigenia had been carried by Orestes alone was the destined 


rege,uter esset Orestes, Pylades Orestem se esse diceret, 
ut pro illo necaretur ; Orestes autem, ita ut erat, Ores- 
tem se ease perseveraret. Stantes plaudebant in re 
ficta ; quid arbitramur in vera facturos fuisse ? Facile 
indicabat ipsa natura vim suam, cum homines, quod 5 
facere ipsi non possent, id recte fieri in altero iudica- 

Hactenus mihi videor, de amicitia quid sentirem, po- 
tuisse dicere: si qua praeterea sunt, — credo autera 
esse raulta, — ab eis, si videbitur, qui ista disputant, 10 

25. Fannius. Nos autem a te potius ; quamquam 
etiam ab istis saepe quaesivi et audivi non invitus 
equidera ; sed aliud quoddara filum orationis tuae. 

ScAEVOLA. Tum magis id diceres, Fanni, ai nuper 15 
in hortis Scipionis, cum est de re publica disputatuni, 
adfuisses : 'qualis tum patronus iustitiae fuit contra ac- 
curatam orationem Phili ! 

Fannius. Facile id quidem fult iustitiam iustissimo 
viro defendere. 20 

ScAEVOLA. Quid amicitiara ? nonne facile ei, qui ob 
eam suraraa. fide, constantia iustitiaque servatara raaxi- 
raara gloriara cepcrit ? 

VIII. 26. Laelius. Vira hoc quidera est adferre. 
Quid enim refert qua me ratione cogatis? Cogitis 25 

victim, and the ftiendly strife 17. qualis — patromts] * What 

arose as to thc om wlio should be an able advocate on the sidc of 

sacrifued, each claiining to be justicc* Philus hud maintaincd 

Orcstes. that tho state couid not be ruled 

10. qui iata disputant] That is, without ii\)ustice. 

the professed sopliists. 19. iuatitiam — ctefmdere'] In 

14. sedaliudquoddamfilumora- apposirion with id. 

tionistuae] *Bul>(whatwe desire 21. amicitiam] i. e. quid dicereSf 

Is) a somcwliat difforent thread si amieitiam eum defende^Uem au- 

of your diiiCoarse.* dires. —facile] Sc. eam defendere. 


certe. Studiis enim generorum, praesertim in re bona, 
cum difficile est tum ne aequum quidem obsistere. 

Saepissime igitur mihi de amicitia cogitanti maxime 
illud considerandum videri solet, utrum propter inbe- 
5 cillitatem atque inopiam desiderata sit amicitia, ut dan- 
dis recipiendisque meritis, quod quisque miiius per se 
ipse posset, id acciperet ab alio vicissimque redderet, an 
esset boc qnidem proprium amicitiae, sed anliquior et 
pulchrior et magis a natura ipsa profecta alia causa. 

10 Amor enim, ex quo amicitia nominata est, princeps 
est ad benevolentiam coniungendam. Nam utilitates 
quidem etiam ab eis percipiunlur saepe, qui simulatione 
amicitiae coluntur et observantur temporis causa; in 
amicitia autem nihil (ictum est, nihil simulatum et, quid- 

16 quid est, id est verum et voluntarium. 27. Quapropter 
a natura raihi videtur potius quam ab indigentia ortia 
amicitia, adplicatione mngis animi cuni quodam sensu 
amandi qnam cogitatione quantum illa res utilitatis es- 
set habitura. Quod quidem quale sit, etiam in bestiis 

20quibusdam animadverti potest, quae ex se natos ita 
amant ad quoddam tempus et ab eis ita amantur, ut 
facile earum sensus adpareat. Quod in homine multo 

1. Studiia] * The e^er desires.* 12. ah eia] Not tlie ablative of 

4. illud\ The ase of this pro- the agent; * are received from 

noun, in referring to what follows, those/ etc. 

Is quite common in Cicero; cf. xiv. 13. temporis catisa] * For the 

50. -^utrnm —redderet] This was sake of a teniporary advantagc.* 

• the vicw of the Epicureans, who 16. ab indigentid]*F i'om&sQnsQ 

held tliat friundship had its origin of need.' 

in nonsiderations of self-interest. 17. adplicatione magia animi] 

7. posset] Sc.facere. - *More from an ir.clination of the 

8. hoc] Refers to ut dandis — mind.' 'Adplicatio in this sense 
redderet, etc, above. — proprium] occurs only here. 

* A peculiar trait.' 22. earum sensus] *Their feel- 

10. princeps] * The chief mo- ings,* or * the feelings whicli in- 
tive,* or * leadlng principle.' fluence them.' 


est evidentius: primum ex ea caritnte, qaae est inter 
natos et- parentes, quae dirimi nisi detestabili scelere 
non potest ; deinde cum similis sensus exstitit amoris, 
si aliquem nacti sumus, cuius cum moribus et natura 
congruamus, quod in eo quasi lumen aliquod probi- 5 
tatis et virtutis perspicere videamur. 28. Niliil est 
enim virtute amabilius, nihil quod magis adliciat nd dili- 
gendum ; quippe cum propter virtutem et probitatem 
etiara eos, quos numquam vidimus, quodam modo dili- 
gamus. Quis est qui C. Fabricii, M' Curii non cumio 
caritate aliqua benevola meraoriam usurpet, quos num- 
quam viderit ? Quis autem est qui Tarquinium Super- 
bura, qui Sp. Cassiura, Sp. Maeliura non oderit ? Cum 
duobus ducibus de inperio in Italia est decertatum, 
Pyrrho et Hannibale : ab allero propter probitatem 15 
eius non nirais alienos animos hnbemus, alterum prop- 
ter crudelitatera semper haec civitas oderit, 

IX. 29. Quod si tanta vis probitatis est, ut eam vel " 
in eis, quos nuraquara vidiraus, vel, quod raaius est, in 
hoste etiara diligamus ; quid mirum est, si animi homi- 20 
nura moveantur, cura eorum, quibuscum usu coniuncti 
esse possunt, virtutem et bonitatem perspicere videan- 

2. detestahili tcelere] As, for The subjunctive of concession ; 
example, in thc ca8e of the sons ' althMugh he has never seen 
of L. Junius Brutu8, who broke them.* 

the bonds of aflfectim between 21. moreantur] Tlie sulyunc- 

themsclves nnd their father by tive rcprescnts tlie fact as existing 

their treason. in the miiids of tliosc who cxprcss 

3. nmilis aensmi] Sc. eim cari- thc wonder. — usii] * In intimacy.* 
tatis, qtuie est internatos et paren- 22. possunt] The indicativc is 
tes, uscd as merely dcscrlprive of 

5. congruamua] *\Ve sympa- eorumt and not necessarily con- 

thize.' nected with or dcpendentupon it. 

8. qnippe ctim] * Since in fact.' Cf. ex ea parte vici, quam GalHs 

11. mnmoriam usurpet] *Cher- concessfraty — discessiaset CaeB, 3, 

ish the memory.* — quos viderit] G. iiL 2. — Zumpt, § 54p. 


tur ? Quamquam confirmatur amor et beneficio accep- 
to et studio perspecto et consuetudine adiuncta, quibus 
rebus ad illuni primum motum aniini et amoris adhibitis 
admirabilis quaedam exardescit benevolentiac magnitu- 

*5do. Quam si qui putant ab inbecillitate proficisci, ut 
sit, per quem adsequatur, quod quisque desideret, humi- 
lem sane relinquunt et minime generosum, ut ita dicam, 
ortum amicitiae, quam ex inopia atque indigentia na- 
tam volunt. Quod si ita esset, ut quisque minimum in 

10 se esse arbitraretur, ita ad amicitiam esset aptissimus ; 
quod longe secus est. 30. Ut enim quisquo sibi pluri- 
mum confidit et ut quisque maxime virtuto et sapientia 
sic munitus est, ut nullo egeat suaque omnia in se ipso 
posita iudicet; ita in amicitiis expetendis colendisque 

15 maxime excellit. Quid enim ? Africanus indigens 
mei ? Minime hercle I ac ne ego quidem illius ; sed 
ego admiratione quadam virtutis eius, illo vicissim 
opinione fortasse nonnulla, quam de meis moribus 
habebat, me dilexit ; auxit benevolentiam consuetudo. 

20 Sed quamquam utilitates multae et magnae consecutae 
8unt, non sunt tamen ab earum spe causae diligendi 
profectae. 31. XJt enim benefici liberalesque sumus, 
non ut exigamus gratiam, — neque enim beneficium 
feneramur, sed natura propensi ad liberalitatem sumus, 

L henejicio — adiuncta] * By ' 15. Quid enim] Sc. censetis. 

recciving a kindness, by tlie dis- 17. viHutia eius] * Of his wonh.' 

covcry of earaest sympathy, and 18. opinione — nr.nnuUd] A case 

by the addidon of a nearcr and of Litotes ; *hy an opinion per- 

closer intercourse.* haps not wholly unfavorable.* 

5. td sit] * So that thcrc may be 21. earu/n] i. e. utilitatum. 
some one, through whom/ etc. 23. «on — ffratiam] 'Not with 

6. adsequatur] Its suhject is a vicw to exact a favor in retiirn.* 
quisque which, as often happens, 24. feneramur] A tethnical 
is placed in the dependent clause. term signifying *to lend on in- 

9. minimum] * The least qoali- terest ; * translate : * for we are not 
ficawion.' usorers in kiad actions.' 


— sic amicitiam non spe mercedis adducti, sed quod 
omnis eius fructus in ipao amore inest, expetendam 
putamus. 32. Ab his, qui pecudum ritu ad voluptatem 
omnia referunt, longe dissentiunt, nec mirum. Nihil 
enim altum, nihil magnificura ac divinum suspicere pos- 5 
Bunt, qui suas omnes cogitationes abiecerunt in rem • 
tam humilem tamque contemptam. Quam ob rera hos 
quidem ab hoc sermone removeamus ; ipsi autem intel- 
legamus natura gigni sensum diligendi et benevolen- 
tiae caritatem, facta significatione probitatis ; quam qui XO 
adpetiverunt adplicant sese et propius admovent, ut et 
usu eius, quem diligere coeperunt, fruantur et moribus ; 
suntque pares in amore et aequales propensioresque ad 
bene merendum quam ad reposcendum, atque haec 
inter eos fit honesta concertatio. Sic et utilitates ex 15 
amicitia maximae capientur, et erit eius ortus a natura 
quam ab inbecillitate gravior et verior. Nam si utili- 
tas amicitias conglutinaret, eadem commutata dissolve- 
ret : sed quia natura mutari non potest, idcirco verae 
amicitiae serapiternae sunt. Ortum quidem amicitiae 20 
videtis, nisi quid ad haec forte vultis. 

Fannius. Tu vero perge, Laeli I Pro hoc enim, qui 
minor est natu, meo iure respondeo. 

3. Ab hia] * From these views.* urally be expected to stand first. 

— qtd -- dissentiunt'] Thc Epicu- 12. et moribtis] To be joined 
reans are referred to, with usu ; * the society and char- 

6. ahiecerunt] Used with re- acter of him,* etc. 

spcct to humilem and contemptam, 14. haec] * This ; * referring to 

and in opposition to ^suspicere, sunt pares in amore et aeguales^ 

which precedes. etc. Haec is feminine by attiuc- 

10. facta —probUatis] * When tion to concertatio, 

the evidence of uprightness has 21. adhaec] Sc. dicere; Mn re- 

been givcn.* ply to these things ; ' with the 

11. adplica?it — admovent] Gen- incidcntiil notion of opposition. 
erally cailed a hysteron proteron, 23. meo iure] * In accordauce 
as the verb admovent would nat- with my privilege * of seniority. 


33. ScAEVOLA. Recte tu qaidem : quam ob rem au- 

X. Laelius. Audite vero, optimi viri, ea, quae 

saepissime inter me et Scipionem de amicitia dissere- 

Sbantur. Quamquam ille quidem nihil difiicilius esse 

. dicebat quam amicitiam usqae ad ertreroum diem vitae 
permanere ; nam vel uV hon idem expediret, incidere 
saepe, vel ut de re publica non idem sentiretur ; mutari 
etiam mores hominum saepe dicebat, alias adversis re- 

lObus, alias aetate ingravescente. Atque earum rerum 
exemplum ex similitudine capiebat ineuntis aetatis, 
quod summi puerorum amores saepe una cum prae- 
texta toga ponerentur ; 34. sin autem ad adulescentiam 
perduxisseut, dirimi tamcn interdum contentione vel 

15 uxoriae conditionis, vel commodi alicuius, quod idem 
adipisci uterque non posset. Quod si qui longius in 
amicitia provecti essent, tamen saepe labefactari, si in 

5. Quamquam] This particle by boys till aboat the foarteenth 

Berves as a correctiye of the idea year of their age. 

that Scipio and Laelias had the 13. ponerentur] For deponeren- 

same views in regard to friend- iur ; *were laid aFide.' Cf.the 

ship. They diffcred in this : Lae- military expresslon, armaponer€f 

Uus maintained that verae amiciU Caes. B. G. Iv. 37. 

iae aempUemae 8unt (ix. 32), while 14. perduxistenQ Sc. amores, aa 

Scipio ' nsed to say that there was object. 

nothing more difflcult than that 15. uxoriae condiHotue] 'By 

friendship should continae to the rivalry in a marriage suit.' Con- 

end of life.' ditio is often thus used even with- 

7. inddere] In the oratio obli- out tucoria^ for * marriage agrec- 

qua, depending upon dicebat. In- ment.* Cf. Ter. And. i. 1, 62. 

cidere is used to signify the nnex- 16. Quod si] * But if,' etc. 

pected occurrence of an event 17. provecti essent] The iigure 

which interrupts . the previous is evidently taken trom sailing or 

state of things. Cf. Caes. B. G. vi. riding through the joumey of lifb, 

15. where one*8 fricnds are his travel- 

9. aUas^alia»] *Atonetime iing companions. — lahefactart] 

— atanother time.' Has the same subject as dirimi 

12. ^aetextatoga] A dress wom above, viz., amicitiam. 


honoris contentionem incidissent; pestem enim nullam 
maiorem esse amicitiis, quam in plerisque pecuniae cu- 
piditatem, in optimis quibusque honoris certamen et 
gloriae, ex quo inimicitlas maximas saepe inter amicis- 
simos exstitisse. 35. Magna etiam discidia et plerum- 5 
que iusta nasci, cum aliquid ab amicis quod rectum non 
esset postularetur^ ut aut libidinis ministri aut adiutores 
essent ad iniuriam. Quod qui recusarent, quamvis 
honeste id facerent, ius tamen'amicitiae deserere argue- 
rentur.ab eis, quibus obsequi nolleot; illos autem, qui 10 
quidvis ab amico auderent postulare, postulatione ipsa 
profiteri, omnia se amici causa esse facturos. Eorum 
querella inveteratas non modo familiaritates exstingui 
solere, sed odia etiam gigni sempiterna. Ilaec ita 
multa, quasi fata, inpendere amicitiis, ut omnia subter-15 
fugere non modo sapientiae, sed etiam felicitatis diceret 
fiibi videri. 

XI. 36.^ Quam ob rem id primum videamus, si 
placet, quatenus amor in amicitia progredi debeat. 
Numne, si Coriolanus habuit amicos, ferre contra pa- 20 
triam arma illi cum Coriolano debuerunt ? num Viscel- 

1. honoris conterUionern] * Ri- Coridll. He was banished by the 

valry for political preferment.* plebs, B. C. 490, and afterwards, 

7. ttt — essent] * As, for in- according to the story, in con- 
stance, that,* etc. nection with the Volscians, de- 

8. Uttod qui reeusarent'] Equiv- feated his own countrymen, and 
alent to cwm, id qui recusarent. was prevented from taking Rome 
Cf. cui qm pareat, pagc 171, line only by the prayers of his own 
14. motlier. 

13. inveterataa] * Long estab- 21. VisceUinuni] Sp! Cassius 

lished.' Viscelllnus fcll a victim to the 

15. svbterfugere'] A continua- hate of the patricians for propos- 

tion of the metaphor begun in m- ing and carrying the firstagrarian 

pendere. law, and, having becn accnsed 

20. Coriolanus] C. Marcius Co- of aiming at royal power, was 

riolanus derived this name from scourged and beheaded, in the 

the capture of the Volscian city year B. C. 485. 


linum aniici regnum aclpetentera, nnm Sp. Mnelium 
debuerunt iuvare? 37. Ti. quidem Gracchum rem 
publicam vexantem a Q. Tuberone aequalibusque ami- 
cis derelictum videbamus. At C. Blossius Cumanus, 
5 liospes familiae vestrae, ScaevSLn, cum ad me, quod 
aderam Laenati et Rupilio consulibus in consilio, de- 
precatum venisset, hanc ut sibi ignoscerem causam ad- 
ferebat, quod tanti Ti. Gracchnm fecisset, ut quidquid 
ille vellet, sibi faciehdum putaret. Tum ego : " Etiam- 

10 ne, si te in Capitolium faces ferre vellet?" "Nura- 
quam " inquit " voluisset id quidem ; sed, si voluisset, 
paruissem." Videtis quam nefaria vox ! Et hercle ita 
fecit, vel plus etiam quam dixit ; non enim paruit ille 
Ti. Gracchi temeritati, sed praefuit, nec se comitem 

15il]ius furoris, sed ducem praebuit. Itaque hac amentia, 
quaestione nova perterritus, in Asiam profugit; ad 
hostes se contulit, poenas rei publicae graves iustasque 
persolvit. Nulla est igitur excusatio peccati, si amici 
causa peccaveris ; nam, cura conciliatrix amicitiae vir- 

1. MaeUtim] See note on line Gracclian revolntion, but he fled 
17, page 209. to the court of Aristonicas, who 

2. rem pubUcam vexantem'] By was laying chiim to the crown of 
proposing agrarian laws, B. C. Perg&mam, and, after his defeat, 
133. committed saicide. 

3. Q, Tuberdne] A nephew of 5. qttod aderam] * Becaase I 
AfHcanus Minor; he was tribune was one of the advisers or assist- 
of the people with Ti. Gracchus, ant judges.' 

B. C. 133, and led the opposition 14. temeritatt] < The mad 

against his measures. — aequaU- schemes.' — praefuU] * He head- 

bus] * Of iiis own age.* ed them.' 

4. C Blossius] An intimate 16. quaettione] A quaestio was 
fricnd of Ti. Gracchus, and a sup- a jadicial court or cummission ap- 
poiter of his political measures. pointed to inquire into .crimcs 
He was summoncd before the con- committed against the state. 
suls, P. Popilius Laenas and P. 19. virtutis opinio] • A belicf 
Rupilius, B. C. 132, to be exam- in the virtue ' of the object of 
ined as to his participation in the oar a£fection. 


tutis opinio fuerit, difficile est amicitiam manere, si a 
virtute defeceris. 38. Quod si rectum statuerimus vel 
concedere amicis quidquid velint vel impetrare ab eis 
quidquid velimus, perfecta quidem sapientia simus, si 
nihil habeat res vitii ; sed loquimur de eis araicis, qui 5 
ante oculos sunt, quos vidimus aut de quibus memoriam 
accepimus, quos novit vita communis. Ex hoc nuraero 
nobis exempla sumenda sunt, et eorum quidem maxi- 
me, qui ad sapientiam proxime accedunt. 39. Vide- 
mus Papum Aemilium C. Luscino familiarem fuisse, — 10 
sic a patribus accepimus, — bis una consules, collegas 
in censura ; tum et cum eis et inter se coniunctissimos 
fuisse Ml Curium Ti. Coruncanium memoriae proditum 
est. Igitur ne suspicari quidem possumus quemquam 
horum ab amico quidpiam contendisse, quod contralS 
fidem, contra ius iurandum, contra rem publicam esset. 
Nam hoc quidem in talibus viris quid attinet dicere, si 
contendisset, impetraturum non fuisse ? cum illi sanc- 
tissimi viri fuerint ; aeque autem nefas sit tale aliquid 
et facere rogatum et rogare. At vero Ti. Gracchum 20 
sequebantur C. Carbo C. Cato, et minime tum quidem 
Caius frater, nunc idem acerrimus. 

4. perfecta — 8apientia\ Sach as nas for his opposition to the agra- 

the Stoics lay down for their ideal rian iaw of Gracchas. See page 

standard. 231. — C. Ccrfo] The younger son 

10. Papum Aemilium] Q. Pa- of Cato Licinianus, and grandson 

pns Aomilias had C. Fabricius for of Cato the censor ; he was in pol- 

his colleague as consal, B. C. 282 itics a follower of Ti. Oracchas. 

and 278» and as censor, B. C. 275. -^minime tum'] *At that time 

17. quid — dicere] * What rea- by no means an agitator.* 

Bon is there for saying this/ etc. 22. Caius frater] • His brother 

1'8. impetratarum non] Notice Cains,' who was with the army at 

the position of tion, whicii renders Numuntia daring the political ag- 

the negative idca emphatic. ^tations of his brother Tiberius at 

21. C Carto] He was saspected Rome. — nwicidem] Cicerohere 

of poisoning the yonnger Aftrica- is guilty of a slight anachronism. 




XII. 40. Haec igitur lex in amicitia sanciatur, ut ne- 
que rogemus res turpes nec faciamus rogati. Turpis 
enim excusatio est et minime accipienda cum in ceteris 
peccatis, tum si quis contra rem publicam se amici 
5 causa fecisse fateatur. Etenim eo loco, Fanni et Scae- 
v6la, locati sumus, ut nos longe prospicere oporteat 
futuros casus rei publicae. Deflexit iam aliquantulum 
de spatio curriculoque consuetudo maiorum. Ti. Grao- 
chus regnum occupare conatus est, vel regnavit is qui- 

lOdem paucos mcnses. 41. Num quid simile populus 
Romanus audierat aut viderat? Hunc etiam post 
mortem secuti amici et propinqui quid in P. Scipione 
effecerint sine lacrimis non queo dicere. Nam Carbo- 
nem quocumque modo potuimus propter recentem poe- 

15nam Ti. Gracchi sustinuirnus. De C. Gracchi autem 

'The scene of the dlalogae is laid 
B. C. 129 ; but Caius had not yet 
become a violent advocate of his 
hrother*s mcasures. 

2, Turpis — exctuatid] AtfiWm^ 
when patriotism gavo place to 
more powcrful party iutcrests, the 
principle amici cauaa omiiia faci' 
enda esse was often misapi)licd. 
The meanlng of Uirpis with excu- 
aati^ is not quite the same as in the 
preceding clause with resj where 
the idea of the adjcctive must be 
regarded as wholly objective, 
* morally wrong/ or * inimoral ; ' 
the act itself only being regarded ; 
while here Laelius means to irive 
the subjective side of the adjec- 
tive, i. e. * dishonorahle,' or * dis- 
gr;>ceful,* in the sabjeot. 

5. eo loco] * In such a posi- 

7. Dejlexit] * Has already in 
Bome respect swerved from/ etc 

9. vel—isqmdem] *0r rather 
he actually held the sovereign 
power/ etc. Laelius alludes to 
the tyrannical proceedings of Ti. 
Gracchus in deposing his col- 
lcague M. Octavias from the 

12. in P. Scipione] * In the case 
of P. Scipio.* P. Scipio Nasica, 
although pontifex maximus, head- 
ed the senatorial party in the 
affray which causcd the death of 
Gracchus, B. C. 133. He was 
afterwards sent by the senate into 
Asia to be out of the reach of the 
popular indlgnation, and died 
shortly after, as an exile, in Per- 

15. sustinuimus] * We have put 
up with hiin ; * i. e. * we have re- 
frained from punishinghim.* Cf. 
note on page 2-57, line 21. — C, 
Gracchi] Caius Gracchns did not 
become tribune till B. C. 123, and 


tiibunatu quid exspectern non libet augurari. Sei-pit 
deinde res, quae .proclivius ad peniiciem, cum semel 
coepit, labitur. Videtis in tabella iara ante quanta sit 
facta labes, primo Gabinia lege, biennio autem post 
Cassia. Videre iam videor populnm a senatu disiunc- 5 
tum, raultitudinis arbitrio res raaximas agi. Plures 
enim discent quem ad raodum haec fiant, quam quera ^f^^^ , 
ad moduni his resistatur. 42. Quorsum haec? quia ^^^ \ 
sine sociis nerao quidquam tale conatur. Praecipien- j«^, / -^. 
dum est igitur bonis ut, si in eius raodi araicitias ignari 10 
casu aliquo inciderint, ne existiment ita se adligatos, ut 
ab araicis in raagna aliqua re [publica] peccantibus non 
discedant ; inprobis autera poeua statuenda est ; nec 
vero minor eis, qui secuti erunt alterura, quara eis, qui 
ipsi fuerint inpietatis duces. Quis clarior in Graecia 15 
TheraistScle, quis potentior ? qui, cum imperator bello 
Perstco servitute Graeciam liberavisset propterque invi- 
diam in exsilium expulsus esset, ingratae patriae iniu- 
riam nou tulit, quam ferre debuit. Fecit idem quod 

• Laelius here gives as his forebod- the tribaneship of Ti. Oracchas. 

ings as to the measures which he 4. Gabinid lege] This was pro- 

believed would be adopted to posed by Gabinius, B. C, 139. It 

cany out the-reforms already be- required that all votes for electing 

gun l)y his brother. magistrates should be givcn by 

1. quid exspectem non libet att^ tablets, and not mvd voce, L. 

gurari] * I do not like to coiyec- Cassius extended this mcthod of 

ture what I am to expect.* — Ser- voting to the ludida Poptili, or 

pit deinde rea] * In the next trials in the Comitia, B. C. 137. 

place, a movement is impercepti- 10. bonia] Like inprobis bclow, 

bly making its way.* One devia- has special reference to political 

tion from the custom of the fore- character. 

fathers was to be apprehended in 17. invidiam'] * Unpopularity.' 

the tribuneship of C. Oracchus ; 19. Fecit idem] i. e. ad hostes ss 

another {deinde) in the laws relat- contulit. C. Marcins Coriolanus 

ing to the ballot ( Tabellariae Le- wcnt over to the Volsci, B, C. 

ges), 490, and Themistftcles was ostra- 

3. iam tmte'] That is, before cized fVom Athens, B. C. 471. 


viginti annis ante apiid nos fecerat Coriolanns. His 
adiutor contra patriam inventus est nemo ; itaque sibi 
mortem uterque conscivit. 43. Qufi re talis inprobo- 
rum consensio non modo excusatione amicitiae tegenda 
5 non est, sed potius supplicio orani vindicanda est ; ut 
ne quis concessum putet araicum, vel bellum patriae 
inferentem sequi. Quod quidem, ut res ire coepit, 
haud scio an aliquando futurum Mihi- autem non 
minori curae est, qualis res publica post mortem meam 

10 futura sit, quam qualis hodie sit. 

XIII. 44. Ilaeo igitur prima lex amicitiae sanciatur, 
ut ab amicis honesta petamus, amicorum causa honesta 
faciamus, ne exspectemus quidem dum rogemur; stti- 
dium sempcr adsit, cunctatio absit: consilium vero 

15 dare audeamus libere : plurimum in amicitia amicorum 
bene suadentium valeat auctoritas, eaque et adhibeatur 
ad monendum non modo aperte, sed etiam acriter, si 
res postulabit, et adhibitae pareatur. 45". Nam qui- 
busdam, quos audio sapientes habitos in Graecia, pla- 

20 cuisse opinor mirabilia quaedam — sed nihil est, quod 
illi non persequantur argutiis : — partim fugiendas esse 
nimias amicitias, ne necesse sit unum sollicitum esse 
pro pluribus; satis superque esse sibi suarum cuique 

2. itaqtie] Equiyalent to et ita, 20. mirabiUa quaedam] * Some 

Z. mortem — conscivit] Histori- strange vicws.* 

ans diflfer in regard to the manner * 21. argutiis] * Subtleties.' • 

of their death. Cf. Grote, iv. page 22. nimias amicitias] Cicero 

43, and Mommscn, i. page 360. secms to have had in mind a pas- 

7. Qttod] Refers to amicum — sagefromthe Hippolytus of Eu- 

aequi in the preceding sentence. riptdes, v. 253 : — 

13. dumrogemur] *Till wc are itbehoovesmentoformmoderateMend- 

askcd.' ships with each other, 

18. et adhibitae pareatur] * And ^"^* "«* ^o the very marrow of the soal. 

that we give heed to it whcn so 23. satis — rerum] * That every 

employed ; * pareatur is used im- one has enongh, and more than 

pcrsonally. — quibusdam] The enough, of his own matters to at- 

Epicureans. tend to.' 


rerum, alienis nimis inplicari molestum esse ; commodis- 
Bimum esse quam laxissimas habenas habere amicitiae, 
quas vel adducas cum velis vel remittas ; caput enim 
ease ad beate vivendum securitatem, qua frui non pos- 
sit animus, si tam.quam parturiat unus pro pluribus. 5 

46. Alios autem dicere aiunt multo etiam inhumanius 
— quem locum breviter pauUo ante perstrinxi — praesi- 
dii adiumentique causa, non benevolentiae neque carita- 
tis, amicitias esse expetendas ; itaque, ut quisque mini- 
mum firmitatis haberet minimumque virium, ita amici-10 
tias adpetere maxime : ex eo fieri, ut mulierculae magis 
amicitiarum praesidia quaerant quam viri, et inopes 
quam opulenti, et calamitosi quam ii, qui putantur beati. 

47. O praeclaram sapientiam ! Solem enim e mundo 
tollere videntur ii, qui amicitiam e vita tollunt, qua nihil 16 
a dis inmortalibus melius habemus, nihil iucundius. 
Quae est enim ista securitas? Specie quidem blanda, 
sed reapse multis locis repudianda. Neque enim est 
cousentan^um ullam honestam rem actionemve, ne sol- 
licitus sis, aut non suscipere aut sUsceptam deponere. 20 
Quod si curam fugimus, virtus fugienda est, quae 
necesse est cum aliqua cura res sibi contrarias agperne- 
tur atque oderit; ut bonitas malitiam, temperantia 
libidinem, ignaviam fortitudo. Itaque videas rebus 
iniustis iustos maxime dolere, inbellibus fortes, flagiti- 25 
osis modestos. Ergo hoc proprium est animi bene con- 
stituti, et laetari bonis rebus et dolere contrariis. 48. 

5. captti — securitatem'] *That IZ. calamitosi] * Those in dis- 
the chief thiiipj: for a happy life is trcss.' 

freedom frorn care.' 14. O praedaram sapientiani] 

6. inhumanius] * More uufeel- Spokcn ironically. 

ingly.' 21. quae] Refers to virtus. 

7. paullo ante] In chapter viii. 22. aspernetur — oderit] Sab- 
9. itaque] Is here equivalent to junctives with ut omitted after ne- 

atque ita, * and accordinj^ly.' cesae est. 


Quam ob rem si cadit in sapientem animi dolor, qui 
profecto cadit, nisi ex eius animo exstirpatam humani- 
•tatem arbitramur ; quae causa est cur amicitiam fundi- 
tus tollamus e vita, ne aliquas propter eam suscipiaraus 
5 molestias ? Quid enim interest motu animi sublato, 
non dico inter pecudem et hominem, sed inter homi- 
nem et truncum aut saxum aut quidvis generis eius- 
dem? Neque enim sunt isti audien<li, qui viitutem 
duram et quasi ferream esse quandam voluut; quae 

10 quidem est cum multis in rebus tura in amicitia tenera 
atque tractabilis, ut et bonis amici quasi difTundantur 
et incommodis contrahantur. Quam ob rem angor 
iste, qui pro amico saepe capiendus est, non tantum 
valet, ut tollat e vita amicitiam, non plus quam ut vir- 

15 tutes, quia nonnullas curas et molestias adferunt,' re- 

XIV. Cum antem contrahat amicitiam, ut supra 
dixi, si qua significatio virtutis eluceat, ad quam se 

. similis animus adplicet et adiungat ; id cum contingit, 

20 amor exoriatur necesse est. 49. Quid enim tam absur- 
dum quara delectari multis inanibus rebus, ut honore, 
ut gloria, ut aedificio, ut vestitu cultuque corpoiis; 
animo autem virtute praedito, eo qui vel amare vel, ut 
ita dicam, redamare possit, non admodum delectari ? 

25N"ihil est enim remuneratione benevolentiae, nihil vicis- 
situdine stuiliorum officiorumque iucundius. 50. Quid ? 
si illud etiam addimua, quod recte addi potest, nihil 
esse quod ad se rem uUam tam adliciat et tam attrahat 

4. propter eam] * Because of it.* 17. contrahat] The subjcct is to 

11. tractabilis] * Suiccptihle.* 1)C suppliud froin tlie dause, «'- 

— dljfuiidantur — contrahantur'] qua — eluceaty which follows. — 

Gc. homiiies ; * expand (with joy) ssupra] In viii. 28, and xi. 37. 

and t.hriiik (with sorrow) ;* amid 21. delectan] The subject bcing 

is hcrc in the gcnitive case. mdcfinite is omitted. 


qnara ad amicitiam similitudo ; concecletnr profecto 
verum esse, ut bonos boni diligant adsciscantque sibi 
quasi propinquitate coniunctos atque natura. Nihil est 
enim adpetentius similium sui, nec rapacius, quam na- / 
tura. Qunm ob rem hoc quidem, Fanni et ScaevSla, 5 
constat, ut opinor, bonis inter bonos quasi necessariara 
benevolentiam, qui est ainicitiae fons a natura consti- 
tutus. Sed eadem bouitas etiam ad multitudinem per- 
tinot. Non enim est inhumana virtus neque immunis 
neque superba, quae etiam populos universos tueri eis- 10 
que optiine consulere soleat ; qnod non faceret pro- 
fecto, si a caritate vulgi abhorroret. 51. Atque etiam 
mihi quidem videntur, qni utilitatis causa fingunt ami- 
citias, amabilissimum nodurn aniicitiae tollere. Non 
enim tam utilitas parta per araicum, quam amici amorl5 
ipse delectjit ; tumque illud fit, quod ab amico est pro- 
fectum, iucundnm, si cum studio est profoctum; tan- 
tumque abest, ut amicitiae propter indigontiam colan- 
tur, ut ii, qui opibus et copiis maximequo virtute, ;n 
qua pluriin;im est ijra^i^ii, raininic^Ucvius i^nd^hiit, 20 
liberalissifnTnMx^r^Beneficentissimi. "iVtquo haud 
sciam an ne opus sit quidem nihil umquara omnino 
deesse amicis. TJbi enim studia nostra viguissent, si 

1. similitudo] I\\ tlio nomina- mankind in p-eneral/ — Atque eti- 

tive by attraction to the subject of ani] * And what is Ftill more.' 
adliciat and attrahtit.' Cf. De Se- 17. cum studio] * Wilh zculous 

nectutey paire 170, note to linc 9 affcction.* 

7. be)ieiolentinm] Sc. esse. — 19. op.hus — virtttte] Ablatlves 

qui] Masculinc by attraction to of causc. 
fons in the prcdicatc. 21 haud sciam an] The potcn- 

9. immwiis] • Unwilling to do tial Bnbjiinctivc. * I am not surc 
ascrvice;* ' disobliginjr.' that it is rcquisite th:it fricnds 

10. quae — soleat] * Inasmncli should ncvcr stan.i in any need.* 
as she is accustomed/ ctc. 23. Vbi — viguisseni] * For 

12. 81 — ahhorreret] * Were she wherein would our devotion (to 
to shrink fron» any affection for him) have displayed itself,* etc 


numquam consilio, numquara opera nostra, nec doriii 
neo militiae Scipio eguisset ? Non igitur utilitatem 
amicitia, sed utilitas amicitiam consecuta est. 

XY. 52. Non ergo erunt homines deliciis diffluentes 
5 audiendi, si quando de amicitia, quam nec usu nec ra- 
tione habent cognitam, disputabunt. Nam quis est, 
pro deorura fidem atque horainum ! qui velit, ut neque 
diligat quemquam nec ipse ab ullo diligatur, circum- 
fluere omnibus copiis atque in omniura rerura abundan- 

lOtia vivere? Haec enini cst tyrannorum vita, nimirum 
m qua nuUa fides, nulla cnritas, nulla stabilis benevolen- 
tiae potest esse fiducia ; omnia semper suspecta atque 
BoUicita, nullus locus amicitiae. 53. Quis enim aut 
eom diligat, quem raetuat, aut eum, a quo se metui 

15putet? Coluntur tamen simulatione, dumtaxat ad 
tempus. Quod si forte, ut fit plerumque, ceciderunt, 
tum intellegitur, quam fuerint inopes amicorum ; quod 
Tarquinium dixisse ferunt, tura exsulantera se intellex- 
isse, quos fidos amicos habuisset, quos infidos, cum iara 

20 lieutris gratiam referre posset. 54. Quamquara miror, 
iila superbia et inportunitate, si quemquara amicura 
habere potuit. Atque ut huius, quera dixi, mores 
veros amicos parare non potuerunt, sic multorura opes 
praepotentium excludunt amicitias fideles. Non enim 

4, d^liciis diffluentes] 'Wanton taxat ^w, '* provided one esti- 
in sensual delights/ Dijiuere is mates it,* or * but only/ 

almost the opposite of continere, 18. Tarquiniuni] i. e. Tarquini- 

and is here used in a bad sense. ns Superbus, the seventh king of 

Cf. our words * to dissipate,' ' dis- Rome. 

fiipation.' 20. miror—si] * I wonder that.' 

5. quam — ?iabeni] * Of which — superbia et inportunitate] Are 
thej' have neither a practical nor to be regarded as ablatives abso- 
a theoretical knowledge.* lute, being equivalent to cum tnti- 

7. ut—^diHffat] 'Onthecondi- ta eiu» superbta el inportunitas 
tjon that,' etc. Juerii. — Znmpt, § 472, note 1. 

15. dumtaxat} That is, dum 22. htdus] i. e. Tarqainios. 


golum ipsa Fortuna caeca est, sed eos etiam plerumque 
efficit caecos, quos conplexa est. Itaque efferuntur 
fere fastidio et contumucia, nec quidquam insipiente 
fbrtunato intolerabiliusfieri potest. Atque hoc qui- 
dem videre licet, eos, qui antea commodis fuerint mori- 5 
bus, inperio, potestate, piosperis rebus inmutari, sperni 
ab eis veteres amicitias, indulgeri novis. 56. Quid 
autem stultius, quam cum plurimum copiis, facultatibus, 
opibus possint, -cetera pnrare, quae parantur pecunia, 
equos, famulos, vestem egregiam, vasa pretiosa ; amicos 10 
non parare, optimam et pulcherrimam vitae, ut ita 
dicam, supellectilera ? Etenim cetera cum parantur, 
cui parentur nesciunt nec cuius causa laborent ; eius 
enira est istorum quidque, qui vicit viribus ; amicitiarum 
sua cuique permanet stabilis et certa possessio, ut,etinm 15 
si illa maneant, quae sunt quasi dona Fortunae, tamcn 
vita inculta et deserta ab amicis non possit esse iucun- 
da. Sed haec hactenus. 

XVI. 56. Constituendi sunt autem, qui sint in ami- 
citia fines et quasi termini diligendi; de (][uibus tres20 
video sententias ferri, quarum nullam probo : unam, ut 
eodera modo erga amicos adfecti. simus, quo crga nos- 
met ipsos ; alteram, ut nostra in amicos benevolentia 
illorura erga nos benevolentiae pariter aequaliterque 
respondeat ; tertiam, ut, quanti quisque se ipse f icit, 25 
tanti fiat ab amicis. 57. Ilarum trium sententiarum 
nulli prorsus adsentior. Nec enim illa prima vera est, 
ut, quem ad modum in se quisque sit, sic in amicum sit 

2, effenmtur] Such persons l^. eius — quidque] * "Eyctj otiq 

* are puffed up,' etc. of these thiiigs belongs Xo him.' 

4. hoc — Ucet] *One m;iy ob- 19. Constituendi suni] A blend- 

serve this/ etc. ing of two constructions : consti- 

7. indulgeri] Used imperson- tuendum est, qui sint JineSy etc, 

ally ; * new ones are cherished.' and conatitumdi auivtJineSf etc. 


animatas. Quam raulta enim, quae nostri causa num- 
qnara faeeremus, facimus causa araicorura ! precari ab 
indigno, supplicare; tura acerbius iri aliquera invehi,in- 
sectaiique veheraentius ; quae in nostris rebus non satis 
5honeste, in araicorum fiunt honestissime ; multaeque 
res sunt, in quibus de suis comraodis viii boni multa 
detrahunt detrahique patiuntur, ut eis araici potius 
quam ipsi fruantur. 68. Altera sententi.i est, quae de- 
finit amicitiam paribus officiis ac vohmlatibus. IIoo 

10 quidera est nirais exigue et exiliter ad calculos vocare 
amicitiam, ut par sit ratio acceptorura et datorum. 
Divitior mihi et adfluentior videtur esse vera amicitia, 
nec observare restricte, ne phis reddat qiiam acceperit. 
Neque enira verendum est, ne quid excidat, aut ne quid 

15 in terram defluat, aut ne plus aequo quid in amicitiam 
congeratur. 59. Tertius vero ille finis deterrimus, ut, 
quanti quisque se ipse faciat, tanti fiat ab amicis. Saepe 
enira in quibusdara aut aniraus abiectior est, aut spes 
amplificandae fortunae fractior. Non est igitur amici 

20 talem esse in eura, qnalis ille in se est ; sed potius eniti 
et efficere, ut araici iacentera animurn excitet inducat- 
que in spera cogitationernque raeliorera. AJius igitur 
finis verae araicitiae constituendus est, si prius, quid 
raaxime repi*ehendere Scipio solitus sit, edixero. Nega- 

25 bat ullam vocem inimiciorem amicitiae potuisse reperi- 
ri quam eius, qui dixisset ita amare oportere, ut si 
aliquando esset osurus ; nec vero se adduci posse, ut 

4. quae] * Things which,* re- U. ut—daforwn'] *So that the 

fcrring to tlie prcccdiii^ iniiniti vcs. account of debits and credits may 

10. ad ca^culos] 'To^rediico be equal.* 

friendship to a m.itrer of mcrc cal- 27. esset osunts] The pbjcct is 

culation.' The calculus, or ^small thc indefinite piououn to be sup- 

pebblc/ was often used by the plied. The sentimcnt appcars to 

Romans for the purpose of reck- have been taken from the Aiax of 

oning or making calculations. Sophocles, v. 678, sq. : — 


boc, quom ad moilum putaretur, a Biante dictum esse 
crederet, qui sapiens habitus esset unus e septem ; 
inpuri cuiusdam aut ambitiosi aut omnia ad suani poten- 
tiara revocantis esse sententiam. Quonam enim moclo 
quisquam amicus esse poterit eius, cui se putablt ini- 5 
micum esse posse? Quin etiam necesse erit cupere et 
optare, ut quam saepissime peccet amicus, quo plu.res 
det sibi tamquam ansas ad reprehendendum ; rursum 
autem recte factis commodisque amicorum necesse erit 
angi, dolere, invidere. 60. Qua re hoc quideni prae-10 
ceptum, cuiuscumque est, ad tollendam amicitiam 
valet ; illud potius praecipiendum fiiit, ut eam diligen- 
tiam adhiberemus in amicitiis comparandis, ut ne quan- 
do amare inciperemus eum, quem aliquando odisse 
possemus. Quin etiam si minus felices in deligendo 15 
fuissemus, ferendum id Scipio potius quam inimicitia- 
rum tempus cogitandum putabat. 

XVII. 61. His igitur finibus utendura arbitror, ut, 
cum emendati mores amicorura sint, tura sit inter eos 
omnium rerum, consiliorura, voluntatura sine ulla ex-20 
ceptione coraraunitas ; ut, etiara si qua fortuna accide- 
rit, ut minus iustae amicorum voluntates attiuvandae 
sint, in quibus eorum aut caput agatur aut fama, decli- 
uandum de via sit, modo ne summa turpitudo sequa- 

Siiicc, for my part, I am cven now thcy lovc as cxpcctin^ to hate, 

aware that our enemy ia so far to be a„j jjatc oa cxpccting to lovc' 

hated by us, as though hc may yct aguhi ^ ^ ^ -i /^ 

be our mena; and to my frieid I will , ^. cuperc et optaraj Cupere rc 

bo wlllhig thus far, by aiding, to bo of fcrs to tnc impiilsc of tlic foclmss ; 

service, ns if lio were not always to re- optare rathcr to thc wish, as dic- 

maiu so. tctcd l)y rcason. 

1. hoc] Thc snbjcct of dictum 23. caput] llcfcrs hcre not only 

essc — a Biantc] Aristotlc, l.ow- to j^ljysical lifc, but also to civil 

evcr (Rhct. ii. 13), rcfcrs the max- privilcgcs and political cxistcncc. 

im to Bias, in a pissage whcre, — declinandum devia sit] *AVo 

P})caliing of the acred, hc Bays : shoiild dcviutc a lii;tle from tho 

* Following tho advice of Bias, (straight) path.' 


tnr; est enim qnrttenus amieitiae dari venia possit. 
Nec vero neglegttnda est famn, nec mediocre telum ad 
res gercndas oxistimare oportet benevolentiara civium ; 
quam blanditiis et adsentando colligere turpe est : 
5virtu8, quam sequitur caritas, minime repudianda est. 
62. Sed — saepe enim redeo ad Scipionem, cuius omnis 
sermo erat de amicitia — querebatur, quod omnibus in 
rebus homines diligentiores essent : cupras et oves quot 
quisque h.iberet dicere posse, aniicos quot haberet non 

lOpos^e dicere, et in illis quidem parandis adhibere curam, 
in amicis eligendis neglegentes esse, nec habere quasi 
signa qnaedam et notas, quibus eos, qui ad amicitiam 
essent idonei, iudicarent. Sunt igitur firmi et stabiles 
et constantes eligendi, cuius generis est magna penuria, 

15 et iudicare difiicile est sane nisi cxpertum ; experien- 
dnm autem est in ipsa amicitia ; ita praeourrit amici- 
tia iudicium, tollitque experiendi potestatem. 68. Est 
igitur prudentis sustinere ut currum, sio impetum bene- 
volentiae, quo utamur quasi equis temptatis, sic ami- 

20 citia, aliqua parte periclitatis moribus amicorum. Qui- 
dam saepe in pai-va pecunia perspiciuntur quam sint 
leves ; quidam autem, quos parva movere non potuit, 
cognoscuntur in magna. Sin erunt aliqui reperti, qui 
pecuniam praeferre amicitiae sordidum existiment, ubi 

25 eos inveniemus, qui honores, magistratus, inperia, po- 
tcstates, opes amicitiae non anteponant, ut, cum ex 
altera parte proposita haec sint, ex altera ius amicitiae, 

1. est — quatentts] *Forthere 15. nijti expertum'] * Unless we 
is a point to \\ hich,* etc. have had experience.' 

2. nec mediocre telum] * As an 19. quo] Eqnivalent to ut eo. 
engine of no ordinary valuc.* 20. periclitatis — amicorum"] 

7. omnibua in relnMi] Sc. aliis. *When thecharacterofourfriends 

This passage is taken almost lit- has been in some measure tested.' 

crally from Xenophou'» Memora- 21. in parva pecunia] * In the 

bil:a, ii. 4, 2, sq. matter of a small sam of money., 


non raulto illa malint ? Inbecilla enim est natura ad 
contemnendam potentiam ; quam etiam si, neglecta 
amicitia, consecuti sunt, obscuratum iri arbitrantur, 
quia non sine magna causa sit neglecta amicitia. 64. 
Itaque verae amicitiae difficillime reperiuiitur in eis, 5 
qui in honoribus reque publica versantur. TJbi enim 
istum invenias, qui honorera araici anteponat su^? 
Quid ? haec ut omittam, quam graves, quam difficiles 
plerisque videntur calamitatum societates ! ad quas noa 
est facile inventa.qui descendat. Quamquam EnniuslO 
recte: — 

Amicns c^rtus in re incerta cernitnr, 

tamen haec duo levitatis et infirmitatis plerosque con- 
vincunt, aut si in bonis rebus contemnunt, aat in malis 
deserunt. 15 

XVIII» Qui igitur utraque in re gravem, constantem, 
stabilem se in amicitia praestiterit, hunc ex maxime 
raro genere hominum iudicare debemus et paene di- 
vino. 65. Firmaraentum autem stabilitatis constan- 
tiaeque est eius, quam in amicitia quaeriraus, iideB.20 
Nihil est enim stabile, quod infidum est. Simplicem 
praeterea et communem et consentientem, id est, qui 
rebus eisdem moveatur, eligi par est ; quae omnia per- 
tinent ad fidelitatem. Neque enim fidum potest esse 
multiplex ingenium et tortuosum ; neque vero, qui non 25 
eisdem rebus movetur naturaque consentit, aut fidus 
aut stabilis potest esse. Addendum eodem est, ut ne 

1. illa] * The former/ own prosperity or his fHend'8 ad- 

3. obacunUum irt] Their neg- yersity. 

lecfwill be veilcd.* 21. SimpUcem — eaf] •More- 

13. haec duo] * These two ' tests oyer, it is essential that one be 
of incofistiiney and weakness. chosen who is open-hearted, who 

14. contemnunt — deserunt] Sc pnts himself on the same foocing 
amtcof as object. with others (communis), and is 

16. utraque in re] That is, in his congcnial in his sentiments/ etc 


crirainibus aut inferendis delectetur aut credat oblatis ; 
quae pertinent orania ad eara, quam iara dudum tracto, 
constantiara. Ita fit verum illud, quod initio dixi, 
araicitiara nisi inter bonos esse non posse. Est enim 
5boni viri, quem eundem sapientem licet dicere, haec 
duo tenere in amicitia : pi-imura, ne quid iictura sit, 
neve simulatum ; aperte enim vel odisse niagis ingenui 
est quam fronte occultare sententiam : deinde, non 
Bolum ab aliquo adlatas criminationes repellere, sed ne 

10 ipsum quidem esse suspiciosum, semper aliquid existi- 
mantem ab amico esse violatum. 66. Accedat huc 
suavitas quaedam oportet sermonum atque morura, 
haudquaquara mediocre condimentum amicitiae. Tris- 
titia autem et in omni re severitas habet illa quidem 

15 gravitatem ; scd amicitia remissior esse debet et liberior 
et dulcior et ad omnem comitatem facilitatemque pro- 

XIX. 67. Exsistit autem hoc loco quaedam quaestio 
subdifficilis : num quando araici novi, digni amicitia, 

20 veteribus sint anteponendi, ut equis vetulis teneros an- 
teponere solemus. Indigna homine dubitatio! Non 
enim debent esse amicitiarum, sicut aliarum rerumy 
satietates ; veterrima quaeque, ut ea vina, quae vetus-* 
tatem ferunt, esse debent suavissima, veruraque illud 

25 est, quod dicitur, ^. multos modios salis simul edendos 

2. iam dudum tracto] Thepres- 11. AccedaH] Subjnnctive with 

ent is often thus used with iam ut to be supplied aftcr oportet. 
dudum of that whic^ has been be- 13. Tristitia] * Seriousness.' 
gun in the past timc and still con- 14. iUa quidem] On this pleo- 

tinues ; hcnce we can translate, nnstic use of ille cf. Zumpt, § 744. 
*0f wliich I have now for some 23. quae — ferunt] * Whichbear 

time been treating.' age well.' 
5. eundem] * At the samc time.' 25. modios saUs] .The meanfng 

8. fronte — aententiam] * To of the proverb is, that a long inti- 

conceal his (unfriendly) fcelings macy is required before we can be 

nnder a (smooth) brow.' sure whom to accept as Mends. 


esse, ut amicitiae munus expletum sit." 68. Xovitates 
autem, si spem adfeiunt, ut tamquam in herbis non 
fallacibus fructus adpareat, non sunt illae quidem re- 
pudiandae ; vetustas tamen suo loco conservanda ; 
niaxima est enim vis vetustatis et consuetudinis. Quin 5 
etiam in ipso equo, cuius modo feci mentionem, si nulla 
res inpediat, nemo est quin eo, quo consuevit, libentius 
utatur quam intractato et novo; nec vero in boc, quod 
est animal, sed in eis etiam, quae sunt inanima, consue- 
tudo valet ; cum locis ipsis delectemur, montuosis etiam 10 
et silvestribus, in quibus diutius commorati sumus. 
69. Sed maximum est in amicitia parem esse inferiori. 
Saepe enim excellentiae quaedam sunt, qualis erat 
Scipionis in nostro, ut ita dicam, grege. Numquam 
se ille Philo, numquam Rupilio, numquam Mummio 15 
anteposuit, numquam inferioris ordinis amicis. Q. vero 
Maximnm fratrem, egregium virum omnino, sibi nequa- 
quam parem, quod is antelbat aetate, tamquam supe- 
riorem colebat, suosque omnes per se esse ampliores 

1. Nopitates] * New friend- were dlstingnished for their in- 
ships.* tellectual cultare and love of 

2. non faUacibtis] 'Thatdonot learning. Mummius was the 
disappoint the hopes of tbe farm- brother of L. Mummius, the con- 
er.* Cf. Ovid, V. 140. queror of Corinth. 

3. iUae] Cf. page 270, line 14. 17. Maa^mum] Q. Fabius Max- 
7. quo constievit] Sc. uti, Xmus Aemilianus, the cldest son 

12. maximum est] *It isof the of L. PauIIus Aemilius Macedon- 
/greatest importance.* Icus, and hence the brothcr of 

13. exceUentiae] Qualities, when Scipio Aemilianus, had been 
attributed to several persons, are adopted by Q. Fabius Maximus. 
frcquently used in the plural. — omnino — parem] * Certnin- 
The plural in this case often de- ly, (but) by no means equal to 
notes different species of the same himself.' The omission of tbe con- 
quality. — Zumpt, § 92, note 1. junction strengthens the adversa- 

15. Philo — Rupilio — Mummio] ti ve idea, 

These aU belonged to that cotcrie 19. per se — ampliores] * To re- 

or group of scholars who clustered ceive additional dignity through 

aroand Scipio and Laelius, and himself.' 


volebat. 70. Qaod faciendum imitandumqae est omni- 
bus, ut, 81 quam praestantiam virtutia, ingenii, fortunae 
consecuti sunt, inpertiant ea suis communicentque cura 
proximis, ut, si parentibus nati sint humilibus, si pro- 
5piiiquos babeant inbecilliores vel apimo vel fortuna, 
eorum augeant opes eisque honori sint et dignitati ; ut 
in fabulis, qui aliquamdiu propter ignorationem stirpis 
et generis in famulatu fuerint, cum cogniti sunt et ant 
deorum aut regum filii inventi, retinent tamen carita- 

10 tem in pastores, quos patres multos annos esse duxe- 
runt. Quod est multo profecto magis in veris patribus 
certisque faciendum. Fructus enim ingenii et virtutis 
omnisque praestantiae tum maximus capitur, cum in 
proximum quemque confertur. 

15 XX. 71. Ut igitur ii, qui sunt in amicitiae coniunc- 
tionisque necessitudine superiores, exaequare se cum in- 
ferioribus debent, sic inferiores non dolere se a suis aut 
ingenio aut fortuna aut dignitate superari. Quorum 
plerique aut queruntur semper aliquid, aut etiam expro- 

20 brant ; eoque magis, si habere se putant quod officiose 
et amice et cum labore aliquo suo factum queant di- 
cere ; odiosum sane genus hominum, ofi^cia exprobran- 
tinm, quae meminisse debet is, in quem conlata sunt, 
non commemorare qui contulit. 72. Quam ob rem, ut 

3. ea] Here refers to the re- as a natural friendship. Cf. y. 
snlts of praestantiam. 19. 

4. proximis'] * Tbeir q^arest 18. Quorum'] i. e. aed eorum. 
relatives,* or * next of kin.' 19. exprobrarU^ * Break out into 

7. in fabuUs] * In myths/ open remonstrances.* 

Seyffert, however, refers these . 21. suo] * On their own part." 

words to theatrical representa- 22. odiosum — genus] Inappo- 

tions, * in plays.* As examples, sition to plerique^ in line 19, above. 

Romttlus and Remus, Cyrus, Se- — hominumy officia expTohranti-^ 

mir&mis, and Oedlpus may be tim] *0f people, who cast the 

mcntioned. kindnesses which they have dono 

15. coniwnctionis] * Of kindred,' you into your teeth.* 


ii, qai snperiores satit, snbmittere se debent in amicitiai 
sio quodam modo inferiores extollere. Sunt enim qui- 
dam, qui molestas amicitias faciunt, cum ipsi se contem* 
ni putant ; quod non fere contingit nisi eis, qui etiam 
contemnendos se arbitrantur, qui hac opinione non mo* 5 
do verbis, sed etiam opere levandi sunt. 73. Tantum 
autem cuique tribuendum, primum, quantum ipse effi- 
cere possis ; deinde etiam, quantum ille, quem diligaa 
atque adiuves, sustinere. Non enim neque tu possis, 
quamvis licet excellas, omnes tuos ad honores amplissi- 10 
raos perducere: ut Scipio P. Rupilium potuit consu* 
lem efficere, fratrem eius Lucium non potuit ; quod A 
etiara possis quidvis deferre ad altenim, videndum est 
taraen quid ille possit sustinere. 74. Oranino amicitiae 
corroboratis iam coniirmatisque et ingeniis et aetatibus 15 
iudicandae sunt, nec, si qui ineunte aetate venandi aut 
pilae studiosi fnerunt, eos habere necessarios, quos tuiji 
eodem studio praeditos dilexerunt. Isto enim modo 

I. ntbmUtere ««] * To lower Laenas» the year after the mnrder 
themselves' to the levelof their of Ti. Gracchus. He wasan io- 
less favorcd fHends. timate ft^icnd of Scipio Aflricanns 
• 2. inferiores extoUere] • To raise Minor, who obtained the consul- 
np their inferiors.' Some editors, ehip for him, bnt who faiied in the 
however, supply ae with extoUere, attempt to gain the same honor 
and malte inferiores the subject of for his brothor Lucius. He is 
debent. said to have taken his brother'^ 

3. molestas] Here a predicate failure so much to heart as to 

a^ective ; * who render fHend- have died in conseqaence. 

ships sources of annoyance.' — 14. Omnitio — iudicandae tHn^ 

ipsi] * They thcmselves,' as con- The idea is, * We ouglit nottapass 

trasted with amicitiast their rela- our judgment upon friendships 

tions of friendship. uutil both the natural disposition 

9. Non—'neque] For the two and agc htive been established and 
negatives cf. Madvig, § 460, obs. 2. matured.' 

10. qitamvis licet] * However 17. habere] Sc. iudicandum eai, 
much.' * Nor ought we to judge tliat they 

II. P, RupiHum] He was con- should have as intimate friends 
sul, B. C. 132, with C. Popilios those, whom,' etc. 



nutrices et paedagogi iure vetustatis plurimum bene- 
volentiae postulabuut; qui neglegendi quidem non 
sunt, sed alio qnodam modo. Aliter araicitiae stabiles 
permanere non possnnt. Dispares enim mores disparia 
6 studia sequuntur, quornm dissimilitudo dissociat ami- 
citias; nec ob aliam causam uUam boni inprobis, in- 
probi bonis amici esse non possunt, nisi quod tanta est 
inter eos, quanta maxima potest esse, morum studio- 
rumque distantia. 75. Recte etiam praecipi potest in 

10 amicitiis, ne intemperata quaedam benevolentia, quod 
persaepe fit, inpediat magnas utilitates amicorum. 
Nec enim, ut ad fabulas redeam, Troiam Neoptolemus 
capere potuisset, si Lycomedem, apud quem erat edu- 
catus, multis cum lacrimis iter suum inpedientem audire 

15voluisset; et saepe incidunt magnae res, ut disceden- 
dum sit ab amicis ; quas qui iripedire vult, quod desi- 
derium non facile ferat, is et infirmus est moUisque 
natura et ob eam ipsam causam in amicitia parum 
iustus. 76. Atque in omni re considerandum est, et 

20 quid postules ab amico et quid patiare a te impetrari. 

1. ptiedagofft] ThQpaedcigogtu, 5, aeqmmtttr] Mores is the snb- 

or * boy-conductor,* was a slave ject and atudia is the object. 

employed by the Greeksto snper- 12. NeoptoUmus] NeoptolCmus, 

intend the moral habits of hia called also Pyirhus, was the son 

master^s son, accompany him in of Achilles and Deidamia, and 

his walks, conduct him to and had been intrusted to Lycomedes, 

from school, and perhaps also to kin^f of Scyros, to be brought up. 

give instruction at home. The Accordinj? to an oracle, Troy 

wealthy Romans seem to have could not betaken withouttheaid 

had Greek slaves to look after of one of the descendants of 

thcir children, and hence the Aeacus. 

name of paedagogus was general- 14. inpedientem] Here equiva- 

ly adopted by them. — Rich, sub lent to the conative imperfect ; 

voce. * who was endeavoring to pre- 

3. alio — modo] Here must be vent.* 

snpplied some verb raeaning * are 17. molUs] * Unmanly.* 

to be treated,' or the like. Some 18. parum iustus] *Not fitted 

MSS. have dtUgendi after modo, to be a truo friend.' 


XXI. Est etiam quaedarn calamitas in amicitiis 
dimittendis non numquam necessaria ; iam enim a 
sapientium familiaritatibus ad vnlgares amicitias oratio 
nostra delabitur. Erumpunt saepe vitia amicorum tum 
in ipsos amicos, tum in alienos, quorum tamen ad ami- 5 
cos redundet infamia. Tales igitur amicitiae sunt 
remissione usus eluendae et, ut Catonem dicere audivi, 
dissuendae magis quam discindendae ; nisi quaedam 
admodum intolerabilis iniuria exarserit, ut neque rec- 
tum neque bonestum sit nec fieri possit, ut non statim 10 
alienatio disiunctioque facienda sit. 77. Sin autem 
aut morum aut studiomm commutatio quaedam, ut 
fieri solet, facta erit aut in rei publicae partibus dissen- 
sio intercesserit, — loquor enim iam, ut pauUo ante dixi, 
non de sapientium, sed de communibus amicitiis, — 15 
cavendum erit ne non solum amicitiae depositae, sed 
etiam inimicitiae susceptae videantur. Nihil enim tur- 
pius quam cum eo bellum gerere, quicum familiariter 
vixeris. Ab amicitia Q. Pompeii meo nomine se re- 
moverat, ut scitis, Scipio ; propter dissensionem autem, 20 
quae erat in re publica, alienatus est a collega nostro 
Metello : utrumque egit graviter, auctoritate et offen- 
sione animi non acerba. 78. Quam ob rem primum 
danda opera est, ne qua amicorum discidia fiant ; sin 

6. redundet] Tlie snT)janctive candiclate for the offlce, and thns 

of result ; iraplying an essential throwing Laclius ofF his guard. 

peculiarity and necessary conse- On this account Scipio renounced 

quence of these faults. Rcnder: his acqnaintance. — meo nomine] 

* Yet in sucli a manncr that the * On my account/ 

disgrace falls back on the friends.* 22. Meedlo] Q. Caecilius Metel- 

Quorum refcrs, to vitiorum in ali- lus MacedonTcus, a colleague of 

eno8 erumpeiitium, Scipio nnd Laelius, as angur, was 

19. Q. Pompeii] Q. Pompeins a political opponent of Scipio, and 

Nepos, who gained the consul- yet one of the firat to recogniiso 

ship, B. C. 141, against Laelius, his greatness after his death. 

by pretending that he was not a See page 231. 


tale aliqaid eyenerit, nt exstinctae potias amicitlae 
quam oppressae esse yideantur. Cayendum vero ne 
etiam in grayes inimicitias conyertant se amicitiae : ex 
quibus iurgia, maledicta, contumeliae gignuntur. Quae 
5 tamen, si tolerabiles erunt, ferendae sunt, et bic bonos 
veteri amicitiae tribuendus, ut is in culpa sit, qui faciaty 
non qui patiatur iuiuriam. 

Omnino omnium horum vitiorum atque incommodo- 
rum una cautio est atque una proyisio, ut ne nirnis cito 

10 diligere incipiant, neye non dignos. 79. DigTii autem 
Bunt amicitia, quibus in ipsis inest causa, cur diligantur. 
Rarum genus! et quidem omnia praeclara rara, neo 
quidquam difficilius quam reperire quod sit omni ex 
parte in suo genere perfectum. Sed plerique neque in 

15rebus humanis quidquam bonum nortmt, nisi quod 
fructuosum sit; et amicos — tamquam pecudes — eos 
potissimum diligunt, ex quibus sperant se maximum 
fructum esso capturos. 80. Ita pulcherrima illa et 
maxime naturali carent amicitia per se et propter se ez- 

20 petita, nec ipsi sibi exemplo sunt haec vis amicitiae 
qualis et quanta sit. Ipse enim se quisque diligit, npn 
nt aliquam a se ipse mercedem exigat caritatis suae, 
sed quod per se sibi quisque carus est. Quod nisi 
idem in amicitiam transferetur, verus amicus numquam 

25 reperietur ; est enim is quidem tamquam alter idem. 

1. exsttnctae^oppreiaae] * To connt of its high and noble char- 

have gently died out rather than acteristics, and for its own intrin- 

to have been extinguished with sic worth, withoiit any reference 

violence.' Friendships are here to the advantciges to be gained 

compared to flames. For a simi- fVom it. 

iar use of words, cf. page 217, 20. nec ipsi — qiMnta sit] The 

line 23, sq. idea is, * They do not recognize in 

8. Omnino] i. e. n rem univeT' tbemselves the beaatiful (qutilis) 

iam epeqfatit, and the high {quanta) significa- 

19. per ae etpropter »«] * In it- tion of such a friendship.' 

self and for itself ; ' i. e. on ac- 25. aUer idem] * A second self/ 


81. Qnod si hoo adparet in bestiis, volacribus, nantibns, 
agrestibus, cicuribus, feris, primum ut se ipsae diligant, 
— id enim pariter cum omni animante nascitur, — do- 
inde ut requirant atque adpetant, ad quas se adplicent 
eiusdem generis animantes, idque faciunt cum deside- 5 
rio et cum quadam similitudine amoris humani, quanto 
id magis in homine fit natui*a, qui et se ipse diligit et 
alternm anqnirit, cuius animnm ita cnm sno misceat, 
nt efficiat paene nnum ex duobns ? 

XXII. 82. Sed plerique perverse, ne dicam inpu-10 
denter, habere talem amicum volunt, quales ipsi esse 
non possunt, qna^qne ipsi non tribnunt amicis, haec ab 
eis desiderant. Par est autem primum ipsum esse 
virum bonum, tum alterum similem sui quaerere. In 
talibus ea, quam iam dudum tractajnns, stabilitas ami- 15 
citiae confirmari potest, cum homines benevolentia 
coniuncti primum cupiditatibus eis, quibns ceteri servi- 
unt, inperabunt ; deinde acquitate iustitiaque gaudebunt 
omniaque alter pro altero suscipiet neque quidquam um- 
qnam nisi honestum et rectnm altcr ab altero postulabit, 20 
neqne solum colent inter se ac diligent, sed etiam vere- 
buntur. Nam maximum ornamcntum amicitiae tollit, 
qui ez ea tollit verecundiam. 83. Itaque in eis per- 
niciosus est error, qui existimant libidinum peccatomm- 
que omninm patere in amicitia licentiam. Yirtutum25 
amicitia adintrix a natura data est, non vitiomm 
comes, ut, quoniam solitaria non possbt virtus ad ea, 

9. unum ex duobus] In liko 21. colent — diligent — vere- 

manner Horace speaks of his burUvr] Colent refcrs to the ont- 

friend Virgil : Et servet animae ward manifestcitions of respect ; 

dimidium meae. — Carm. i. 3, 8. diligent to the inward feelings of 

15. taUbus] Refers to vit^um love and esteem ; verebufitur to 

bonum and aUerum nmilem in the sentiments of reverential respect. 

preceding sentence. — traetamtu] 27, ea,guaenimmaswU] <TLe 

Cf. note on Une 2, page 270. highest aims.' 


quao snmma sunt» pervenire, coniuncta et consociata 
cum altera perveniret ; quae si quos inter societas aut 
est aut fuit aut futura est, eorum est habendus ad 
summum naturae bonum optimus beatissimusque comi- 
5tatus. 84. Haec est, inquam, societas, in qua omnia 
insunt, quae putant bomines expetenda, honestas, gloria, 
tranquillitas animi atque iucunditas, ut, et cum haec ad- 
sint, beata vita sit et sine his esse non possit. Quod 
cum optimum maximumque sit, si id volunius.adipisci, 

10 virtuti opera danda est, sine qua nec amicitiam neque 
ullam rem expetendam consequi possumus ; ea vero 
neglecta, qui se amicos habere arbilrantur, tum se deni- 
que errasse sentiunt, cum eos gravis aliquis casus ex- 
periri cogit. 85. Quocirca, — dicendum est enim sae- 

15pius, — cum iudicaveris, diligere oportet, non, cum 
dilexeiis, iudicare. Sed cum multis in rebus neglegen- 
tia plectimur, tum maxime in amicis et diligendis et 
colendis; praeposteris enim utimur consiliis et acta 
agimus, quod vetamur vetere proverbio. Nam inpli- 

20 cati ultro et citro vel usu diuturno vel etiam officiis re- 
pente in medio cursu amicitias exorta aliqua offensione 

XXIIL 86. Quo etiam magis vituperanda est rei 
maxime necessariae tanta incuria. Una est enim ami- 

25 citia; in rebus humanis, de cuius utilitate omnes uuo ore 

2. quo8 inter] Fer inter qtios, custa ctgimiLs] A proverbial ex- 
by anastrophe. pression for loss of hibor ; * we 

3. eorum] We should have ex- have our lal)or for our pains.* Cf. 
pected here ?«, instead of eorumt Terence, Adelphi, ii. 2, 24. 
refcrring to aocietas, but attracted 20. tUtro et citro] * Mutually.* — 
faito the gendcr of comitatus. officiis'] * In kind offlces.' 

16. nefflegentid plectimUr] *We 23. Qiio etiam magis"] *Wliere- 
are punished for our neglii^ence.' fore even the more ; * i. e. on ac- 

IS. praeposteris — utimur]*WG count of the unhappy results 
do that afterwards which we wbich follow from negligence in 
»*^oulddo fli-st, viz., consider.*— «the choice of our frieuds. 


consentiunt ; qnamquam a multis virtus ipsa contemni- 
tur et venditatio quaedam atque ostentatio esse dici- 
tur; multi divitias despiciunt, quos parvo conteutos 
tenuis victus cultusque delectat; honores vero, quorum 
cupiditate quidam inflammantur, quam multi ita con- 5 
temnunt, ut nihil inanius, nihil esse levius existiment! 
itemque cetera, quae quibusdam admirabilia videntur, 
permulti sunt qui pro nihilo putent : de amicitia ornnes 
ad unum idem sentiunt, et ii, qui ad rem publicam se 
contulerunt, et ii, qui rerum cognitione doctrinaque 10 
delectantur, et ii, qui suum negotium gerunt otiosi, 
postremo ii, qui se totos tradiderunt voluptatibus, sine 
amicitia vitam esse nullam, si modo velint aliqulL ex 
parte liberaliter vivere. 87. Seq^it enim nescio quo 
modo per omnium vitas amicitia nec uUam aetatis de- 15 
gendae rationem patitur esse expertom sui. Quin 
etiam si qnis aspevitate ea est et inmanitate naturae, 
congressus ut hominum fugiat atque oderit, qualem 
fuisse Athenis Timonem nescio queiti accepimus, tamen 
is pati non possit, ut non anquirat aliquem, apud quem 20 
evomat virus acerbitatis suae. Atque hoc maxime 
iudicaretur, si quid tale posset contingere, iit aliquis 
nos deus ex hac hominum frequentia tolleret et in soli- 
tudine uspiam coUocaret atque ibi suppeditans omnium 
rerum, quas natura desiderat, abundantiam et copiam 25 

2. venditcUio — oatentatio] *A friends and compnnions, he se- 

Tain paradc and idlc show.' cludcd himsclf cntircly from the 

13. vitam esse ^iullam] 'That world, admitting no onc to his 

life is nothing.* Cf. note on Une socicty, except Alcibiades. He is 

21, page 246. said to have died in consequence of 

19. Timonem] Timon, the mis- rcfusing to allow a surgcon to set 

anthrope, lived at the time of the his brokcn limb. The raisanthro- 

Pcloponncsian war. In conse- pic character of Timon forms the 

qnence of the ingratitude he ex- subject of one of Lucian's dia- 

pcrienced, and the disappoint- logncs, and of Shakespeare'8 play, 

ments he suffcred from his early Timon of Athens. 


hominifl omnino adspioiendi potestatem eriperet. Qais 
tam esset ferreuSy qai eam vitam ferre posset, cuique non 
auferret fructum voluptatum omnium solitudo? 88« 
Yerum ergo illud est, quod a Tarentlno Archyta, ut 
5 opinor, dici solitum nostros senes commemorare andivi 
ab aliis senibus auditum : ^ si quis in caelum adscendis- 
set naturamque mundi et pulchritudinern siderum per- 
spexisset, insuavem illam admirationera ei fore : quae 
iucundissiraa fuisset, si aliquem cui narraret habuisset. 

10 Sic natura solitarium nihil amat semperque ad aliquod 
tamquam adrainiculum adnititur; quod in amicissimo 
quoque dulcissimum est." 

XXIV. Sed cum tot signis eadem natura declaret 
quid velit, anquirat, desideret, tamen obsurdescimu^ 

15 nescio quo modo nec ea, quae ab ea monemur, audimus. 
Est enim varius et multiplex usus amicitiae multaeque 
causae suspicionum ofTensionumque dantur, quas tum 
evitare, tum elevare, tum ferre sapientis est. IJna illa 
sublevanda ofiensio est, ut et utilitas in amicitia et 

20 fides retineatur ; nam et monendi amici saepe sunt et 
obiurgandi et haec accipienda amice, cum benevole 
fiunt. 89. Sed nescio quo modo verum est quod in 
Andria familiaris meus dicit : — 

Obs^quiam amicos, yeritas odidm paiit. 

4. Archpta] A Fythagorean a Roman senator. By him he 

philosopber, wbo Uved aboat 400 was well treated, receiving a lib- 

B. C. eral edacation ; and being finally 

16. ttaui\ * The intercourse.' manamitted, he took the name of 

17. darUur] * Fresent them- Publius Terentius. He lived oii 
selves.' terms of intimate friendship with 

23. famiHaris tneua] He means Laelius and Scipio. The play 

F. Terentius Afer, a comicpoet, here referred to — * The Andrian 

who was bom at Carthage, B. C. Woman * — was the first of his 

193. Having been brought to comedies exhibited at Home. The 

Rome as a slave, he became the line Iiere quoted is found in the 

property of F. Terentius Lucaiius, Andria of Terence, i. 1, 41. 


Molesta veritas, si quidera ex ea nascitur odium, quod 
est venenuiu araicitiae; sed obsequium raulto raolesti- 
ns, quod peccatis indulgens praecipitera amicura ferii 
sinit. Maxiraa autera culpa in eo, qui et veritatera 
aspernatur et in fraudera obsequio inpellitur. . Orani 5 
igitur hac in re habenda ratio et diligentia est, priraura, 
ut raonitio acerbitate, deinde, ut obiurgatio conturaeliu 
careat. In obsequio autera, quoniara Terentiano verbo 
libenter utimur, coraitas adsit, adsentatio, vitiorura 
adiutrix, procul amoveatur, quae non modo amico, sed 10 
ne libero quidem digna est ; aliter enim cum tyranno, 
aliter cum amico vivitur. 90. Cuius autem aurcs 
clausae veritati sunt, ut ab araioo verura audire ne- 
qneat, huius salus desperanda est. Scitura est enira 
illud Catonis, ut raulta : *' raelius de quibusdara acerbos 15 
iniraicos raereri qnara eos araicos, qui dulces videantur; 
illos verura saepe dicere, hos nuraquara." Atquo illud 
absurduni, quod ii, qui raonentur, eara raolestiara, quara 
debent capere, non capiunt, eara capiunt, qua debont 
vacare. Peccasse enira se non anguntur, obiurgari20 
moleste ferunt ; quod contra oportebat, delicto dolere, 
correctione gaudere. 

XXV. 91. Ut igitur et monere et moneri proprium 
est verae amicitiae et alterum libere facere, non aspere, 
alterum patienter accipere, non repugnanter, sic haben- 25 
duni est nullani in araicitiis pestem esse raaiorera quam 
adnlationem, blanditiara, adsentationera ; quaravis enim 
multis norainibus est hoc vitiura notandum leviura 

8. Tereniiano verbo] *A word many names as possible;' quam- 

borrowed from Tcrence.* vis has hcre the sciise of valde 

15. tU multa] * As many of his or admodum, a signifirAtion aris- - 

Bajfngs are/ ing from the coraposition of tho 

21. quod] * Whereas.* word {guam volo) ; literally, * by 

27. qmmvi» —muMia\ «By as as many as yoa wish.' 


hominam atqne fallacinm, ad voluntatem loqnentiam 
omnia, nihil ad veritatem. 92. Cum autem omniam 
rerum simulatio vitiosa est, — tollit enim iudicium veri 
idque adulterat, — tum amicitiae repugnat maxime ; 
5 dclet enim veritatem, sine qua nomen amicitiae valere 
non potest. Nam cum amicitiae vis sit in eo, ut unus 
quasi animus fiat ex pluribus, qui id fieri poterit, si ne 
in uno quidem quoque unus animus erit idemque sem- 
per, sed vaiius, commutabilis, multiplex? 93. Quid 
10 enim potest esse tam flexibilc, tam devium, quam ani- 
mus eius, qni ad alterius non modo sensum ac volun- 
tatem, sed etiam vultum atque nutum convertitur ? 

Neg^t quis: nego; ait: aio; postremo inperavi egom^t mihi 
Omnia adsentari, 

15 ut ait idem Terentius, sed ille in Gnathonis persona, 
quod amici genus adhibere omnino levitatis est. 94. 
Multi autem Gnathonum similes cum sint loco, fortuna, 
fama superiores, horum est adsentatio molesta, cum ad 

1. ad voluntatem] <Witli a And again in the dialogne be- 

view of pleasing.' tween Hamlet and Osric. — Ham- 

4. idque] L e. verum, let, y. 2. 

6. untta — expluribwl Cf. page „ 

077 i{nA o ■^**"*- P°* y*>°' bonnet to his right 

, « ,! ^- . , , ^ «8« ; 'tls for the head. 

13. Negat qmt] Does any one osr. I thank your lordship, 'tl« very 

say no ? ' Tbese lines are quoted hot. 

from the Eunnch of Terence, ii. ■®'»». No, believe me/tls very cold; 

2, 21, sq. Shakespeare has given tt»e wind is northeriy. 

«o « 1<«,.M«« «!,„««««.«- :« 4-K« «.««»<^ ^***- It ** Indifferent cold, my lord, 

ns a similar character m tne sc^ne ^,^5^^ 

between Hamlet aad Polonius. — Eaffi, Bot yet methinks it is very snl- 

Hamlet, iii. 2. tiy and hot, formy complexion. 

^ Osr, Exceedingly, my lord; It la very 

Ham. Do you see yonder cloud, that*8 ^xiWij. 
almost In shape llke a camel ? 

Pol. By the Mass, and 'tls like a camel, 15. in — persona\ ' In the char- 

*"iJ*'*" ^ .V. V .*. «V , acter of.' Cf. page 235, line 17. 

Ham. Methinks, it Is llke a weaseL Gnatho was r narMitfl in thi» nlav 

Pol. it Is backd like a weasei. Lrnaino was a parasite m tne piay 

Ham. Or like a whale ? "^re rcfcrred to. 

Pol. Yery like a whale. 16. levitatie] An act * of follj.' 


vanitatem accessit auctoritas. 95. Secerni autem blan- 
dus amicus a vero et internosci tam potest, adhibita 
diligentia, quam omnia fucata et simulata a sinceris at- 
que veris. Contio, quae ex inperitissimis constat, 
tamen iudicare solet, quid intersit inter popularem, id 5 ^ 
est, adsentatorem et levem civem, et inter constantem, 
et severum et gravem. 96. Quibus blanditiis C. Pa- 
pirius nuper influebat in aures contionis, cum ferret 
legem de tribunis plebis reficiendis ! Dissuasimus nos ; 
8cd nihil de me, de Scipione dicam libentius. QuantalO 
illi, di inmortales! fuit gravitas, quanta in oratione 
maiestas! ut facile ducem populi Romani, non comi- 
tem diceres. Sed adfuistis, et est in manibus oratio. 
Itaque lex popularis suffragiis populi repudiata est. 
Atque, ut ad me redeam, meministis, Q. Max!mo fratre 15 
Scipionis et L. Mancino consulibus, quam popularis lex 
de sacerdotiis C. Licinii Crassi videbatur ! Cooptatio 
enira coUegiorum ad populi beneficium transferebatur. 
Atque is primus instituit in forum versus agere cura 
populo. Tamen illius vendibilem orationem religio20 
deorum inmortalium, nobis defendentibus, facile vince- 
bat. Atque id actum est, praetore me, quinquennio 

16. lex de sacerdotiis] This law 18. tranaferebatur] The cona- 
was proposed by C. Licinius Cras- tive imperfect. 

808, a tribune of the people, B. C." 19. in /orum rersKs] Previ- 

145 ; by the provisions of which ously the orators had tumed to- 

the election of the priests was to wards thectmaand the comitium, 

he referred to the people, whereas whcre the senatc held their assem- 

prcviously the election belonged blics, andhencethepatiicianside; 

to the priestly collcs^e as a close and to turn towards tlie Forum, 

corporation. Laelius was then where the popular assemblies were 

praetor, and through his excrtions held, implied a dcsire on the part 

the measure was defeatcd, al- of the speaker to gain tho favor of 

though subseqnently (B. C. 104) the people. 

it was carried. 20. vendibilem] * Plansible/ or 

17. Cooptatid] * The right of fili- * taking.' 

ing yacaucies.' 22. praetore me] B. C. 145. 



ante qnam consnl sum factns. Ita re magis qnam sum- 
ma auctoritate causa illa defensa est. 

XXVI. 97. Quod si in scaena, id est, in contione^ in 
qua rebus fictis et adumbratis loci plurimura est, tamen 
5 verum valet, si modo id patefactum et inlustratum est, 
quid in amicitia fieri oportet, quae tota veritate per- 
penditur ? in qua nisi, ut dicitur, apertum pectus videas 
tuumque ostendas, nihil fidum, nihil exploratum h:ibeas, 
ne amare quidem aut amari, cum id quam vere fiat i^- 

10 nores. Quamquam ista adsentatio, quamvis perniciosa 
sit, nocere tamen nemini potest nisi ei, qui eam recipit 
atque ea delectatur. Ita fit ut is adsentatoribus pnte- 
faciat aures suas maxime, qui ipse sibi adsentetur et se 
maxime ipse delectet. 98. Omnino est amans sui 

15 virtus ; optime enim se ipsa novit quaraque amabilis sit 
intellegit ; ego autera non de virtute nunc loquor, sed 
de virtutis opinione. Yirtute enim ipsa non tam multi 
praediti esse quam videri volunt. Hos delectat adsen- 
tatio; his fictus ad ipsorum voluntatem sermo cum 

20adhibetur, orationem illam vanam testimonium esse 
laudum suarum putant. Nulla est igitur haec amicitia, 
cum alter verum audire non vult, alter ad mentiendum 
paratus est. Nec parasitorum in comoediis adsentatio 
faceta nobis videretur, nisi essent milites gloriosi. 

25 Magn^s vero agere grdtias Thais mihi ? 

Satis erat respondere magnas. Ingentes^ inquit. Sem- 
per auget adsentator id, quod is, cuius ad voluntatem 
dicitur, vult esse magnura. 99. Quam ob rem quara- 

9. amare — amari] To be con- follows is frora the Eunnch of 

strued as objects of habeas. Terence (iii. 1, 1), and is spoken 

14. Omnino] Used concessive- by the swaggerinff captain Thraso 

ly ; * doubtless.* to his parasite Gnatho, who had 

24. militet ffhrioat] * Bra<;gart Just taken a present for him to his 

soldiers.' The qnotation whlch mistress Thais. 


qaam blanda ista vanitas apud eos valet, qui ipsi illani 
adlectant et invitant, tamen etiara graviores constan- 
tioresque adraonendi sunt, ut animadvertant ne callida 
adsentatione capiantur. Aperte enira adulantera nemo 
non videt, nisi qui adraodum est excors : callidus ille et 5 
occultus ne se insinuet ; studiose cavendura est ; nec 
enim facillime agnoscitur, quippe qui etiara adversando 
saepe adsentetur et litigare se siraulans blandiatur, 
atque ad extreraum det manus vincique se patiatur, ut 
is, qui inlusus sit, plus vidisse videatur. Quid autera 10 
turpius quara inludi ? Quod ne accidat cavendum est, 
ut in Epiclero : — 

Hodi^ me ante omnes comicos stultds senes 
Versaris atque emiinxeris lautissime. 

100. Haec enim etiam in fabulis stultissima persona est 15 
inprovidorum et credulorum senum. Sed nescio quo 
pacto ab amicitiia perfectorum horainum, id est, sapien- 
tium — de hac dico sapientia, quae videtur in hominem 
cadere posse, — ad leves amicitias defluxit oratio. 
Quam ob rem ad illa prima redeamus eaque ipsa con-20 
cludamus aliquando. 

XXVII. Virtus, virtus, inquam, C. Fanni, et tu, Q. 
Muci, et conciliat amicitias et conservat. In ea est 
enim convenientia rerum, in ea stabilitas, in ea constan- 
tia; quae cum se extulit et ostendit suum lumen et25 
idem adspexit agnovitque in alio ; ad id se admovit 

9. det manus] * He stretches or * The Heiress.' Cf. page 195, 

out his hands/ i. c. *he yiclds ; * notcs on lincs 9 and 10. 

nn cxprcssion used of soldiers 20. cui illa prima] i. e. to the 

captnrcd in battle who oflfered friendships cf thc good. 

thcir hands to bo bound as a to- 24. convenientia rerum] * Har> 

kcn of thcir submission. mony in (all) things.* 

12. Hodie] Taken from a play 25. suum lumen'] * Its own pe- 

of CaeeUius, called the Epiclems, cnliar light.' 


vicissimque accipit illud, qnod in altero est, ex qno 
exardescit sive ainor sive amicitia. Utrumque enim 
dictum est ab amando; amare autem nihil est aliiid 
nisi eura ipsum diligere, quem ames, nulla Indigentia, 
5uulla utilitate quaesita; 101. quae tamen ipsa effloi^es- 
cit ex amicitia, etiam si tu eam miiius secutus sis. 
Hac nos a^lulescentes benevolentia senes illos, L. Paul- 
liim, M. Catonem, C. Gallum, P. Nasicam, Ti. Gracchum 
Scipionis nostri socerum dileximus ; haec etiam magis 

lOelucet inter aequales, ut inter me et Scipionem, L. 
Furium, P. Rupilium, Sp. Mummium, Vicissim autcra 
senes in adulescentium caritate adquiescimus, ut in 
vestra, ut in Q. Tuberonis ; equidem etiam arimoduia 
adulescentis P. Rutilii, A. Verginii, famili.iritate deleo- 

15tor. .Quoniamque ita ratio coniparata est vitae natu- 
raeque nostrae, ut alia aetas oriatur ; rnaxime quidem 
optandum est ut cum aequalibus possis, quibuscum 
tamquam e carceribus emissus sis, cum eisdem ad cal- 
cem, ut dicitur, pervenire. 102. Sed quoniam res 

20humanae fragiles caducaeque sunt, seraper aliqui an- 
quirendi sunt, quos diligamus et a quibus diligamur; 
caritate enim benevolentiaque sublata omnis est e vita 
Bublata iucuuditas. Mihi quidem Scipio, quamquam est 

2. aive — sive] Gives the reader The father of the two tr:i)unes, 

the cholce of the expression : Tl. and Caius Gracchus. IIc was 

* Call it which you please, love or consul B. C. 177-163, and censor 

friendship.' ^- C. 169. Scipio Africanus Minor 

5. quaesita} To bejoined only married his dauiihter Sempronia. 
with utilitate. 14- -P» R^ftHii] P. RutiMus Ra- 

8. P, Nasicam'] This was P. fus, a pupil of the Pontifex Q. 

Comelium Scipio Nasica, cunsul Mucius Scaevola in jurisprudcnce. 

B. C. 162, 155, and censor B. C. He wasconsulB. C. 105.— i4.PV- 

159. He had the agnoinen Cor- ginii] AU that we know of bim 

ctllum ; not to be confounded with is from this passage. 
tho P. Scipio mentioned in xii. 41, 18. e carceribus — calcem] Cf. 

who was hid son. — 7Y. Gracchum] notc on line 3, pa^u 225. 


snbito ereptus, vivit tamen semperque vivet ; virtutem 
enim amavi illius viri, quae exstincta non est. Neo 
milii soli versatur ante oculos, qui illam semper in 
in.mibus habui, sed etiiim posteris erit clara et insignis. 
Nemo umquam animo aut spe maiora suscipiet, qui 5 
sibi non illius memoiiam atque imaginem proponen- 
dam putet. 103. Equidera ex omnibus rebus, quas 
mihi aut fortuna aut natura tribuit, nihil habeo quod 
cum amicitia Scipionis possim comparare. In hac 
mihi de re publica consensus, in liac reriim privatarum 10 
consiliura, in eadem requies plena oblectationis fuit. 
Numquam illum ne minima quidem re offendi, quod 
qm«lera senserim; nihil audivi ex eo ipse quod nollem: 
una domus erat, Mem victus isque communis ; neque 
solum militia, sed etiam peregrinationes rusticationes- 15 
que coramunes. 104. Nam quid ego de studiis dicam 
cognoscendi semper aliquid atque discendi, in quibus 
remoti ab oculis populi omne otiosum terapus contri- 
vimus? Quarum rerum recordatio et memgria si 
iina cum illo occidisset, desiderium coniunctissimi 20 
atque amantissimi viri feiTe nullo modo possem. Sed 
nec illa exstincta sunt alunturque potius et angentur 
cogitatione et memoria mea; et, si illis plane orbatus 
essem, magnum tamen adferret mihi aetas ipsa solaci- 
ura ; diutius enira iam in hoc desiderio esse nonpos-25 
sura. Omnia autem brevia tolerabilia esse debent, 
etiam si magna sunt. 

Haec habui, de amicitia quae dicerem. Vos autem 
hortor, ut ita virtutem locetis, sine qua amicitia esse 
non potest, ut ea excepta nihil amicitia praestabilius 80 

12. quod—tenserim] *So£Eura8 20. desiderium] ^Theloss.' 
I was aware.* Quod, in restrictiye 29, ut— laeetii] * To place vir- 
claases, takes tbe Babjanctiye. tae 80 ' higli in yoar esteem. 


abt • • • • ablatiTe. 

abaoL • • • absolute. 

aoe. . . • • accasatire. 

mSj a^Jectire. 

ad?. .... adrerb. 

flf. • • • • • oof\f^t eompare. 

eomp. • • • oomparatire. 

oop). • • • • ooqjunotioii. 

oontr. . • . contracted. 

dat datiye. 

def. .... defectire. 

dep. .... deponent. 

dim dimtnutire. 

diBtrib. . . . diatributire. 

esp espedally. 

etc . . . . e< cetera, and bo forth. ' 

f. ..... feminine. 

flg figurativelf. 

fk«q flrequentatiye. 

gen genltiye. 

H. referB to Harkneas' 

l.e {(f tf«<, that ia. 

indef. indefinite. 

intr intransitive. 

irr irregular. 

lit Uterally. 

m masculine. 

n neuter. 

nom nominatiTe. 

num. ...... nnmeral. 

opp. • oppoBOd. 

ord ordinal. 

P Page. 

poB poBitiye. 

prep preposition. 

pron pronoun. 

BO adUcetf Bupplj, 

Buba RubBtantire. 

Bup Buperlatiye. 

tr transitiYe. 

y yerb. 

'8 Latin Grammar. 




A., abbreyiation for Aalas. 

&, ftb, abs, prep. witii ubl. A 
only before consonants; ab be- 
fore vowcls and consonants ; abt 
cbiefly in compounds. From, by. 

Abanti&des, 00, m. A de- 
sccndant of Abas; Acrisias, as 
son, Ov. iv. 116 ; Perscus, as grcat- 
grnndson, Ov. iv. 182. 

abdltus, a, um, part. See 

ab-do, Sre, dtdi, dfium, v. tr. 
To pat away, remove; to hide, 
conceal, keep secret ; ferrum^ to 

ab-d8co, Mfre, xi, ctum, t. tr. 
To lead away, taltc away, remove ; 
to draw away or divcrt ft-um. 

ftb-eo, ire, ivi (ti), itum, v. Irr. 
To go off or awny ; to pass away, 
disappear; to be changed trom 
one thing into another; to bo 

&b-horreo, er», m, t. tr. and 
intr. To shrinie back in dread 
from ; to diffcr from. 

abiectior, us, gen. oris^ ac^. 
comp. of abiectua. 

abiectos, a, ttm, part. Sce 
aicio, As a4j. Downcast, de- 
sponding, ' difiheartened ; al)ject, 
low, mean. 


ab-Icio [abjlcio], Sre, teei, 
iectum, v. tr. {idcio). To throw 
off or away ; to cabt down ; to iet 
down, humble, degrade, lower. 

ab-luo, ifre, lui, lutum, v. tr. 
To wash off or away ; to wash. 

ab-rampo, ire, rupi^ ruptum, v. 
tr. To break off or away fiom ; 
to rcnd, tear. 

abruptus, a, um, part. See 
abriimpo. As ncy. Steep, craggy. 

abs-cedo, ^r^, ceesi, cessum, v. 
intr. To go away, deport ; to with- 
draw or fail one. 

absens, entis, part. (dbium), 
Absent, not here, bcing away. 

ab-sisto, Sre, stiti, v. intr. To 
withdraw ftom ; to desist trom. 

ab-sorbco, ere, bui, rarely/m\ 
ptum, V. tr. {sorbeo, to swallow). 
To absorb, suck in. 

abs-tergeo, ere, rsi, rsum, T. 
tr. To wipc off or away ; to drive 
oif^ dispel, bnnish. 

abs-traho, ire, xi, ctum^ 
To draw away, pull away; to 
withdraw, reraove. 

ab-sum, esse, dbfui and afui, 
T. iiT. To l>o away from, be ab- 
sent ; to l>c frce from ; to 1)6 dis- 
tant; to lie wantlng; to neglect, 
be of no scrvicc to, nfford no aid. 

ab-sumo, ire, mpsi, mptum, v. 
tr. To tolvo away, usc up ; to con- 



snme, exhaast ; Utcrimis ahmmi^ 
to waste away in tears. 

ab-surdns, a, «m, a(]j. {surdtu, 
deaf ). Giving a dull sound ; duU, 
senseless, irrational, absurd. 

Abnlitea, is, m. A satrap of 

abundantia, ae^ f. {dbundo). 
Abundance, plenty, affluence. 

ftbunde, adv. [orig. neuter of 
obsolete abundis], Abundantly, 
copiously, more than enongh. 

ftb-undo, are, am, atum, y. 
intr. {unda), To abound, have in 
abundance ; to abound in wcalth ; 
to be rich. 

ab-utor, »', ustia sum, v. dep. 
To misuse ; to abuse. 
ftc, or atque, conj. And. 
Acarnan, dniSf adj. Acama* 
nian ; an inhabitant of Acarnania, 
a division of Greece lying betwcen 
the Ambracian gulf and the river 
acc-. Sec adc-. 
accedo, ire, ceasi, cesaum, v. 
intr. {ad, cedo). To go to, ap- 
proach; to be added; to enter 
upon, undertake, engage in; to 
approach in a hostile manner ; to 

accendo, gre, ndi, nsum, v. tr. 
{ad and the root can-, whence can^ 
deo), To set fire to, kindle; to 
light ; to heat, inflame, rouse up. 
acceptns, a, um, part. See ac- 
ctpio, As acjj. Agreeable, accept- 

accerso, 9re, ivi, Uttm, v. tr. [a 
collat. form of arcessd]. To sum- 
inon ; to court ; to assnme. 

accessio, onie, f. {accedo). A 
going or coming to ; an increase, 

. accido, ire, idi, v. intr. {ad, 
cado), To fall to; to happen, 

acciniTO, Sre, nxi, nctum, y. tr. ' 
{ad, cingo), To gird on. 

accio, ire, ivi, Uum, v. tr. {adp 
eio, to put in motion). To cause 
to come ; to summon ; to bring. 

acclpio, ire, cepi, ceptum, v. tr. 
{ad, cdpio). To take ; to reccive ; 
to acccpt ; to leam, hcar, perceive. 

accdla, ae, m. {ad^ cdlo). A 
dweller by or near a place, a 

acciibltio, onie, f. {acrumho), 
A lying or reclinin^ at table. 

accumbo, ire, cHbui, cHbitum, 
V. intr. (arf, ciibo), To lay one*8 
self near or upon ; to lie near; to 
recline at 

accur&tus, a, um, ad^. {ad, 
cUra). Prepared with care, exact, 
Btudied, elaborate, accurate. 

accuso, are, avi, dtum, v. tr. 
{ad, causa), To call one to ac- 
count ; to reproach, blame ; to 
accuse, indict, arraign. 

acer, cria, cre, comp. acrior, 
sup. acerrimua, adj. (IVom the 
root AG-, whencc adee, acuo, etc). 
Sharp, pointed, piercing ; severe ; 
ardent, cager, vehemcnt, passion- 
ate ; active, brave» zealous. 

acerbe, comp. -ius, sup. "iasi" 
me, adv. {acerbm). Sharply, bit- 
terly, roughly. 

ftcerbitas, atis, f. {acerbus), 
Soumess, bitterness, harshness; 
rigor, moroseness, severity ; sor- 
row, pain, anguish. 

ftcerbus, a, um, adj. {acer). 
Bitter, harsh, sour ; rough, repul- 
sive, morose ; severe, grievous. 

acerrimus, a, um, a4j. Sco 

AcSsines, ae,m, A river of 
India, the chief tributary of the 

Achaia, ae, f. The province 
of Achaia, in the northcrn part of 



Peloponnesns, on the gnlf of Cor- 
inth. After the destruction of 
Corintb by Mummius, B. C. 146, 
all Greece became a Roman prov- 
ince under the name of Achaia. 
■ AchSlois, idi8f f. A dauglitcr 
of AclielOus; hence plural: the 

AchSrdn, tiSf m. A river in 
thc lowcr world ; as a river-god, 
thc father of Ascal&phus. 

acies, ei, f. [root ac-, whence 
acer, OciUus, etc.] . The edge of a 
cutting instrument; the battlc 
arrny; an army, a battlc; the 
powcr of perception, discernment ; 
thcglance; thecye. 

Acilins, », m. L L. a jurist, 
who livcd about 200 B. C. ; the 
first Romnn called Sapiem by the 
people. II. M* Acilius Balbus, a 
Roman consul B. C. 150. III. M* 
Acilins Glabrio, as Roman consul 
B. C. 191, defeatcd Antiuchus at 

&clnns, t, m., and ftclnnm, t, 
n. The kernel, seed, stone, etc., 
of a grape, berry, etc. 

Acoetes, ae, m. Acoetes, the 
name of a sailor. 

ftconitnm, »', n. A poisonous 
plant, wolf 's-bane, monk's-hood, 

Acrlsins, i, m, Eing of Argos, 
son of Abas, fathcr of Dan&e, nn- 
intcntionally killed by his grand- 
son, Perseus, with the discus. 

acrlter, comp. acritts, sup. o- 
cerrime, adv. {acer), Vehemcnt- 
ly, violently ; bravely, valiantly ; 
sharply, zcalonsly. 

actio, onia, f. {dgo), A doing, 
performing; an action, perform- 
ance, deed. 

actnm, », n. iiigo). A thing 
done ; an act, transaction. 

actns, a, tim, part. See dgo. 

aotijfl, U8, m. {dgo), The doing 
or performing of a thing; an act, 
performance ; an act of a drama. 

ftciuiien, ini», n. (OcuOf to 
sharpcn). A point. 

ftcute, adv. {OciUw), Acutely, 
sharply, keenly. 

ftcutns, a, um, ac^* {clctu>, to 
sharpeu). Sharp, pointcd ; acute, 
intelligcnt, sagacious, shrcwd. 

ftd, prep. with acc. To, to. 
wr.rds, at, bcforc, neur. 

adc-. Sce acc-. 

ad-clivis, e, adj. {climia), R!&> 
ing as a hill, sloping upwards, 

ad-clivus, a, um, adj. Rismg 
as a hill, sloping upwards, steep. 

ad-commodo, dre, dii, atum^ 
V. tr. {commodo, to adjust). To flt 
or adapt one thing to another; to 
fit, atyust ; to conform to, com< 
ply with ; to apply, devote to. 

ad-disco, Sre, dldici, v. tr. To 
leam in addition ; to leiim some- 
thing new. 

ad-do, ire, dldi, ditum, v. tr/ 
To put to, give in addition ; to add. 

ad-duco, Sre, xi, ctum, v. tr. 
To lead to, bring to ; to draw oi 
pull towards ; to prevall upon, in* 
duce ; to prompt, incite. 

Adelphi, drum,m. 'The Brofh. 
ers,»a comedy of Terence. 

ftd-eo» ndv. So, so far, to such 

ftd-eo, ire, ivi \ii), itvm, v. irr. 
To go to ; to approach, attack, ad< 
dress; to undertake, enter upon, 
encounter ; . to apply to. 

ftdeptus, a, um, part. See Adi^ 

adfecto, dre, dvi, dtum, v. fte(\^ 
{adftcio). To strive after, pursue ; 
to enter on ; to aspire to, aim at. 

adfectns, a, um, part. (arf/i- 
cto). Affbcted, disposed. 



ad-f ero, fcm^ HUi, latum, t. 
tr. To cany or bring to ; to re- 
port or l>ring word ; to preparei 
roako, occasion, procure, caaee, 
impart ; to allege, assert. 

ad-flcio, ire,/dci,feetum, v. tr. 
(focio). To do somcthing to ; to 
affect, impart, bestow ; to dispose. 

ad-firmo, are, aoi, atum, y. tr. 
To afllrm, declore, assert, main- 

adfifttns, U8, m. (adjfo), Breath. 

ad-fligo, Sre, xi, ctwn, v. tr. 
{fligo, to strilcc). To strike or 
dosh down ; to domuge, min, 
break down. 

ad-flo, are, avi, Stum, . v. tr. 
and intr. (Jlo, to blow). To blow 
or briathe on ; to exhale. 

adfloen», ntis, attj. {ad,Jluo), 
Abuundiiig in, rich, al)undant. 

ad-lbr, ari, atut aufti, v. dep. 
To speak to ; to accost, address. 

ad?-. Sce ag^g-. 

ftd-haereo, ere, haesi, haemm, 
V. iiitr. {haereo), To cleave or 
stick to, bang to ; to cling to ; to 
embrace closely. 

ad-haeresco, ire, haesi, hae- 
aum, V. intr. {haereo), To remain 
clinging ; to stick or cleave to. 

ftd-hlbeo, ere, bui, httum, v. tr. 
{haheo), To hold or bring one 
thing to another; to applj; to 
selcct, nse, employ ; to snmmon, 
entertain, invite (to a banquet). 

ftd-buc, adv. To this place, 
as yet, hitherto, tiir now ; yet, 
still, bcsides. 

ad-Icio [adjlcio], 9re, ieei, 
iectum, v. tr. {idcio), To throw 
or cast to ; to ndd (to wbat has 
been said) ; to add. 

ftd-I{;o, 8re, egi, actum, v. tr. 
(ago). To drivo, urge, or bring 
to a place ; to thrust, plunge, in- 

ftd-Imo, gre, emi, emphtm, v. tr. 
{gmo, ire, in the sense of acctpio), 
To take to one*8 sclf; to take 
away, deprive of, rob; to free 

ftd-Ipiscor, t, epttu sum, v. 
dep. {Apiscor, to reach ufter in or- 
der to take). To attain to by an 
c£fort ; to get possession of, gain, 
obtain, acquire. 

ftdltns, a, um, part. Sce ddeo. 

ftdltos, us, m. {adeo), An ap- 
pruach, entrance, passage, acccss, 

adiomentam, t, n. {adiliw}), 
A means of aid ; help, aid, assist- 
ance, snpport. 

adinnctns, a, um, part. See 

ad-iungo, 9re, nxi, nctum, v.*tr. 
To join to, anncx; to add, con- 
nect, join. 

ad-iaro, Sre, avi, atum, v. tr. 
To swear in eoufirmation of a 
thing; to swear hi addition; to 
swear by. 

adiotor, oris, m, {adiHvo), A 
helper, assistant, aid. 

adiotrix, icis, f. {adiutor), A 
femalc aid, helpcr, assistant; hand- 

ad-iiivo, are, Qvi, utum, rarcly 
avi, atum, v. tr. To help, aid, as- 
sist, snppurt, sustain; to proflt, 
avuil, be of use to. 

adlatns, a, um, part. See ad- ^ 

adlecto, are, avi,5tum,Y. freq. 
{adUcio), To allure, entiee. 

ad-16vo, are, avi, Stum, v. tr. 
To lift, raise up ; to lighten, sus- . 
tain, alleviate, comfort, console, 

ad-llcio, 9re, Jexi, Jectum, v. tr. 
{Idcio, to entice). To allure or 
entice to one*s self. 

ad-ll^o, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 



Tobind to, fasten to; to hold or 
place under obligation. 

ad-ldqnor, i, ciitua sumj y. dep. 
Toaddressy accost. 

ad-luo, 8re, «t, y. intr. To 
wash against (of the sea). 

ad-mlnlclilam, i, n. (root 
MiN-f.which appears in promineOf 
emineo, etc). A prop, stay, sup- 

ad-mlnistro, are, avi, atum, y. 
tr. To attend upon, assist, serve, 
aid; to take in hand, miinage, 
execute, perform. 

admirabllis, e, acy. {admiror), 
Worthy of being admired, admi- 
rable ; wonderful, strange. 

admiratio, dnis, f. {admiror). 
. A wondering at, wonder, admira- 
tion ; surprise, astonishment. 

ad-miror, an, atus sum, y. 
dep. To wonder at, regard with 
admiration or astonishment. ^ 

ad-misceo, ere, scui, xtum, 
rarely ttum, y. tr. . To mix or 
mingle with. 

ad-mitto, ire, misi, mitsum, y. 
tr. To aliow tn come or go; to 
admit, allow, permit ; of a horse : 
to urge on, pnt to fuli speed. 

admixtio, onU, f. {admiaceo), 
A mixture ; an udmixture. 

admixtus, a, um, part. See 

ad-modum, ady. {madut). Up 
to the measure, wholiy, compiete- 
ly, excessively, yery, quite; at 
most, just, exactly. 

ad-moneo, ere, m, itum, y. tr. 

To put one in mind of a thing ; to 

remind, warn, suggest, admonish. 

admonitor, oris, m. {admdneo), 

A remindcr, monitor. 

ad-mdveo, ere, movi, motum, 
Vi tr. To move, bring or conduct 
to ; to apply ; to advance, hasten. 

ad-necto, ^re, nexui, nerum, 
y. tr. {necto, to bind). To bind to ; 
to connect. 

ad-nitor, i, nisua or nixua sttm, 
v. dep. To press or lean upon ; to 
strive, exert one'8 sclf. 

ad-nno, ifre, ui, utum, v. intr. 
{nuo, to nod). To nod at ; to nod 
assent, approve ; to promise, gr.tnt. 

&d-dp6rio, ire, pSruit pertum, 
v. tr. {CpBrio, to cover). To cover 
up, cover over. 

&d-opto', dre, avi, atum, y. tr. 
To choose, select ; to adopt, as a 
child or grandcliild. 

&d-dro, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
To pray to, adore, supplicate, 

adp-. See app-. 

ad-pareo, h-e, ui, itum, y. intr. 
To become visihlc, appear. 

ad-pStens, ntis, part. Sec ad- 
pito. As adj. Striving passion- 
ately aftcr, eager for, 

ad-pSto, Bre, ivi {ii), itum, y. 
tr. T6 seek or strive after; to 
long for ; sc. maiium (of old men 
whose hands are kissed), to seize 
upon, grasp eagerly. 

adplicatio, dnis, f. {adplico), 
A bending to ; hence, fig. a bend- 
ing or inclination of the miiid. 

ad-pllco, dre, dvi and ui, dtum 
andWwm, v. tr. {plico, to fuld). 
To join, fatiten or attach to ; to 
connect with, add to; to apply, 
devote to; as nautical term: to 
steer a ship towards ; to bring to 

ad-pono, ire, pdsui, pdsitum, 
y. tr. To put or place near or by 
the side of ; to apply to. 

ad-porto, are, dci, dtum, y. tr. 
To carry, convey, bring to. 

adposltas, a, um, part. {adpo^ 
no). Asacy.Coutiguous, a^oining. 



adprSpinqnfttio, o»m, f. (oc^ 
prdpinquo). An approach, dvaw- 
ing ncai*. 

ad-prdpinqno, are, avi, atwn, 
V. intr. ( prOpinqtto, to draw near). 
To corae near to, approach. 

ad-qniesco, ire, evif etum, y. 
intr. To become qniet; to re- 
pose or rest; to be satisfied or 
pleased with. 

adr-. Sce arr-. 

ad-8cendo, Bre^ ndi, nswnf y. 
intr. (acando, to climb). To climb 
npi monnt, ascend, go up. 

ad-scisco, 9re, ivi, itttm, y. tr. 
To approye, udopt ; to a(imit into 
one*8 society ; to associate, join to, 

adsensus, us, m. {adsentior). 
An iigreeing with, assent, appro- 

adsentatio, onis, f. (adsentor). 
A il irterini; assent, adulation. 

adsentator, oris, m. {adsen- 
tor). A flatterer. 

ad-sentio, ire, nsi, nsum, y. 
intr. To assent to, agreo with, 

ad-sentior, iri, nsus sum, v. 
dep. {sentio). To assent to, agree, 

adsentor, dri, atus sum, v. dep. 
(adsentior). To assent habituaily 
or in a flattering manner; to flatter. 

ad-sSquor, t, sicutus sum, y. 
dep. To follow on, pursue, over- 
take, come up with; to gain, 
acquire, obtain, attain to. 

ad-s8ro, 6re, grui, ertum, y. tr. 
{sgro, to join). To join to ; to re- 
late, affiim, assert strongly. 

adsldaus, a, um, acfj. {ad, si- 
deo), Sitting near, continually 
present; continual, unremitting, 

ad-sistOy ire, mti, v. intr. To 

stand at or near; to attend, be 
present at ; to defend, assist. 

ad-soleo, ere, v. intar. [nsed 
only in 3d sing. and plnr., and 
irapers.] To be accustomed or 
wont ; ut adsolet, as is cnstomarjr. 

adspectns, us, m. {adspteio), 
A seeiiig, iooking at, sight, view; 
look, aspect, mien, appcarance. 

ad-spergo, dre, rsi, rsum, v. tr. 
{spargo). To bespriuliie, liespat- 
ter ; to asperse. 

adspergo, inis, f. {adspergo), 
A sprinkling, spray. 

ad-splcio, gre, exi, eetum, y. tr. 
{spicio, to look). To look at, be- 
hold, see; to consider, survey, 
inspeet, contemplate ; to look np- 
on with respect or adrairation. 

ad-sto, are^ stiti, v. intr. To 
stand by, st^md still. 

ad-stringo, ire, inxi, ictum, V. 
tr. To draw close, biiid, tighten, 
contract; to bind together, com- 

ad-suesco, ^e, evi, etum, v. tr. 
and iutr. {suesco, to become accus- 
tomed). To be accustomed to, be 

adsuetos, a, um, part See 
adsuesco. As a^. Accustomed, 
cu^tonary, usual. 

ad-sum, esse, fui, y. irr. To 
be at or near, be prcsent ; to stand 
by, help, protect ; to be present 
as a witness, be witness ; to be 
at band, attend ; to come, appear. 

ad-surgo, gre, surrexi, surrec- 
ium, y. intr. To rise up, stand 
up ; to rise up out of respect. 

ad-trlbno, gre, ui, uitum, v. tr. 
To nssign or allot to ; to give, be- 
stow ; to ascribe to, attribute. 

adiilatio, bnis, f. {adHlor), 
Fawning, flattery. 

adulescena, entis, m. and t 



{aditlesco), A jonng man or 

&d&le8ceiitia, oe, f. {adaleaco), 
The axe of youth, yoath. 

&dtile8ceiitiilus, i, m. (dim. 
of adalescens). A very young 

&diilescO| ere, eei, tUtufn, v. 
Intr. (root ol-, to groW| which ap- 
pears in ah), To be growing ; to 
grow II p, increase, augmcnt. 

&dalor, arif atu$ sum, v. dep. 
To flatter or fawn npon. 

&daltSriiim, «', n. {Odulter, an 
aduitercr). Adultery ; of plants : 

adultSro, are, avi, atumy v. tr. 
{aduUer, an adulterer). To com- 
mit adultery ; to falsify, corrupt. 

&dnltii8, a, tim, part. See 

ftdambr&tus, a, um, part See 
adumbro, As adj. Shadowed, dark, 

ftd-umbro, are, avi, atum, v. 
tr. {umbra), To cost a shadow 

ftd-ancus, a, «m, a^j. Bend- 
ing inwards, houkcd, crooked. 

ftd-oro, gre, ussi, usfum, v. tr. 
To biirn, parch ; to set on fire. 

ad-v8ho, ire, xi, ctum, v. tr. 
To &irry to, conduct, briug; pass, 
to be carricd, ride on a horse, in a 
carriage, ship, etc 

ad-vSnio, ire, veni, venium, v. 
intr. To come to, arrive at, rcach. 

advento, are, avi, atum, v. 
intr. (flreq. from advinio), To ap- 
proach ; to arrive at. 

adventns, us, m. {advMo). 
Ah arrival, coming. 

adversor, Sn, atussum, v. dep. 
{adversus), To be opposed to ; to 
adversas, a, um, a^j. {advertq)^. 

Turned towards, opposite; op- 
posing, adverse, unfavorable; res 
adversae, adversity. 

ad-verto, ire, ti, sum, v. tr. 
To turn or direct towards; om- 
mum, to direct the mind or attcn- 
tion to a thing ; to observe, per- 
ceive, remark. 

ad-volo, are, avi, Stum, v. intr. 
To fly to, hasten towards. 

ad-volvo, Bre, vohsi, vdtutum, 
V. tr. To roll to or towarcls ; to 
throw one'8 self at the fcet of 

aedes and aedis, is, ' f. A 
temple (prop. one apaitmcnt); 
piur. aedes, ium, a house consist- 
ing of several apartments. 

aedlflcium, t, n. {aedifico), A 
buildin^, edificc, house. 

aediflco, are, avi, Stum, v. tr. 
{aedes, fOcio), To b.uild, frame. 

Aegaeon, onis, m. A sea-god 
with a hundredarms ; son of Urft- 
nus and Gaca. 

aeger, gra, grum, adj. Sick, 
indisposed ; sad, sorrowful, griev- 
ous, bitter. 

aegre, comp. aegrius, sup. 
aegerrime, adv. {aeger), With 
difflculty, nnwillingly ; wlth cha- 
grin, discontentedly. 

aeg^rltddo, inis, f. {aeger). In- 
disposition, sickness (both of body 
and mind). 

aeg^roto, are, avi, aiwn, v. 
intr. {aeger), To be sick. 

Aeg:y ptius, a, um, acy. {Aegyp- 
tua, Egypt). Egyptian. 

Aegyptus, i, f. Egypt. 

Aelias, i, m. Sextns Aelins 
Paetns Catus, consul, B. C. 198. 

Aemllius, t, m. I. Q. Aemlli- 
us PapuB, twice consul, B. C 282 
and 278, and censor in 275. II. L. 
Aemllins, see Faollas. 



aemtOiM, a, um, aO}. Tying 
with or emulating another. 

aemfilas, i, m. A rival. 

aSneiis, a, um, ad^. (aes), Of 
brass, brazen. 

aSnnm, *', n. (oef). A biBss- 

Ae5Iios, a, um, a^). (Aedbu). 
Pcrtiining to Aeulos, the god of 
the wind8, Aeolian. 

aeqn&lis, e, ac^. {aeguo). 
Equtil, like ; eqoal in years, of the 
Bame age; reserobling, Bimilar; 
uniform, leTel, smooth, eren. As 
Bubs. Ono of the sarac age. 

aeqn&IItas, atis, f. {aequaUB). 
Eqnality, similarity, uniformity. 

aeqn&llter, adv. {aegualU). 
Eqnaliy, similarly, uniformly. 

aeque, ndv. {aeguiu). In like 
manncr, equally ; with guam or 
a«, as. 

aeqidtas, atis, t. {aeguua). 
EvennesB; even tcmperament. 

aeqno, are, avi, Stum, y. tr. 
and intr. {aeguus). To make lev- 
el ; to equal ; to become equal to ; 
to attain to, reach. 

aeqaot, ifrit, n. {aequu»), An 
even, level surface ; the sea. 

aeqads, a, um, adj. PUdn, 
level, equal, fair, flivorable, rea- 
Bonable, right, honorable; as 
Bubs., aequum, i, n. Bigbt, what 
is Just or reasonable. 

&er, airi», m. The air; the 
lower atmosphere, in distinction 
from aether, the upper pure air. 

&6rias, a, um, ndj. {aer), Per- 
taimng to the air, airy, aerial; 
rising in the air, high, lufty. 

aes, aerii, n. Any crnde metil 
dng flrom the earth except gold 
and silver ; copper, bronze, brass. 

aestas, afo«, f. Summer. 

aestlmfttio, dnis, f. {aeettmp). 

The estimating of a thing accord- 
ing to its vaiue, estimation. 

aestlm&tor, orie, m. {aegtimc}. 
An estimator, valner. 

aestlmo, are, avi, Sium, T. tr. 
(prob. aee). To determine the 
value of a thing; to value, esti- 

aestlTUS, a, um, a^j. {aesitu). 
Pertaining to summer, Bummer- 
like, snmmer. 

aestao, Sre, Sci, Stum, t. intr. 
{aettu»). To be in violent agita- 
tion ; to rage, bnrn, boil ; toglow, 
be warm. 

aestns, m, m. A Tiolent mo- 
tion; a buming, heat, glowing 

aetas, Sti», f. {aevum ; contr. 
from aevfta»). Time of life, age, 
time, season ; an age or space of 
thirty years, a gencration. 

aetemltas, Sti», f. {Mtemtu), 

aeternas, a, um, ac^. {aevum ; 
contr. from aerUemu»). Eternal, 
evcrlasting; ever-endnring, eon- 

Aeth&iion, onis, m. A TuBcan 

aetber, iri», m. The nppcr 
pure air, ether (as opposed to Ser, 
the lowcr atmosphere) ; the upper 

aetlierias, a, um, a4|. {aether), 
Pertaining to the ether, ethereal ; 
heavenly, celestial. 

Aetliiops, Opi», m. An Ethi- 

Aethon, oni», m. {ateuv, bum- 
ing). The name of one of the 
steeds of the Snn. 

Aetna, ae, and Aetne, es, f. 
Ht. Aetno, a Tolcano in Sicily. 

Aetnaens, a, um, a^j. {Aetna), 
Aetneai^ i telfu», i. e. SiciUa. 



if n, TJnintemipted, 
never-ending time, age ; eternity ; 
period, lifedme, life, age or gene- 

aff-. Seeadf-. 

AiHc&nns, i, m. Pnblius. See 

&fiii. See abaum. 

fil^e. See dffo. 

Agenor, aria, m. A son of 
Keptnne and twin-brother of Be- 
Ins (tlie father of Aegyptns and 
Danans) ; father of Cadmua and 
Eurupa, kiiig of Phoenicia ; Age- 
ndre naiu», i. e. CiuimuSf Ov. ili. 
61, 97. 

Agenorldei), ae, m. {Agenor). 
A male descendant of Agenor. 
I. His son, Ciidmns, Ov. iil. 8, 81, 
90. II. Perseus, whose grand- 
fathcr, on the mother*s side, Dana- 
us, was descended ftom Agcnor, 
Ov. iv. 280. 

&ger, griy m. A fleld, territory, 
land, district, domain. 

agger, «m, m. (ad, ggro). Any 
thing heaped togctlicr; a pilc, 

aggfiro, ire, getaiy gestum, v. tr. 
{ad, giro). To bear or carry to 
or towards a place; to licar, 

&gItfitio, onie, f. (dgUo). Thc 
state of being in motion ; movc- 
ment, agitation. 

&gIto, are, Svi, Stum, v. freq. 
{/igo). To put in violent motion ; 
to distarb, hnnt, chase, pursue ; to 
rouse np, move, urge, impcl ; to 
disquiet, drive hither and thither, 
troublc, torment ; vitam, to pass, 
spend; to cousider, revolve, 

Aglauros, t, f. A danghter of 

agmen, m$m$f n. (dgo). A 

train, an army on the march, an 
army, a column. 

agnosco, ire, noti, nitum, v. 
tr. {ad, noaco). To know, perceivc, 
recognize; to recognize as one*s 

a§rnQs, i, m. A lanib. 

ago, 8re, egi, actum, v. tr. To 
put in motion, to move ; to drive, 
impcl; to do, act, perform; to 
pass, lead, spcnd; to conduct, 
manage, carry on ; past., to bo at 
stakc, in peril or in dangcr ; to be 
in question ; it conccrns, is ubont, 
ctc. ; tilentia, tokecpsilence; age, 
imper., ns intcij., comc! come 
nuw! wcU! up! now thcn! 

&grestis, e, atU. {dger). Pcr- 
taining to lands, ficld or the coun- 
try; rural, rustic; uncultivatcd, 
wild, rudc. 

Agri&ni, drtim, m. A Thra- 
ciun pcople bctween Hacmus and 

agricola, ae, ni. {agcr, cdlo). 
A tillcr of thc soil, f.irracr, hiis- 
t>audman, peasant, countryman. 

Agrigentiuus, a, um, a(^. 
(Agrigentum). Of or from Agri- 
gcntum, a city on the coost of 
Sicily near Cape Pachynnra, now 

Ah&la, ae, m. C. ServIIins 
Ahala, who, as mastcr of the 
horse, slew Sp. Maclius. 

Aiax, acia, m. The son of 
Tel&mon, king of Sal&mis, and 
grandson of Ae&cus; ncxt to 
Achillcs, the bravest and most 
distinguished among thc Grceks 
before Troy. 

aio, dis, ait, v. def. To say 
ycs ; to say, asscrt. 

&Ia, ae, f. A wing. 

&I&cer, cris, cre, adj. Livcly, 
qidck, brisk, eager ; joyous, active. 



filftcrltas, SHs, f. {ataeer). 

Liveliness, eagorness, promptness. 

albldos, a, «m, adj. {allma, 
whirc). Whitish, white. 

AlbinuH, t, m. Sp. Albinus, 
consul B. C. 186, died when angur 
at an adyanced age, B. C. 179. 

Alcides, oe, m. A descendant 
of Alceas, the king of Tiryns in 
Ar<;uliji, son of Ferseus and fa- 
ther of Amphitryon; Hercaie8,a8 
grandson, Ov. ix. 7. 

Alclmedon, ontit, m. The 
Dame of a sailor, Ov. iii. 167. 

Ales, «M, m. and f. Abird. 

Alexander, dri, m. I. The 
son of Philip, king of MacedonLi ; 
died B. C. 323, at the a^^e of 32. 
II. A Icader of a selcct band, 
Curt. viii. xzv. 

ftiias, adv. {aliiu), At another 
time, ut other times, sometimes. 

&lienatio, oniSf f. {alieno). The 
transferring to auothcr ; estrunge- 
ment, aversion, enmity. 

ftlieno, are, aoi, atum, v. tr. 
{alienus), To alienate, estrange, 
set at vuriance, to make enemies. 

ftlienns, a, um, ac^. {aHua). 
That pertains to another, beloAgs 
to anothcr, another^s, foreign; 
averse, hostilc, unfavorable. 

ftlimentam, i, n. {ah). Nour- 
ishment, means of nourisbment; 
food, support, provisions, 

ftlioqiai, and ftlioqain, adv. 
(prob. abl. of aUua, qme). In 
other rcspects, otherwise. 

fillpes, edis, ac|j. {ala, pee), 
With wings on the feet, wing-foot- 
ed ; swift, fleet, quick. 

allquamdin, adv. {aUquie, 
diu). A whiic, for a while, for 
Bome time; for a considerable 

ftllqaando, adv. {akquis), At 

some time, once ; sometimes, oc- 
casionally; finally, at length; 
oncc, formerly. 

ftilqaantfilQm, adv. {oHusg 
quantua). A littlc, a bit, some. 

ftllqaantas, a, um n^j. {aiius, 
qttantua). Some, cons-iderable. 

ftllqai, qua, quod, indef. adj, 
pron. {aliua, qui). Some, any. 

ftllqais, aUquid [fem. sin^. 
and fcm. und ncut. plar. not ased], 
indef. subs. pron. {aliua, quia), 
Some one, somebody, any one» 
anything, some. 

ftllqao, adv. {altquia), Some- 
whither, to some place,somewbere. 

&llter, adv. {aliua). la anoth- 
er manner, otbcrwisc. 

ftlias, a, ud, gcn. alha, dat. 
alii, sometimes oontr. aU, a^j. An- 
other of many ; {aUer, anoiher of 
two) ; different, contrary. AKi — 
a&'i, some— others. 

almus, a, um, acy. {dlo). Lifb- 
supporting, genial, propitious, be- 
nign, gracious. 

&lo, 9re, m, itum and altum, v. 
tr. To nourisb, feed, maintain, 
sapport, sustain. 

Alpes, ium, f. The AIps. 

Alpheias, adia, f. The nymph 
and fountain Arethusa, Ov. v. 147. 

Alphenor, dria, m. A son of 
Amphion and Nidbe. 

Alpheus [-os], t, m. Arlvcr 
of Peloponnesus. 

'altftria, ium, n. jflltua), A 
high altar. 

alte, adv. {aUua), On high, 
highly, low, deeply, high up. 

alter, ira, irum, gen. iriua, a^. 
Anothcr (of two) ; the sccond. 

altltado, ima, f,{altua), Height, 

fdtor, oria, m. {ak), A noor* 
ishcr, sustaiaer, fo8ter-&ther. 



altns, a, «m, adj. (dfo). High, 
tall; deep. As subs., ciltumt i, n.. 
Tfae beight ; the deep. 

&liimiias, t, m. (dlo). A nars- 
ling, foster-son, pupil, ward, 

alveas, i, m. {alvw). A hol- 
low, channel ; a river-bed. 

alFtts, », f. The belly. 

ftm-. Insep. prep. See ftn-. 

amabilis, 0, a^j. {dmo), De- 
Bcrvhig to be loved, worthy of 
love, lovely. 

ftmans, niis, part. 8ee dmo, 
As acy. Fond, loving. As snbs. 
Lover, Ariend. 

amanter, comp. "itts, snp. 
'issime, adv. (dmo), Lovingly, in 
an affectionate manner, fondly. 

amba§res, «m, in sing. only the 
abl. ambdge, f. {^anibi-^ dgo), A 
going aronnd, a roundabout way, 
circumlocution, digression, eva- 

ambi-, amb-, ftm-, or &n-, 
insep. prep. Around, round about. 

amblgnus, a, «m, adj. {amb-, 
dffo). Changeablc, doubtful, wa- 
vering. » 

ambio, ire, ivi (iV), itum, v. tr. 
and intr. (amb-t ^o). To go around, 
surround, encompass. 

ambitio, dnis, f. {ambio), A 
going around ; striving for favor, 
Cdnvassing for office; ambition. 

ambitidsns, a, um, adj. {am- 
Mtio). Soliciting favor, honor- 
loving, ambitious. 

ambitns, us, m. (ambio), A 
going around, circuit, circumfer- 

Amblvins, »', m. L. Amblvins 
Turpio, a distinguished actor in 
the time of Terencc. 

ambo, ae, 0, adj. (a^0(i>). Both, 
(of two objects assumed as known ; 
duo, whcn not already known). 

ambrosia, ae, f. Ambrosia, 
the food of the gods ; also food 
for the steeds of the gods. 

amb-uro, ^-e, uasi,ustum, y,tr, 
To bum arouud; to scorch, to 
burn wholly up, consume. 

ambastus, a, um, part. See 

a-mens, enMs, adj. Out of 
one's senses, besidc onc'8 self, 
mad, senseless, distractcd. 

amentia, ae, f. {amens) Want 
of reason, madncss, iusanity, 

amice, adv. {dmicus), In a 
friendly manner, kindly. 

im-icio, ire, icui or ixi, ictum, 
V. tr. {idcio). To throw around, 
wrap about; to clothe. 

fimlcitia, a^, f. {dmicus), 

ftmictas, a, um, part. See 

amictas, us, m. {dmicio), The 
throwing on of a garment ; the gar- 
mcnt itsclf, mantle, vcil, clothing. 

amiciilam, t, n. {dmicio), A 
mantle, clonk. 

amicas, a, um, adj. {dmo). 
Fridndly, well inciined, favora- 

amicas, i, m. {dmo), A friend. 

a-mitto, ire, misi, missum, v. 
tr. To send away; to lose; to 
let go, lct slip. 

Ammon, onis, m. An appella- 
tion of Jupiter, worshipped in 
Africa nnder the form of a ram. 

amnis, is, m. A rapid stream, 
a river ; a river-god. 

amo,are,avi, atum, y. tr. To 
love ; to take pleasure in, have a 
fondness for. 

amoenitas, atis, f. {dmoeniu). 
Pleasantness, delightfulness, asof 
a garden, rivcr, etc 



ftmoeiias, a, um, ady. (prob. 
Amo). PlcoKant, dcliglitfal. 

ftmor, drU, m. {amo), Loyc, 
aiTection; dcslre; the object of 
ono*8 lovc, thc bclovcd. 

ft-mdreOy ere, moci, motum, v. 
tr. To rcmove from a place ; to 
put or take away, withdraw. 

Amphion, d)tit, m. Son of An- 
tiopc, l>y Jupitcr. Ov. vl. 3, note. 

ample, comp. amplius, sup. 
ampli$8tme, ndv. (amplus). Splcn- 
didly, m.ignificently. 

am-plector, t, plexua sum, t. 
dcp. To wind around a person 
or thin^j, cml)race, grasp. 

amplexns, t/«, m. {ampkctor). 
Encircling, embracing, cmbrace. 

ampllflco, ar«, avif atum, v. 
tr. {amplua, fdcid). To make 
wide, cxtcnd, cnlarge. 

amplius, adv., comp. of ample. 
More, farther, bcsidcs. 

ampSas, a, um, comp. amplior, 
snp. amplissimus, a^j. {amb-), Of 
largc extent, grcat, spacious, am- 
plo; maguificent, splendid, glori- 
ous; iilustrions, renowncd, dis- 

amplitatio, onia, f. {ampOio). 
A pruning, lopping off. 

am-plito, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
To lop off, cut off. 

Amfmdne, es, f. A fountoin 
near Argos. 

Amyntas, ae, m. Son of An- 

an, coi^j. Whether, or. 

&n-, ftm-, amb-, ambi-, insep. 
prep. Around, about. 

An&pis, is, m. A river of 
Sicily ; also a river-god. 

ancdra, ae, f. An anchor. 

Andria, ae, f. * The Andrian 
Woman,' a play of Terence. 

AjidrdmSda, ae, f. Daughtcr 

of the Ethiopinn kfng Ceplieiis 
and Cassidpe. 

ango, gre, nxi, v. tr. To press 
ti^ht ; to vex, annoy. 

angor, oris, m. {anffo). Anxi- 
ety, anguish, torment, vexation. 

angnlcdmas, a, um, adj. (an- 
ffuis, cdma). With snaky lioir. 

angalfer, Bra, irum, &6j. {an- 
ffuis, firo). Sei-pent-bearing. 

angais, is, m. nnd f. A snake ; 
a constcllation, the Dragon. 

angastos, a, um, adj. {atiffo), 
Narrow, stralt, contrvicted ; in an^ 
ffustum, into a narruw compa^s. 

anhelltos, us, m. {anhHo, to 
pant). Difiicult breathing. 

anhelus, a, um, adj. {MthelOf 
to pant). Panting. 

ftniiis, e, acy. {antu). Pcrtain- 
ing to un old woman. 

&ulma, ae, f. Air, wind, breath ; 

&nImadyerto, g^re, ti, sum, v. 
tr. (contr. from animum, adoerto)» 
To tum or bend the mind to; to 
notice, observe. 

&nlmal, dUs, n. {anXma). A 
living being, an animul. 

&ulman8, antis, part. See afO^ 
mo. As a4j. Animate, living. As 
snbfi. Any livingbcing, ananimal. 

&iilm&tas, a, um, part. Sce 
aiAmo. As acy. Disposed. 

&nImo, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
and uitr. {anima). To fill with 
breath or au:; to make alive, 

&nlmdsas, a, um, adj, {dnS" 
mus). FuU of courage, spirited. 

&nlmas, t, m. The sonl, will, 
mind, conrage, passion ; phir.t af- 
fections, passions. 

aunlvers&rius, a, um, ac^*. 
{annus, verto). Annual, yearly. 

annas, t, m. A year. 



anqniro, Sre^ guisimf Uum, y. 
tr. {an-, quaero), To seek on all 
sides ; to search after. 

ansai ae, f. A handle ; occa- 
sion, opportunity. 

anser, iria, m. A goose. 

ante, adv. and prep. witb acc. 
Bcfore, previously; ante quam, 
before that, sooner than, before. 

antea, adv. {ante, t«). Before, 
foimerly, before that. 

ante-cedo, ire, esaif essum, y. 
intr. To go before, precede, ex- 
cel, surpass ; to Iiave precedence 
or advantage. 

ante-eo, Ire, ivi (tV), y. intr. 
To go before, precede, excel, sur- 

ante-hftc, adv. Before this, 
bcfore this time, formerly, pre- 

antemna. ae, f. A sail-yard. 

antS-pono, gre, pdaui, pdaitum, 
y. tr. To put or place before ; to 

antS-qnam, adv. See ante, 

ant6-yerto, ire^ H, eum, v. tr. 
and intr. To take one*8 tum be- 
fore another; to anticipate, pre- 

antiqultas, cUis, t. (aniiquus), 
Olden time, antiquity. 

antiqnns, a, um, adj. (ante). 
Former, old, ancient. 

antrum, i, n. A cave. 

finjilos, t, m. {anua, a ring.) A 
rin^, a signet-ring. 

ftnns, us, f. An old woman. 

anxius, a, um, adj. {ango). 
Aiixions, solicitous, troubled. 

Aonins, a, um, adj.* (Adnia). 
Of or belonging to Aonia, Aonian, 

Aornis, idia, f. A rock in 

Apenninos, i, m. The moun- 

tain chnin that passes throngh the 
length of Italy, the Apennines. 

ftper, pri, m. A wild boar. 

ftpSriOj ire, ifmi, ertum, v. tr. 
(perh. ad, pdrio). To open, lay 
opcn, display, show, disclose. 

ftperte, adv. {dpertus). Open- 
ly, plaiiily. 

ftpertns, a, um, part. See 
apgrio. As a4j. Open, cletir ; un- 
covered, unprotected. 

ftpex, icie, m. The tip or top 
of a thing, point, summit. 

ftpis, ia, f. A bee. 

Apoillneus, a, um, ndj. (Apol- 
lo), Of or belonging to Apollo. 

Apollo, inis, m. Sou of Jupi- 
ter aud Latona, and brother of 

appello, are, avi, atum, v. tr« 
To call, name, address; to im- 
plore, appe:;I to. 

' Appius, t, m. A Roman prae- 
nomcn, especially of the gena 

apricatio, onis, f. {apricor, to 
bask in the sun). A basking in 
the sun. 

apto, are, avi, atum, v. tr. To 
fit, apply, put on, adjnst ; to pre- 
pare, fumish. 

aptus, a, um, ac^. Fitted, fas- 
tened, attached to ; suitable, adwft- 
ed, adequute. 

ftpnd, prcp. with acc. At, by, 
ncar, among, witli ; in the works 
of ; at tLu house of ; In the time 

ftqua, ae, f. Water ; by metoif., 
the sea. 

ftqullo, onis, m. The north 
wind ; any violent wind. 

ftquosns, a, um, adj. (aqua), 
Aboundingin water, humid, rainy. 

ftra, ae, f. An altar ; a constel- 
Uition, the Altar. 



Arachne, m, t A Lydian 
maiden, who challen^d Mincrva 
to a tri.ll of skill in spinnin;;, nnd, 
88 a piinishment, waa changed by 
tbe goddes.s into a spider. 

ftr&tor, oritf m. (clro). A 

&ralrain , t, n. {dro), A plon^h. 

Araxes, ia, m. A river in Per- 
sli, near Persepolis. 

arbltratufi, ua, m. {arbitror). 
An urbitrating, arbitration; will, 
choice, decision. 

arbltriam, t, n. {arbtterf an 
umpire). The judj^ent, decision 
of an arbitrator ; will, plcasiire, 

arbltror, ari, atua ittmf v. dep. 
(arbitert an nmpire). To malse a 
dccision, give judgment ; to be- 
iicve, 8upix>8e, thinlc. 

arbor, or -os, <Jm, f. A tree. 

arboreUs, a, um, ac^j. (arbor). 
Pertaining to a trec, tree-lilLe. 

arbos. See arbor, 

arbustiim, t, n. (arbos). A 
plantation, a vineyard planted 
with trees (while vinea was one 
is which the vine lay npon the 
earth, or was snpported by poles). 

arbtiteQs, a, um, a4j. {arbutu», 
the wild strawbcrry-tree). Of the 
wild sirawberry-tree. 

arceo, ere, ctd, v. tr. To shnt 
np ; to lieep or hold off, hinder, 

arcesso, Sre, frt, itum, v. tr. 
Tu scnd for, summon, invite ; to 
bring, scelc, dcrive a thought. 

Archf tas, ae, m. A Pythago- 
rean philosopher of Tarentum, 
and friend of Plato. 

arcltenens, ntis, a6j. {arcue, 
t6neo). Bow-bearing. 

Arctos, t, f. The constellation 
of the Great and Little Bear. 

arcas, ut, m. A boir. 

ardeo, ere, rai, reum, v. Intr. 
To be on firc ; to bhize, bnm. 

ardesco, 6re, arai, v. incep. 
{ardeo). To talce fire. 

ardor, orie, m. {ardeo). Bnm- 
in;r heat. 

ardnus, o, um, ad). Steep, 
lofty ; difflcult, ardnous. As subs. 
ardwjtm, i, n. A stccp, height. 

&rena, ae, f. {areo). Sand; 

&reo, ire, ui, v. intr. To be 

Arethfisa, ae, f. A celcbrated 
fountain near Syracuse. 

Arfsaothonins, t, m. A Tar- 
tesslan l&ing, who livcd to a great 

argentens, a, um, nd). {argen" 
tum). Of silver, silvery. 

arg^entnm, i, n. Silvcr. 

Argoilcus, a, um, adj. {Argih 
Ue). Argolic 

Argos, t, n. [only nom. and 
acc. ; more firequently in the plu- 
nd, Argi, orum, m.] Argos, the 
capital of the province Argolis in 
the Peloponnesns. 

argnmentnm, t, n. {(arffuo). 
An argumcnt ; proof ; theme, plot. 

argno, 8re, ui, utum, v. tr. To 
make clear, prove ; to accuse, con- 

argntiae, arum, f. {arguttte^ 
from arguo). Subtilties, acnte- 

&rldas, a, um, a^. {areo). Dxy, 

&ri8ta, ae, f. The beard of an 
ear of grain ; by mcton., the ear 

Aristides, is, m. A celebratcd 
Athcniun, a contcmporary and ri- 
val of Themistoclcs. 

Aristo, onis, m A philosophei 



of Ceos, one of the Cycl&des, 
who flourished abont B. C. 225. 

anna, drum, n. (prob. from 
root AR-, to flt). Arms, armor, 
weapons; hostilities, war; tn ar- 
mia, m war. 

armatas, a, um, part. See ar- 
mo, As subs. armattis, i, m. An 
arraed man, a soldier. 

armentum, i, n. {dlro). Cattle 
for pluughing, herds. 

armlger, Sriy m. {arma^ g^o). 
A weapon-bearer, shield-bearer; 
pl. armigeriy body-guards. 

armo, are^ avi, atum, t. tr. 
(arma), To aiin, eqnip, fit out. 

armus, t, m. (root ar-, to fit). 
The shoulder, whcre it is fitted to 
the .shoulder-blade, gen. of an 
animal, while humSms designates 
that of men, 

firo, ar«, a»«, aiumy v. tr. To 
plongh, till. 

arripio, Sre, ripni, reptumy v. 
tr. {ady rdpio). To seize, lay hold 
of ; to grasp wlth the mind, ap- 

ars, arti», f. (root ar-, to fit). 
Art, skill, ability, method, cun- 

Artabazos, t, m, A Persian 
satrap, who, aftcr the death of 
Darius, joined Alexander. 

arte, adv. {artua). Closely, 

artXclilas, «, m. {artua). A 
joint; a point of time, critical 

artlfex, icia, m. and f. {ars, 
fOcio). An artist. 

artas, lu, m. (root ar-, to fit). 
A joint, the limbs ; ftume, body. 

artus, a, um [arctiu, a, um], 
adj. {arceo). Narrow, close, strait. 

&rando, inis, f. A reed ; shaft 
of an arrow ; angling-rod. 

arvtim, t, n. (dfro). An arable 
field, cnltivated land. 

arx, arcis, f. A fortress, castle, 

Ascalaphas, t, m. A son of 
AchCron and Orphne, who made 
known to Pluto, that ProserpTna 
had eaten seven kernels of pome- 
granate, on account of which he 
was changed by her into an ill- 
boding owl. 

Asia, ae, f. Asia. 

asper, gra, irum, adj. Rough, 
violent, hard. 

aspSre, adv. {asper). Roughly, 
harshly, rndely. 

aspgrXtas, atis, f. {asper), 
Roughness, harthncss, sevcrity. 

aspernor, dri; dfus sum, v. dep. 
Xab, spemo). Tu spurn, despise, 

Astraea, ae, f. The goddess 
of Justice, who, during the Gold- 
en Age, wandcrcd al>out un the 
carth, but finally entireiy aban- 
doncd it, and retumed to heaveni 
As a constellation, Virgo. 

astrum, i, n. A star, constel- 
lation; by meton., heaven, im- 

astas, ua, m. Clevemess, cnn- 

at, conj. But, yet. 

ater, tra, trum, adj. Dcad- 

Atharrias, a«, m. Athanias, 
an officer in Alexander's army. 

Athenae, drtfm, f. Athens, 
the capital of Attlca. 

Atheniensis, e, adj. {Athenae). 

athlgta, ae, m. A wrestler, 

Athos, o, or onis, m. A high 
mountain on the Strymonian Gnif 
in Macedonia, opposite Lemnos. 



Atilins, t, m. A Homan gen- 
tile naiue. I. A. AtUius CaK.ti- 
nus Ri^gtilaSf consul for the first 
tiniQ B. C. 258. II. L. Atilius, 
onj of tlie earliest Roman juris- 
consultfl. III. M. Atllius Rcg&- 
lu8y a cclebratcd consul, wlio was 
tokcn prisoner by tho Cartha- 
ginians in tho flrst Punic war aiid 
sent to Rome to offer tho Rumnns 
pcace, on conditton of retuming 
to his enemies if he did not suc- 
ceed. Butsec Mommsen, II. p. 59. 

Atlanti&deSy ae, m. Son or 
desccndant of Athis. 

Atlas, ntiSf m. A king of Man- 
ritauLi, son of I&petus and Clym- 
Cne, cbangcd by Pcrseus, with 
the aid of Medusa^s head, into 
Mt. Atias. 

atque, or ac [in classical prose 
04! is used in general only liofore 
consonants], conj. (ad, gue), And 
also, and even, and indeed, and ; 
in comparisons : as, than. 

atqui, co^j. But, but yet ' 

fttriiuii, »', n. The liall or prin- 
dpal room in a Roman house ; by 
meton., the whole house. 

atrdcltas, atia, f. {atrox, 
fiene). Fierceness, barbarity, 

Attftlos, », m. The nncle of 
Cleopatra, Philip's second wife. 

Attlcns, «', m. A snmame of 
Titus Pomponius, from his long 
residcnce at Athens. 

attollo, ire, v. tr. {ad, toUo). 
To lift up, elevate, exalt, extoL 

attonltas, a, ttm, part. as a^j. 
{attOno, to thnnder at). Aston- 
ii»hed, terrified, amazed; voee, 
charmed, Ov. xi. 20. 

attlneo, ere, ui, tentum, v. tr. 
and intr. {ad, tSneo). To hold on, 
stretch to ; to pertain to, concem. 

Impers. attinet, it mattcrs, Is of im- 
ponance, it avails. 

attrftho, ire, ri, ctum, t. tr. 
{ad, trdho), To draw to or to- 
wards; to prompt, lead, allure, 

aactor, oria, m. {augeo). An 
antbor, foundcr, anccstor; adYi- 
flcr, voncher, authority. 

anctorltas, Stis, f. {auctor), 
View, opinion, judgmcnt; coun- 
sel, advice, cncoura^cment ; will, 
dccition, prcccpt, dccrec ; dignity, 
inflii^ncc ; warrant, credibility, 

anci&piam, i, n. {aueeps, a fowl- 
er). Bird-catching, fowling. 

aadacia, ae, f. {audax). Cour- 
agc, intrcpidity; insolencc, an- 
dacity, impndcnce. 

aadaclter, adv. {audax), Bold- 
ly, audaciously. 

aadax, acis, adj. {audeo). 
Bold, courageous; nudacious, im- 
pudent, presumptuous. 

aadeo, ere, auaua sum, y. semi- 
dep. [participles, attdene, auHirtu^ 
auaue, audmdua ; ausus bcing nsed 
both in an active and passiye 
sense]. To venture to .dp ; to 
dare, presume, nndcrtake. 

aadientia, a^., f. {audio), A 
hearin<?, audicnce, attention. 

aadio, ire, ivi {ii), iium, y. tr. 
To hear, listen, obey, 

aaditas, us, m. {audio), A 
hearing, report. 

aafSro,. /!?rr«, abstOU, abUUum, 
V. tr- {ab, firo), To take away, 
carry oflf, remove ; to take off, de- 

aogeo, ere, xi, ctum, y. tr. To 
increasc, augment, stren^then. 

aagesco, ire, v. incep. {au- 
geo). To begin to grow, become 
greater, keep growing. 



aaglir, Hria, m. and f. An an- 
gur, soothsayer, diviner, seer. 

angiiriam, i, u. (augur), The 
profession of an augur, augury ; 
every kind of divination ; inter- 
prctation. Ov. i. 226. 

angfirinsy a, um, adj. {auffur). 
Pcitaining to tbe augnr, angural. 

angfiror, ari, atus sum, v. dep. 
{auffur). To act as augnr, tal^e 
anguries; to foretell, forebode; 
to snrmise, coigecture. 

augastns, a, um, adj. (auffeo). 
Consecrated, venerable, m^jestic, 

aalaeam, t, n. [more fteq. in 
plural]. A curtain, esp. the cur- 
tain of a theatre. 

aara, ae, f. The wafting air, 
a gentle breeze ; breath ; wind ; 
tlie region of the air ; vital air ; 

aorfitas, a, um, part. (auro, 
togild). Asacij. Omamentedor 
overlaid with gold, gildcd ; golden. 

aareas, a, um, acy. (aurum). 
Of gold, golden, ornamented with 
goldy gilded ; of the color of gold, 
glittering with gold; beautifhl, 

auriga, ae, m. and f. (attrea, a 
bridle, Offo). A drivcr, a chari- 

aaris, is, f. An ear. 

Aardra, 00, f. The moming, 
dawn ; personified, the goddcss of 
tbc moming, AurTira. 

aaram, t, n. Gold ; the color 
or lustre of gold. 

Aasdoias, a, um, adlj. Anso- 
nian. . 

aasplciam, t, n. (auapex,' a 
bird-seer). Bird-watching , aus- 
pices, sign, omen, divine prcmo- 

aa8ter,M*,m. The south wind. 

aastralis, e, ad^. {aueter). 

ausam, t, n. (audeo). A dar- 
ing attempt, bold enterprise. 

aasas, a, um, part. See audeo. 

aat, coi\j. {a&irum). Or; oth- 
erwise ; aut — aut, either — or. 

aatem, coi\j. {akin to aut). 
But, again, morcover, on the other 
hand, but indeed, forsooth. 

aatamoalis, e, a4j. (atfftffn- 
nus). Pertaining to antumn, aa- 

autamaos, t, m. {augeo). Aa- 

aaxlliftris, e, aciJ. {auaUum), 
Hclpful, helping. 

aaxlliam, t, n. (atigeo). Help, 
assistmce, aid ; aid, helper. Plor. 
auxtlia, orum, auxiliary troops. 

ftv&re, adv. {avSrus). Covet- 
ously, greedily. 

ftv&rltia, ae, f. {dvSrut). Cov- 
etousness, greediness, avarice. 

ftvaras, a, um, adj. {dveo). £a- 
gerly desirous of, greedy, avari- 
cious, covetous. 

ft-vello, gre, veUi or vuUi, vtU- 
mm, V. tr. {vello, to pinck). To 
tear oif, break oif. 

ftveoa, ae, f. Oats, any stem 
or stalk ; oaten-pipe. 

ftveo, ire, v. tr. To long for, 

Averoftlis, e, acy. {Avemue). 
Of or pertaining to Lake Avemus. 

Averoas, a, um, adj. Witbont 
birds, esp. Avemus ktcu», or abs. 
Avemtu, Lake Avemus, which is 
found in tho ncighl)orhood of Cn- 
mae, Putc6Ii, and Baiae, and rep- 
resented as the entrance to the 
lower world; belonging to Lake 
Avcmus or to the lower world, 
infemal; vaUe», the lower world. 
Ov. X. 61. 



&-veTto, gre, tif tum, ▼. tr. To 
turn away frum, tarn aside, avert, 

&vlde» adv. {avtdus), Eagerly, 

&vldltas, ati», f. {dvidus). Ea- 
gcrncss, lunging, covetoasness, av- 
arice, fa^ecUincss. 

&vlda8, a, «m, a(|j. {dveo). 
Longing eagerly for, dcsiroas, 
eager, greedy ; avaricioas, cove- 
tous; insatiiible. 

&vis, ist f- A bird. 

&vita8, a, f«m, ac^. {dvus). 
Fertaining to a grandfather, an- 

avios, a, um, ad^. (a, via). Oat 
of tlie way, traciiless ; as sabs., 
arza, drun\, n. Pathless plaoes, 

ft-voco, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
To c<ill off or away, withdraw, 
divert, distract. 

ftvancfilos, t, m. (dim. of 
dvus). A mother*s brotber, ma- 
temal uncle. 

ftvos, t, m. A grandfather ; by 
meton., ancestor, forefather. 

axis, ««, m. An axle; by 
meton., a chariot, wagon ; tbe axis 
of the earth, whence, by meton., 
the north pole, the whole skj, 


Bftbylon, onis, f. Babylon, 
the chief city of the Babylo-As- 
syrian empire in Mesopotamia. 

Bftbflonia, ae, f. 1.) The 
Syrian province, namcd after its 
capital, Babylon. 2.) The capital 
of Bahylonla, Babylon. 

Babj^ldnins, a, um, adj, {Bahy- 
tania). Babylonian. Subs., Bdby- 
tonii, orum, m. The Baby lonians. 

bacca, ae, f. A berry ; in ^n- 
eral, any frait of a tree. 
. Baccha, ae, f. (BoccAw»). A 

Bacchens, a, um, adj. {Bttc- 
chue). Relating to the Bacchae 
or Bacchantes, Bacchantian. 

Bacchiadae, drum, m. {Bac- 
chis). The Bacchiftdae, a vcry 
ancient royal family of Corinth, 
descended from Bacchis, one of 
the Heraclidae, which being ex- 
pelled from the throne by Cyps6- 
Ins, wandcred to Sicily and found- 
ed Syracuse. 

Bacchns, t, m. Son of Jnpi- 
ter and a Theban woman SemSle ; 
by meton., wine. 

Bactrianns, a, um, ac^. {Bac- 
tria). Bactrian. As subs., Bac- 
tridniy onim, m. The Bactrians. 

bftcaiani, t, n. A stick, staS. 

Bagophftnes, is, m. A Per- 
sian povernor of Babylon. 

Balftcrns, t, m. One of Alex- 
ander's commanders. 

balaena, ae, f. A whale. 

Bftlearlcns, a, um, adj. Bal- 

barba, ae, f. Beard. 

barbarns, a, um, adj. Alien, 
foreign, strange. The Romans 
calied all other nations barbarians 
except the Greeks. As subs., bar^ 
bdri, orum, m. Strangers, for- 
eigners, barbarians. 

Bancis, tdis, f. The wife of 

Bazaira, ae, f. A district of 

beate, adv. {bedtus). Happily. 

befttus, a, um, adj. {beo, to 
bless). Blessed, happy; prosper- 
ous; opulent, wealthy. 

Belis, (dia, f. [nsually in plur. 
Belides, um). A granddaughtcr 



ofBelus. In Ovid, X. 44, -Beftcfe* 
is for Ddndldea, which cannot be 
nscd in hcxameter verse. 

bellicosus, a, t<m, adj. {belH' 
eua), Very warlike, martial. 

bellicus, a, umy adj. {hellum). 
Of or pertaining to war, warlilce. 

bello, arti^ avi, atum, y. intr. 
(bellum), To war ; to fight. 

bellam, «', n. (orig. dueUum, 
trtra duo). War, warfare. 

belna, ae, f. A beast, monster. 

Belas, •', m. A mythical king 
of Egypt. 

bSne, comp. mHUut^ snp. opti- 
me, adv. {bdtius), Well, rlghtly, 
bcautifully, finely, prosperously, 
pleasantly ; very, exceedingly. 

bSnericentissImns, a, «m, 
acy. See binHficus, 

bSnSficinm, »', n. (bSneffcua). 
Well-doing, kindness/favor, help, 
Bupport ; distinction, grant ; priv- 

bSnSf Icns, a, um, comp. bfni" 
ficentior, sup. binSficentissimus, 
acy. {bini, fado). Wcll-doing, 
gencrous, liberal, beneficent. 

benSvole, adv. {binMlua). 
With kind intent. 

bSnSvdlentia, ae, f. {bSni, vd- 
lo). Good-will, kindness, benevo- 
lence, good feeling, favor. 

bSnSvdlus, a, um, a^j. {b8n9, 
vdlo), WelUwishing, fHendly, 

bSnii^ne, adv. {biniffnus, kind). 
Kindly, favorably. 

bSnignltas, aiis^ t {binignust 
kind). Beneflcence, boanty. 

BSrecyntias, a, t«m, acy . {BSri- 
eyntus). Of or pertaii)ing to the 
Fhrygian moontain Berecyntus, 

bestia, ae, f. A beast. 

Bias, anUSf m. A Greek phi- 

losopher Qf Priene, one of the 
seven wise men. 

bibo, ire^ bibiy v. tr. To drink. 

blbJilus, a, um, a4j> {bibo). 
Drinkiiig freely, that dmws ur 
absorbs moisturc, bibulous ; mois- 

bleeps, itis, a^j. {bis, caput). 
Two.Jieaded, with two sunimits. 

blcolor, om, sulj. (6»«, cohr), 
Of two colors ; two-coIoi*ed. • 

blcornis, e, adj. {bis, comu). 
Two-horned, two-pronged. 

bldanra, «, n. {bis, dies). The 
space of two days, two days. 

bienninm, «', n. {bis, annus), 
The space of two years. 

blforis, e, acjj. {bis, fiiris). 
Havin<r two doors or door-folds. 

blmaris, e, adj. {bis, mare). 
Lying between two scas. 

blni, ae, a, num. distr. acy. {bis) 
Two each, two by two, by twos. 

bls, num. adv. {duis, ftom duo). 

bltumen, inis, n. Bitumen, a 
specios of asphaltum, fossil tar, 
frequently found in Palestine and 

blandior, iri, itus sum, v. dep. 
{blandus). To cling caressingly 
to; to flatter, soothe, caress; to 
fawn upon. 

blandltaa, ae, f. {biafidus). A 
caressing, blandishment, flatter- 

blandus, a, um, acy. Flatter' 
ing^ fondling, caressing; kind» 
pleasant, enticing. 

Blossins, •', m. Caius BloMsius 
of Cumae, a Stoic and pupil of 
Antip&ter of Tarsus. 

Boedtia, ae, f. Boeotia, a dis. 
trict of Gi-eece Proper, whose cap- 
ital was Tbebes, the birthplace of 
Bacchus and Herctlles. 



BoeOtins, a, um, A6^,{Boedtia). 

bonitas, aiiSf f. (hanua). Good- 
ncss, excellence : yirtne, integrity, 
kindncss, bcnevolence. 

boniim, i, n. {bcnus), Oood, 
ntillty, profit, advantage. Plur., 
bdna, otttm, n. Gifts of fortnne, 
wealtli, riches, property, goods, 
fortnne. . 

bdniiSi a, um, comp. fniUor, 
snp. optfmut, acy. Good, beanti- 
tiful, plcasant, fit, snitable, ri^ht; 
exccllent, skilful, noble, yirtuous, 
npright ; fayorable, propitious, 

Bo5tes, ae, m. The ncarly 
Ftationary constellation Bootes, 
the Bear-keepcr. 

boreas, oe, m. The north 

bos, b&vis, m. and f. An ox, 
bullock, cow. 

bracchiam, t, n. The arm, 
esp. the fore-arm. 

brSvis, e, ac^. Short, Ilttle, of 
small extent, narrow ; brief, con- 

brevlter, adv. (6r«n»). Brlef- 
ly, in bricf, with few words, con- 
cisely, snmraarily. 

Brntns, i, m. I. L. Junlns 
Bmtns, a relative of Tarquinius 
Superbns, whom he expelled ttom 
the throne. When the people of 
Yeli and Tarquinii endeavored 
to restore Tarqnin to his throne, 
Brntus marched against them, and 
flsrhting with Amns, the son of 
Tarquin, both fell pierced with 
each other*s spears. II. Decl- 
mus Jnnius Briitus, consnl with 
P. Coraelius Scipio Nasica, B. C. 
138; famed for his victories in 
Spain ; he was also an augnr, and 
^is coileagues and friends were 

wont to meet in his gardens to 
dcli))crate upon mattcrs connected 
with the flu^ural office. 

bubo, onia, m. An owl. 

Biiceph&las, otf, m. {0ots, c«- 
^aXfi, buirs head ; so callcd from 
the breadth of its forchcad). Tfao 
horsc of Alcxander the Great. 

bJicIna, ae, f. A crooked hom 
or trumpct; a kind of circular 
windinsr shell on which Tritun 
blcw, Triton's shell. 

bastum, t, n. {buro^uro). 
The place at which a dead body 
was bnraed and buricd ; a tomb. 

bnxas, t, f. The box-tree ; tho 
wood of the box-tree. 


C, abbreylatlbn for Cains. 

c&c&men, tni$, n. (dcumen^ 
with c prcfixcd). The peak, top, 
point, summit. 

Cadmeis, tdis^ a^j. {Cadmus), 
Of CadmuB, Cadmeati ; arx, i. e. 
the citadel of Thebes. 

Cadmas, t, m. Son of the 
Phoenician king Agenor and 
brother of Eunipa ; the rcputcd 
invcntor of alphabetic writing. 

c&do, 9re, cBOdi, casum, v. 
intr. To fall ; to drop off; to die» 
be slain; to sink, set; to happcn, 
occur, befall ; to decrease, decay ; 
to abate ; in homlnem cadere pos' 
se, to l)e attainable by man. 

cfidaclfer, ira, irum, adj. {ca- 
duceus, a herald'8 sttiff, firo). 
Bearing a herald'8 staff, wand- 

cfidacas, a, um, adj. {cddo). 
Inclincd to fall; transitory, per- 

CaecUiiis, t, m. L CiieclUaB 



8<&tiaB, a Roman comic poet, a 
contemporary of Ennius. II. L. 
Caecilius MStellas, see MStellns. 

caecas, a, um, a^j. Bllnd; 
hidden, secret, inTisible ; obscure, 
dai'k, gloomy. 

caedes, »«,f. (caedo). Slaugh- 
ter, havoc, massacrc ; by mcton., 
the persons slain, the slain ; the 
blood shed, gore. 

caedo, dre^ dMdi^ eaentmt v. 
tr. To cut, cut down, kill, cut in 

caeles, ftiSf a^j. (caelum). Ce- 
lestial, hen venly ; eubs.j a god. 

caelestis, e, adj. {caelum). 
Heavenly, celestial, dlvine. As 
snbs. Tbe heavenly one, a god. 

eaellcdla, aey m. {caefum, «d- 
lo). An inhabitant of heaven, a 

caelo, are, avi, atum, y. tr. 
(caelum, a chisel, from caedo, to 
cut). To carve, emboss, cut in 

caelnmy «,n.,plur. caeU, orum, 
m. Heaven, thc heavens, the sky, 
the atmosphcre. 

Caepio, dn/«, m. Cn. Scrvili- 
us Cacpio, consul wlth Q. Morcius 
Phillppus, B. C. 1G9. 

caeriileas, a, um, acy. (for eae- 
Inkus, fh>m caelum), Dork-blue, 
azure ; dark, gloomy, sablc. 

Caicus, «', m. A rivcr in Mysia. 

Cains, i, m. A Roman prae- 

c&I&niltas, Siis, f. (prob. from 
cddo). Los8, misfurtunc, calamity, 

r&l&mltdsus, a, um, adj. (cO- 
Idmttas ) . Thut ciiuses great dum- 
ageorloss, ruinous, destructive; 
anfoitunate, miserable. 

cftl&mas, t, m. A reed ; an 

cftl&thos, t, m. A wicker- 

Calfltinas, t, m. See Atilius. 

calco, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
(calx, heel). To tread upon, tread 
under foot. 

calcfilas, t, m. (ealx). A peb- 
ble, a small stone; calculating, 
reckoning, computlng. 

cftleo, ere, ui, v. intr. To be 
wnrm or hot ; to glow. 

c&lesco, ire, ui, v. inccp. (cd- 
leo), To grow or become wann 
or hot. 

cftlldas, a, um, a^. (caleo), 
Warm, hot. 

cfiligO, ims, f. A mist, vapor, 
fog, darkness, thick atmosphore. 

callldas, a, um, adj. {calleo, to 
be thick-skinned). Sbrewd, skil- 
ftil, cunning, artful. 

callis, is, m, nnd f. A foot- 
path, amoiintain-path. 

calor, oris, m. (cOloo). Heat, 
warmth, glaw. 

calx, cis, f., sometimcs m. A 
small stone ; limestone, lime ; a 
goal or limit in the race-course. 

Calymne, es, f. An island in 
the Acgean Sca, opposite Caria. 

camelus, i, m. A camcl ; drO- 
mddei cdmeli, dromedarics. 

Camillus, i, m. L. Furius C&- 
millus, consul, B, C. 319. 

campester, tris, tre, acij. (cam- 
pus). Of a plain, level. 

campns, t, m. A plain, field. 

cancer, cri, m. A crab ; a sign 
of tho Zodiac, Cancer. 

candeo, ere, ui, v. intr. To 
shine, glitter ; to plow. 

candesco, ire, ui, v. incep. 
(candeo). To begin to glistcn ; to 
begin to glow. 

candldas, a, um,fi6^.(caiideo). 
Of a dazzling white, clear, bright. 



c&neo, ere, t<t, t. intr. {eSnut). 
To Ikj wliite or hoary. 

cAneRCO, ire, v. incep. {caneo). 
To grow whte or boary. 

c&uis, is, m. and f. A dog, 

c&ttistrain, «', n. [usually pla- 
ral]. A wicker-baskeL 

canna, ae^ f. A recd, cane. 

Cannensis, e^ acU- {Cannae), 
Of Cannae, a village in Apaiia, 
famcd for the victory of Hannl- 
bal over the Romtms, B. C. 216. 

c&no, ire, cMnit cantum, v. tr. 
To sing, forctell ; to play (on in- 

c&nor, ori», m. {cano). Song. 

c&ndrns, a, um, adj. (canor). 
Tnneful, melodioas, harmoniuus. 

cantns, ue, m. {cano). Tone, 
melody, song. 

cAnns, a, um, adj. White, 
grjiy ; plur. cani, ^ay hairs. 

c&pax, acis^ a/dj. {capio). Spa- 
cious, ro jmy, capacious ; capable, 

c&pella, ae, f. (dim. of eaper, 
a goat). A shc-goat ; a star in the 
constellation Aiirij^a. 

c&pillns, i, m. {eaput). A hahr 
of the head. 

c&pio, Sre, cepif captum, v. tr. 
To tiike, seize ; to take hy force, 
capturc ; to captivate, deinde ; to 
receive, comprehend, contain, 
have space for ; to feel, suffer. 

c&pital, dlie, a^j. (caput), or 

C&pltalis, e, acy. (caput). Fer- 
taining to the hend or life, mortal, 
doadly, dangerons, capital. As 
subs. A capital offence or crime. 

C&pltolinm, i, n. {caput). The 
Capitol at Rome. 

capra, cte, f. {caper, a goat). A 

eaptivns, a, tun, a^j. {capio). 

Caught, taken prisoner. As 8ubs« 
A prisoner, captive. 

capto, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
(fireq. of eapio). To catch at ea- 
gerly; to lay hold of; to strive 
after, dcsire earuest^y, endeavor 
to catch. 

C&pna, ae, f. The chfef city 
of Campania. 

cftpnt, ttts, n. The hend; 
flonrce ; physical life, civil or po- 
litical life. 

carb&sns, t, f. Vcry fine Span- 
ish flax, linen ; garment ; sail. 

Carbo, onis, m. Caius Pfi.piri- 
us Carbo, a partisan of Tiberius 

carcer, dn>, m. A prison ; the 
harrier or starting-place in the 

cardo, tnis, m. A hinge. 

c&reo, ere, ui, itum, v. tntr. To 
be without, not to have ; to be 
destituteof; towant. 

carlca, a«, f. {Cai-ia, a prov- 
ince in Asia Minor). A flg. 

c&rina, ae, f. A keel; hy 
meton., a ship, vessel. 

c&rltas, atis, f. {carus). Dear- 
ness, esteem, attachment, love, re- 
gard, affection. 

carmen, tnis, n. {cano). A 
song, poem, verse. 

carnlfex, tds, m. {caro,facio). 
An cxecntioner, hangman. 

c&ro, caniis, f. Flesh, a piece 
of flcsh. 

carpo, Sre, psi, ptum, v. tr. To 
pick, pluck, scparatc, divide ; to 
pass over, traverse ; to wearawaiy, 

carns, a, «m, adj. Dear, val- 
ued, esteemed, loved, precious. 

CarvHins, i, m. Sp. Carvil- 
ins, consul with Q. Fabius Maxl- 
mus, B. C. 228. 



cSsa, ae, f. A hnt, cottage. 

caseosy t, m. Cheese. 

Cassidpe, es, f. The wife of 
Cepheus and mother of Andro- 

Cassins, 9, ra. Sp. Cassius Vis- 
cclITnus, the anthor of the first 
ajrrarian law at Rorae, pnt to 
dcath B. C. 485, on the charge of 
aiming at regal power, aflcr hav- 
ing becn thrce times consiil. 

Cassins, o, wm, adj. {Cassiua), 
Fertaining to Cassius, Cassian. 

Castalins, a, t<m, acy. {Castd- 
lia). Pcrtaining to the Cdstalian 
fountain, Castalian. 

castigo, are, dvi, aJtum^' v. tr. 
\east\iSy pure, dgo). To malvo 
pure, pnni-h, blame, reprimand. 

Castra Alexandri, on<m, n. 
A district of Lower Egypt. 

castmm, t, n. A fortrcss. 
Plur., caatra, orumt n. A camp. 

c&sns, uSf m. (cddo). A fall, 
chance, lot, incldent ; misfortnnc ; 
evont, occasion, opportunity. 

cfitena, aCf f. A chain. 

C&to, dnist m. A sumame of 
ucvcral cclcbrated Romans. I. M. 
Porcius Cato, tho Elder. Sec pa:?e 
163. II. Caius Cato, thc youn^^cr 
son of Cato Licinianus, and grand- 
fion of Cato the censor. 

Caucfisus, «', m. I. The chain 
of mountains between the Black 
and Caspian seas. 11. The Hin- 

canda, a«, f. A tail. 

Caodinus, a, vm, adj. ((7a««- 
dium, a town in Samnium). Of 
Caudium, Caudine. 

cansa, ae, f. A causc, reason, 
motivc, occasion; casc, lawsnit; 
abl., causdy for the salvO of. 

caute, adv. {cautus). Cautioos- 
ly, carcftilly. 

cantes, m, f. A rongh, point- 
ed rock. 

cautio, dnia, f. {edveo). Cau- 
tion, preraution. 

cautns, a, «m, part See caveo. 
As a4j. Wary, hcedful, cautious, 

c&vca, a<?, f {cavua). A cavity, 
Ciigc, den ; thc audicnce part of a 
thcatrc, thc cavca. 

caveo, ere, cdvi, cautumf v. 
intr. To be on onc*s guard ; to 
take carc, l)ewarc ; to order,decree. 

c&verna, a<?, f. {cdvus). A 
cavc, cavcm, vanlt, hole. 

cftvo, drr, dviy dtum, v. tr. (c<l- 
vus). Tb hollow out, excavate. 

cSvns, a, nm, ndj. Hollow, 
hollowcd, concave; deep, deep- 
chsmncllcd ; decpening. 

Caystros, t, m. The Cayster, 
a river of Lydia, which falls into 
thc sea at EphSsus. 

CScropius, a, t<m, adj. (Cl^ 
crops). Cccropian, Athenian. 

Cecrops, dpis, m. The most 
anciont lcing of Attlca, and found- 
cr of tho citadcl of Athcns, hence 
called Cecropia. 

cSdo, an old imperative ; plnr. 
cctte. Hither with it, let us hear, 
tell, say, out with it. 

c€do, Sre, cessi, cessum, v. tr. 
and intr. To go, move ; to have 
some resnlt, turn out ; to with- 
draw, retire, depart, pass away ; 
to give place, give way ; to yield 
to ; to fall to one's lot ; to grant, 
concede, allow, give up, permit. 

cedms, i, f. The cedar, juni- 

c616ber, bris, bre, comp. -brior, 
sup. -rimua. adj. [prob. another 
form of creber']. Much frequent- 
cd or resorted to ; crowded, pop- 
ulons; renowncd, distinguished. 



c61SbeiTlmii8, a, um, acU* See 


cSlSbro, Sref am, atumy v. tr. 
{eiUher). To flll ; to freqnent, 
throng ; to proclaini, praise, ccle- 
brate, soleninize ; to lionor. 

cSler, *n«, ire^ comp. -iorf sup. 
rlmta, acU. Switt, fleet, hurried, 

cfilSrltas, atia, f. {dler). Swift- 
nc88, speed, qniclcness. 

cCierlter, comp. -tia, snp. -clk 
lerrimey adv. (c«i!er). Qaicltlj, 

cella, a^, f. A store-room. 

c€lo, are, aoi, alum^ v. tr. To 
eonceal, liide. 

celsos, a, um, adj. High, lofty. 

cSna, ae, f. Tbe principal meal 
of tbe Romans, dinner, supper. 

c§no, OTtf, a»%t attunt v. intr. 
{chia\ To sup, dine. 

censeo, ere^ ui, eum^y. tr. and 
Intr. To connt, reckon ; to tax, 
assess ; to esteem, value ; to deem, 
think, judge, be of opinion ; to 
vote, decree, resolve, ordain. 

censor, om, m. {censeo). A 
censor, the name of two Roman 
magistrates, who presided- over 
the rating of the citizens, watched 
ovcr thcir morals, and performed 
other fnnctions. 

censfira, ae, f. {eenaeo). The 
offlce of censor, oensorship. 

censQS, UA, m.{cen89o). A regis- 
tering and rating of Roman cit- 
izens, their property, etc., a cen- 
Bus ; property, possessions, wealtb. 

centeslmas, a, »m, num. ord. 
adj. {centum). Hundredth. 

Cento, ont«, m. Cains Clau- 
dius Cento, consul with M. Sem- 
pronins Tuditanus, B. C. 240. 

centam, indecl. num. ac^. A 

centlirio, 3»w, m. {renhtm), A 
centurion, tbe commander of a 
ccntury, a captain. 

Cephenos, a, um, a^j. {Ce- 
pheua). Dirived from Cepheus, of 
Cepheus, Ethiopian. 

Cepheas, ei, m. Son of Bclas, 
brother of Aegyptus, Danims, and 
Phineus ; father of Andromfida ; 
a king of Aethiopia. 

Cephens, a, um, ai^. {Ce- 
pheua), Of Cepbeus, Etbiopian. 

Cephisis, tdis, a4|. {Cephisus). 
Of Ccpbisus. 

Cephlsas, t, m. A river of 
Pbocis in Boeotia. 

cera, ae, f. Wax. 

Cercasdros, t, f. A city of 
Egypt, on the left bank of the 
Nile, wherc it fliist divides. 

Cerealis, e, f. {Cires). Belon^- 
ing to Ceres, sacred to Ccres. 

CSres, «TM. f. Ceres, daughtcr 
of S.itnm and Rhea, sister of Ju- 
piter and Pluto, motber of Pro- 
scrplna, goddcss of agricultnre ; 
by meton., giain, com, food, 
brcad, fruit. 

cerno, ire, crevi, eretum, v. tr. 
To separate, sift; to distinguish 
by tbe scnses, sce, perc^ive, dis- 
cern ; todccree, dctermine, decide. 

certSmen, inia, n. {certo). A 
contest, struggle, battle, strife. 

cert&tio, onis, f. {certo)^ A 
contending, strife, contest 

certe, adv. {certua). Certainly, 

certo. adv. {certm). With cer- 
tainty, as a fact, surely. 

certo, are, avi, atum, v. Intr. 
(kindred with cemo). To contend, 

certns, a, um, a^. {cemo).. 
Sure, certain, trusty, to be dcpend- 



eervix, lci»f f. The neck. 

cervns, i, m. A stag, deer. 

cespes, ftist m. Turf, sod. 

cesso, aret 5ri, atum, v. tr. and 
intr. (freq. of eido). To leave off, 
linger, cease from, fitop ; to l)e in- 
activc, idle; to be unemployed. 

cetSrum, adv. {ceiBrita), For 
tho rest, but, yet, otherwise. 

cetSras, a, um [the nom. sing. 
masc. not in use ; the sing. rarej, 
acy. The other, the rest. 

CSthegas, t, m. M. Comeltus 
CSthegus, consul with P. Sempro- 
nius Tuditanus, B. C. 204. 

cen, adv. As if, just as. 

Ceas, a, um, adj. {Ceos, Lnt. 
Cea). Of or belonging to Ceos, 
one of the most important of the 

Chaldaei, on/m, m. TheChal- 
deans, a pcople of Assyria. 

chaos [abl. chaot other cases 
not uscd in the classic period], n. 
The boundlcss, empty space, cha- 
08 ; the lower world. 

charta, ae, f. Paper from the 
Egyptian papyrus. 

Charos, i, m. One of Alex- 
ander^s leaders. 

Choaspes, t>, m. A river in 
Susiana, flowing into the Tigris. 

choros, t, m. A dance in a 
ring, a choral dance; a dancing 
and singing troop or band ; any 
mnltitudc, band, troop. 

chrysdllthus, t,' m. and f. 
Chrysoiite, the topaz of the Greeks 
and modern mineralogists. 

clbas, t, m. Food, sustenance. 

ClcSro, onis, m. M. Tullius 
Cicero. See page 157. 

Cicones, um, m. A Thraciun 
people near the Hebrus. 

clcur, Uris, atij. Tame. 

Cllix, Uns, a^. Ciiician. 

Cnicia, ae, f. A south-eastcm 
division of Asia Minor. 

Cincinn&tas, i, m. L. Quinc- 
tius Cincinnatus, called from the 
plongh to be dictator, B. C. 458, 
and appointcd again 6. C. 439. 

Cincins, a, um, adj. Cincian ; 
lex, a law proposed by M. Cincius 

Cineas, ae, m. The fricnd of 
king Pyrrhus of Epirus, who 
counselled him to make peace 
with the Romans. 

cingo, ire, nxi, nctum, v. tr. 
To surround, encircle, gird; to 
crown ; to invest, encompass. 

clnis, iris, m., rarely f. Ashes, 
csp. the ashes of a corpse thathas 
been burned. 

circa, adv. and prep. with acc. 
Abont, around, round about. 

circultus, us, m. {circHmeo), 
A circuit, round^ibout way. 

circfilns, t, m. (dira. of circus, 
a ring). A circic, ring, hoop. 

circum, adv. nnd prep. with 
acc. AI)out, around. 

circum-do, are, dSdi, dOfum, 
V. tr. To put around, surround, 

circiim-eo, ire, frt (ii), ttum, 
V. tr. and intr. To go around ; to 
encompass, surround. 

circam-f6ro,/?rrc, tnli, latum, 
V. tr. To carry round ; to move 
aronnd ; oculos, to roU aDund. 

circam-flao, fy-e, xi, v. tr. and 
intr. To flow round, llock ronnd, 
overflow with, abound, bo rich in. 

circam-fundo, 9re, fudi, fu- 
sum, V. tr. To pour aronnd ; to 
surround ; to drench ; to encom- 
pass, cnvelop. 

circnm-Iino, Sre, —, ktufn, v. 
tr. {lino, to bcsmear). To 
allover; tocover. 



circiim-peiideo, Srv, t. Intr. 
To bang aroiind. 

circum-sdons, a, um, adj. 
Sounding on every side; iurba 
c<mum, liarking aronnd. 

circom-splcio, iref exi, ecHtm, 
y. tr. and intr. {ajiiciOf to look). 
To look aronnd, survey ; to pou- 
der, consider. 

circnm-stanSy rUis, paxt. See 
circumsto. As suba., circumatan-' 
tes, ium, m. By-st:mder8. 

circnm-sto, aref etHi, y. tr. 
and intr. To stand oruund; to 

circnm-vSnio, fr«, ven», «en- 
ium, V. tr. To come arouud ; to 
surronnd; tosnrpass. 

Clthaeron, onia, m. A monn- 
tain in the south-west of Boeotia, 
sacred to Bacchus and tbe Muscs. 

clthftra, tUt f. The cithara or 
dthem, Inte. 

clto, comp. citiua, snp. dtissf' 
me, adv. (dtus), Soon, speedily, 

citra, adv. and prep. with acc. 
On tliis side. 

citro [always with ultro'], adv. 
To this side ; hence u/iro citroque, 
hitltcr and thither, reciprocally. 

cltns, a, um, adj. {cieo, to call). 
Quick, swift, rapid. 

civilis, e, a^j. {cicia). Pertain- 
ing to a citizen, civic, civil ; polit- 
ical, public 

ciTia, ia, m. and f. A citizen ; 
B fellow-citizen. 

civltas, atie, f. (cfws). Citi- 
eenship, the body politic, tbe 

clades, ««, f. Ii\jury, loss, dis- 
aster, calamity. 

cldmo, dret avi, atum, v. tr. 
and intr. To cry out, shout aloud ; 
to cry aloud to, invoke, proclaim. 

cl&nor, orie, m. (clamo). A 
loud shout, call, or cry ; acclama- 
tion, applause. 

clandestinns, a, um, a^j. 
(clam, secretly). Secret, hidden, 

cl&reo, ere, v. intr. (clarusy 
To bc clear or bright ; to be dis- 
tinguishcd, renowncd. 

clftrns, a, t/m, adj. Clear, 
bright,l)rilliant ; transparent; loud, 
distinct, plniin, evident ; celcbrnt- 
ed, illustrious, renowncd, famous. 

classis, «», f. A class ; a fieet. 

Claudins, t, m. I. Appius 
Claudius, afterwards called Cae- 
cus, consul, B. C. 307, 296. II. 
Appius Claudius Crassns, consul 
with L. Camillus, B. C. 349. 

clando, ^r^, si, sum, v. tr. To 
shut in ; to shut np, close, enclose. 

clansns, a, um, part. See claudo, 

ci&va, ae, f. A club ; a stafif 
used in training recruits. 

clavlciila, ae, f. (dim. of cl&- 
viSf a key). A snlall key ; a ten- 
dril of a vine. 

clavns, i, m. The tiller of a 
rudder ; tlie helm. 

Cleanthes, «>, m. A Stoic 
philosopher, a pui>il of Zeno, and 
tcacher of Chrysippus. 

clementia, ae, f. {clemefUf 
mild). Gcntleness, mcrcy, clem- 
ency, humanity. 

cliens, entiit, m. and f. {clueo, 
tohcaronc's sclf called). A client, 
rctainer, dependant, adherent. 

clienteia, ae, f. (cliens). Cli- 
cntship, vassalage, protcction ; by. 
mcton., clients, dcpendauts. 

cllpeatus, a, um, part. {cltpeo, 
to arm with a shicld). As adj. 
Fumishcd with a shield. 

cllpens, •', m. A round brazen 



Clitns, », m. One of Alexan- 
der's generals, who 8aved his life 
at the Granicus, aud was after- 
w.trds killed by hiin in a fit of 

clivns, i, m. A gently asccnd- 
ing hcight, an ascent, height, hill. 

ClyinSne, ea^ f. The wife of 
the Etliiopian king Merops, and 
mother of PhaSthon hy Sol. 

ClymSneius, a, um, adj. {Cly- 
mine). Of or pertaining to Cly- 

Cn., abbreviation for Cnens. 

co-, iu composition, for cum, 

co-ftcesco, ire, Ocui, v. intr. 
{AcescOj to taru sour). To become 

coactuM, a, tim, part. See coffo. 

co-ag^mento, drct art, atumf 
V. tr. (coagmenium, a joint). To 
join together, glue, ccment, con- 

coctnis, c, adj. (cdqtio). Bum- 
ed, bokcd ; muri, bnilt of bumed 

coctns, a, «m, part. Sce cdquo. 
As adj. Maturc, ripe. 

co-eo, tr^, fi»(u), Wttm, v. tr. 
and intr. To come togcther, as- 
Bcmble, collcct, unite, blcnd. 

Goepi, coepiaee, v. def. To be- 
gin, commcncc. 

coeptnm, «, n. {coepi), A be- 
ginning, undertaking. 

co-erceo, ere, ui, ttum, v. tr. 
{arceo). To shut up t.)gcther, en- 
close, confine, restrain. 

coetus, ua, m. {coeo), An as- 
sembly, crowd, company. 

Coens, t, m. A Tltan, the fa- 
ther of Latona. 

cdgltatio, 07w'«, f. {cdffiio), 
Thought, mcditation, rcflection. 

c5gIto, dre, o:i, o^t/m, v. tr. 
(for co-dfftto). To consider thor- 

oughly, ponder, think; to medi- 
tiitc, intend, purpose. 

cognltio, dnis, f. (cojno8c<f). 
Knowledgc, considcration, lcam- 

co-gndmen, tniSf n. {ff-no- 
men). A surnume, family name, 

co-gnosco, irct gnocif gnttumy 
V. tr. {g-no8co). To invcsiigato 
for the purposo of knowing ; to 
perceivc, sce, lcam ; in tho pcrf. 
tenses, to know, recognizc ; to cx- 

cogo, irCf coeji, coactum, v. tr. 
(coutr. from con-dgo). To drive 
togcthcr; to collcct, asscmble, 
thicken, condcnsc; to compcl, 

co-hlbeo, ercy ui, Kwm, 
beo). To hold iu clicck, rcstrain. 

cohors, rtiSf f. A l>and, a co- 
hort ; body-guard, tlirong, atten- 

collabor, «', hpaua aum, v. dep. 
{coUf idbor). To fall to^ethcr; to 
sink down in a swoon or in death. 

coilega, ae, m. {con, Ugo). A 

collegium, t, n. {collega). A 
nnion of pcrsons in any of&ce ; 
collcge, brotherhood. 

colilgo, Sre, legi, lectum, v. tr. 
{con; Ugo). To coUect, gather, as- 
semble ; to gain, acquire. 

collis, i8, m. A hill. 

coiioco, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
{con, loco). To place together, 
station, placo, arranire. 

colinm, i, n. The neck. 

colluo, irey lui, lutum, v. tr. 
{con, luo). To wash out ; ora, to 
moisten, i. c. to qucnch thlrst. 

coliilvio, oni8, f. {coUuo). 
Washings, impurities, off-scour- 
ings, vilo mcdley. 



c51o, Sre, td, cuHum, v. & To 
cnltlvatc, till ; to abide, iuhibit, 
dwcll ; to fostcr, cbcrish ; to rc- 
vcrc, worship ; to adorn. 

Culdacos, a, um, aOj. Of or 
pcrtaining to the Attic dcmoB Co- 

coloniu, t, m. (edlo). A hns- 
bundman, farmcr, colonist, in- 

c51or, oris, m. Color, com- 

coinbra, ae, f. Asnake, adder. 

cdlnmna, ae, f. A pillar, a 

c5nia, ae, f. The hair of the 
hcad ; by mcton., foliage of trecs. 

c5me8, itia, m. and f. {con, eo). 
A companiun, associate. 

comlcns, a, um, adj. Fertain- 
in;; to comcdy, comic 

c5mluus [commlnns], adv. 
{con, manus). Hand to hand, in coniest ; nigh at hand, hard 

comis, 6« adj. Courtcons, affa- 
ble, kind, obliging. 

cdmissabundns, a, um, a(^. 
(comiseor, to revel). Bevelling, 

c5mltas, atia, f. {comis). Coar- 
teonsness, kindness, affability. 

c5mltfttus, U8, m. {cdmttor). 
An escort, a train, retinue, com- 
pany, troop, crowd. 

c5mtto, dre, avi, atum, v. tr. 
{cOmes). To accorapany, attend. 

c5mItor, a/t', dtua sumy v. dep. 
(cdmes). To accompuny, follow, 

comm6m5ro, are, dvi, dtum, 
v. tr. {con, mSm&ro). To call to 
mind, remind ; to reconnt, relate. 

commentor, an', dtus sum, v. 
dep. {comminiscor, to devise). To 
think over, meditate, deliberate. 

commeo, drcy Sci, aium,T. fntr. 
{ron, mco). To come and go ; to 
pass back and forth. 

commercinm, i, n. {commer' 
cor, to trade). Conimercial iuter- 
course, trade, ti*afflc. 

commSreo, ere, ui, ftum, y. tr. 
{con, mireo). To deserve fully. 

commnito, onia, m. {con, 
milea). A comradc, fellow-.soldier. 

commlnns, [comlnns], ndv. 
{con, mdnua). Hand to, in 
ciosc contest ; hard by, near at 

committo, 9re, miai, miaaum, 
V. tr. {con^ mitto). To let go to 
gether ; to unite ; to commit, ti ust, 
faitrust; to begin, join, under- 
take, perpetrate. 

comm5de, adv. {commddua), 
Appropriately, aptly, properly, 
suitably, conveniently, well; op- 
poitunely, seasonably. 

comm5dIta8, dtia, f. {commd- 
dua). Fitncss, eonvcnicnce, ad- 
vantagc, benefit. 

comm5dum, t, n. A conven- 
icnt opportunity, cunvenlence, ad- 
vantage, profit. 

eomm5dus, a, um, a4j. {eon^ 
mddua). Lit., measured witli; 
hence, fitted or adnpted to, suit- 
able, fit, appropriate, convenicnt; 
agreeable, obliging, politc, aff..ble. 

comm5ror, dri, dtus aum, v. 
dep. {con, mOror). To stop, tar- 
"iy, sojourn, stiiy, nblde ; to delay. 

comm5veo, ere, movi, motum, 
V. tr. {con, mOveo). To move vio- 
lontly, shakc, move, stur, exclte, 
affect, agitate, disturb. 

communlco, dre, dvi, dtum, v. 
tr. {commHnia). To make com« 
mon, share with others ; to cum- 
mnnicate, inipart. 

conununis, 0, a<^. {con, mu- 



nus). Shared together, common ; 
seiving together. 

comiiiuiiitas, atis, f. {commu- 
nis). Fellowship, community, 

communlter, ady.{communis). 
ln common, jointly, generally. 

commatabllis, .e, adj. (com- 
miUo), Subjcct to change, change- 

commutatio, onist f. (commth 
to). A chang ng, change. . 

commuto, dre^ ari, dtum, v. tr. 
{coUf miUo). To change abont, al- 
ter, change entirely ; to exchani^^e. 

comoedia, ae, f. A comedy. 

comp&ro, dret avi, dtum, v. tr. 
{con, pdro). To prepare, provide ; 
to procure, obtain. 

comparo, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
(compar, like or equal toanother). 
To compare, match. 

compello, Bre, pHlif pubumf y. 
tr. {con, pello). To drive, incite, 
constrain, force. 

compenso, dre, dvi^ dlum, v. 
tr. {con, penso, to wci£::h). To 
wcigli togcther, balance, make 
goud, compensate. 

complQres, a and ia, gcn. ium, 
adj. {con,pBres). Several, very 
many, quite a numl)er. 

compos, (ftis, acy. {cott,pdti9, 
able). Masterof, possessing. 

compotatio, onis, f. (coit, po- 
tdtio, a drinking). A drinking 

comptus, a, um, ac^. {como, to 
adorn). Adomed, ornamented, 

con-, for com-, the old form of 
cum, found only in composition. 

conftmen, tnis, n. {cdnor), An 
eflfort, struggle, exertion. 

con-blbo, gre, bibi, v. tr. To 
drink ap, absorb, imbibe. 

con-c&vo, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
To make hollow or round; to 
curvc, bend. 

con-cedo, ire, cessit cessum, 
V. tr. and intr. To withdraw, re- 
tire l^m; to yield to, sulMuit, 
grant, allow, resign ; to give up, 

con-cenfttio, onis, f. {ceno). A 
snppihg together. 

concentus, us, m. {concfjio, 
to fciiiig togelher). A singing to- 
gethcr, harmony, concord. 

concertatio, onis, f. {conceT' 
to, to contend). A contentious 
wrangling, dispute, controversy. 

concha, ae, f. A shcll-fi>h; 
the Triton*s trumpet, in form iike 
a snail-shell. 

concllifttrix, icis, f. {conctUo). 
That whlch occasions or produces. 

conciiio, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr, 
{eoncilium). To brlng together, 
unite, producc, bring about; to 
bring or win over. 

concOium, t, n. {con, root 
CAL-, call). A caliing together, 
a meeting, an assembly. 

con-clpio, gre, cepi, ceptum, v. 
tr. {cdpio). To take or lay hold 
of ; to take, receive, foster, har- 
bor ; to utter, pronounce ; to take 
up or in ; to conceive, apprehend, 

concitns, a, um, part. {con- 
cieo, to urge together). Moved 
violently, ronsed, stirred up, pro- 
voked; inspired, excited, pro- 

con-clamo, dre, dvi, dtum, v. 
tr. and intr. To cry oat tugether ; 
to shout. 

con-cliido, ih^e, si, sum, v. tr. 
{claudo). To shut up together; 
to conciade, finish, end. 

concordia, ae, f. {eoncors). 



An agreeing to|?ethcr, union, Ijar- 
mony ; friendstiip, alliance. 

con-cora, dis, acy. {cor), Feel- 
ing together, of the same mlnd, 
auited, harmonious. 

coD-cresco, ire, ert, e^um, v. 
intr. To grow together ; to hard- 
en. stiffen, congeai. 

con-cnrro, ire, curri {cilcurrt)^ 
cursumf v. intr. To mn together, 

con-cfitio, grCf etuti, cusaumf 
V. tr. iqudtio). To shaiie togethcr, 
agitate, ehake violentlj, disturb; 
to terrify, alarm. 

condimentam, t, n. (condio, 
to season). Seasoning, spice. 

condltio, onis, f. (condo). A 
pntting togetber, a standing; 
henoe, situation, condition, rank, 
place, circumstances ; stipulation, 
terms, at^reement ; choice, propo- 
sal, option. 

condltns, a, tim, pan.(condio, to 
season). As su\j. Si>asoned; savory. 

con-do, 8re, didi, dihtm, v. tr. 
To put togetber ; to found, build ; 
to hide, bury, conceal ; to store ; 
to plnnge. 

confectio, dm'«, f. {conficio), 
Composing, compiling, prcparing. 

confectus, a, um, part. See 

con-fSro, ferret tiiU, latum, v. 
irr. To bring together, collect, 
gather; to bear; to compare; to 
consult together, confer ; se con- 
ferre, to betake one*s self ; to go. 

con-flcio, dre,/e«,/«c/wm, v. 
tr. {fdcio). To accomplish, make, 
finish ; to spend, wear out, use up. 
enfeeble, exhaust. 

con-fido, gre, fisus sum, v. 
semi-dep. {fido, to trnst). To 
trnst to, believe, coniide in, rely 

coii-finis, tf, actj. Bordering 
upon, adjoining, contiguous. 

con-firmo, are, avi, atum, v. 
tr. To cstablish, strengthen, con- 
firm ; to assert, affirm.- 

con-flteor, eri, fessua sttm, v. 
dep. {fdieor). To confess, ac- 
knowledgc, concede, grant ; to re- 
veal, manifest, make known, 

con-f ddio, »re, fodi, foaaum, 
V. tr. To dig thoroughly ; to 
strikc down by stabbing, pierce, 
stab, woand. 

con-f figio, gre, fugi, t. intr 
To flee to for refuge or succor ; to 
have recourse to. 

con-fnndo, ire, fudi, fusitm, 
V. tr. To pour togethcr ; to min- 
gle, combine ; to confound, throw 
into disorder, disturb, bewilder. 

con-gSlo, dre, avi, atum, v. tr. 
and intr. {gilo, to congea]). To 
cause to fVeeze up ; to congeal ; 
to thicken, make hard; to freeze 
up, grow hard. 

congeries, 0«, f. {congiro). A 
heap, pile. 

con-g6ro, €re, gessi, gestum, v. 
tr. To bri ng to^ctber, collect, 
heap np ; to ascribe to, impute. 

conglutlnatio, onis, f. (cofi- 
gUUino). A glaing or cementing 

con-glutlno, are, avi, atum, 
V. tr. ( gluiino, to glue). To glue 
or cement t( )gether ; to bind closely. 

con-grSgo, are, avi, atum, v. 
tr. {grex). To collect into a flock 
or herd ; to nssemble, nnite. 

congressns, us, m. {congri- 
dior, to meet). A meeting, con- 
ference, union, encounter. 

congrno, ire, wt, v. intr. (prob. 
con, and ruo, the orig. form of ruo 
being^rtio). To meet togethcr; 



to be suited to; to agree with, 

con-Icio [con-jlcio], ^e, ieci, 
iectum^ v. tr. {idcio). To throw 
together ; to cast, hurl ; to drive, 
thrust, throw ; to prophusy, fore- 
tell ; to infer, conjecture. 

coniuncte, comp. 'itu, sup. 
'isslmCf adv. {coniunctus). Con- 
jointly, in a ft-icndly or confiden- 
tial m mncr. 

conionctio, onis, f. {coniungo). 
A joining together, union ; agree- 
ment, sympathy ; relationship. 

coniunctus, a, um, part. See 
coniungo. As adj. Intimate, friend- 
ly, Mllied. 

con-iungo, ire^ nxi, nctumj v. 
tr. To join together, connect, 

coniunx, Hgiaf m. and f. {con- 
iungo). A husband, wife, sponsc. 
con-lido, ircy si, sum, v. tr. 
{laedo). To dash together. 

conldquium, t, n. {con^ Id- 
quor). Convcrsation, conference, 
disconrse, colloquy. 

c^nor, dn, atus aum, v. dcp. 
To cndcavor, try, attempt, under- 
take ; to venture, presume. 

conpages, ia, f. {con^ pao-, 
root of pango, to fix). Fixing, 
fastening together, joint ; corporiSf 
bodily structure. 

con-pesco, ire, w, v. tr. To 
confine, restrain; ignes, to put 
out ; aitim^ to quench. 

con-plector, t, xus sum, v. 
4ep. ( PLEC-, fold). To fold or 
twine togethcr ; to clasp around, 
enciose, embrace ; animo, to con- 

con-pleo, ere, evi, etum, v. tr. 
(obs. pleo, to fill). To fill, com- 
plete, finish. 
conpleziis, us, m. {conpkdcr). 

A surrounding, encircling; em- 

con?pono, ire, pdsui, pdsttum, 
V. tr. To put together, join, uniie, 
arrange; to compare; to bury, 
inter ; to adjust, rcgulute, preparc. . 

con-prShendo [prendo],^re, 
di, sum, V. tr. To lay or catch 
hold of, seize, arrest. 

conpressas, us, m. {conprimo). 
A pressing together, compression. 
con-prlmo, ere, prossi, pres- 
sum, V. tr. {prgmo), To prcss to- 
gether, restrain, repress, suppress. 
con-quiesco, ire, eci, etum, v. 
intr. To rest in ; to find repose 
or satisfaction. 

consaeptus, a, um, part. Sce 

con-saepio, Ire, psi, ptum, v. 
tr. {saepio, to hcdgc). To fence 
round, hedge in. 

con-scendo, Sre, di, sum, 
and intr. {scando). To climb up, 

conscientia, ae, f. {con, scio), 
A joint Ivnowlcdge, a bcing privy 
(to a thing), consciousness ; con- 

con-scisco, ire, scivi, scitum, 
V. tr. {scisco, to seclt to know). 
To approve ; to inflict, bring up- 
on ; mortem sibi, to commit sui- 

con-scribo, ire, psi, ptum, y. 
tr. To eniist, enroll, inscribe ; to 
compose, write. 

conscriptus, a, um, part. See 
conscribo. Patres conscripti, 1. e. 
patres et conscripti, fathers and 
elect, the title of the assembled 

con-scias, a, um, adj. {scio). 
Aware, cognizant of, privy to, 
conscious. As subs. Witness, par- 
taker, confldant. 



Gon-sScro, Orf , Svi, Stumf y, 1 

tr. {aOcro, to mako Bacrcd). To 1 
consccmto, dcvotc, dcdtcate. ' 

con-sfinesco, ire^ nui, r. in- j 
cep. To grow old togcther; to | 
bccotne wcak, decay, fade, lose 

consensio, oni>, f. {consentio). 

Agn.>cmcnt, unanimity, hurmony. 

consensns, ta, m. {consentio), 

A common fecling, agrcement, 

nnunimity, concord, harmony. 

consentanens» a, um, a4j. 
(consentio), Agreeing with, suit- 
ed to, becoming, fit, proper. 

consentiens, ntis, part. See 
consentio, As acy. Agreeing, ac- 
' cordant, unanimous. 

con-sentio, ire, nsi, neum, v. 
tr. Tu agrce, be of one opinion ; 
to plot togcther, couspire ; to har- 
monizc with. 

consCqnens, ntiSf part. See 
conaBquor, As adj. Foliowing on, 

con-s6qnor, t, cuiua tum, ▼. 
dep. To tblluw, accompany, at- 
tend ; to overtakc. 

con-sSro, ire, aevi, Htumy t. tr. 
To sow or plant. 

con-sSro, ire, ui, tum, y. tr. 
{siro, to join), To join, connect, 
tie, entwine. 

con-senro, Sre, avi, atum, v. 
tr. To hold togcther; to main- 
tain, keep np, preserve ; to leave 

consessns, tM, m. {conaido). 
Assembly, audience. 

con-sidSro, are, avi, atum, y. 
tr. {sidua), To look at carefully, 
rellect, considcr, meditate. 

con-sido, 8re, §edi, aessum, v. 

intr. To t»ke one'8 seat, sit down. 

consUium, t , n.(con; root jsed-, 

Bit). A sitting together, assem- 

bly, conncll ; deliberation, consal- 
tation, counsel, plan, purpose; 
judgment, wisdom, prudence ; 
skill, dextcrity. 

con-sisto, ire, atxti, stitum, y. 
intr. To stand still, take a stand, 
stand ; to remaiii or stand firm. 

consltio, onis, f. {consiro, 1.). 
A sowinsr, planting. 

consltns, a, um, part. Sce con- 
eiro, l. 

con-s5cio, are, Svi, Stum, y. tr. 
To make common, share; to as- 
Bociate, unitc. 

cons5latio, onia, f. {consolor), 
Consolation, comfort, encourage- 

con-solor, Sri, Stuseum, v. dep. 
To encourage, chcer, comfort, 
console; to mitigate, lighten, 
soothc, allcviate. 

con-sors, rtis, a^^y. Partaking 
of in common, having the same 
lot* As subs. Pai-tner, fellow. 

conspectns, us, m. {conspfcio), 
Look, sight, view. 

conspectns, a, um, part. See 
cofispfcio, As ac^. Distiugnisbed, 

con-splcio, ire, spexi, speatum, 
V. tr. {spicio, to look). To ol>- 
serve, sec, behold, perceiye. 

constans, wtis, part. See con^ 
sto, As a^}. Steadfast, firm, un- 
changeabie, constant; consistent, 
uniform, sure. 

constanter, adv. {constans), 
Firmly, stendily, consistently. 

constantia, ae, f. {constans), 
Steadfastness, flrmness, constan- 
cy, pcrseverance ; agreement, har- 
mony, symmetry. 

constat, v. impers. See consto, 

consternfitio, onis, f. {con^ 
stemo, 2.). Dismay, confusion, 
tumult, mutiny. 



€on-8tenio, ire, gtraoi^ str^ 
tum^.y, tr. To strew over, b6- 

consterno, «r^, ot», atum^ v. 
tr. {constemoy 1.). To terrify, af- 
friglit, frijrhten, dLsmay. 

con-stltao, ^«, w, utum, v. 
tr. (ataiiio). To put to^ether, 
placc; to establish, fband, set in 
ordcr, settle, orgauize, regnlate; 
to fix, determine, resolve; to 
Bgree npon, concert with, make 
an agrcement. 

con-8to, aret ttiH, atatum, v. 
intr. To stand still ; to be estab- 
lislied, be well known. Imper», 
It is eviilcnt, it is certain. 

con-strlio, Bre^ xi, etum^ y. tr. 
To heap up, bring together, pile 
up ; to put together, malce, build, 

con-snesco, ^r«, 5», etum^ v. 
tr. and intr. {aueeco, to become ac- 
cnstomed). To accnstom, inare, 
habituate ; to accustom one's self ; 
esp. in perf. tenses : to be accus- 
tomed, be wont. 

consnetiido, inity f. {eonntef- 
co), Custom, habit, use; social 
interooarse, companionship, famil- 
iarity, intimacy. 

consoitns, a, Km, part. See 
comuesco. As a(][j. Usual, ordi- 
nary, customory, wontcd, familiar. 

consnl, iUie^ m. {0011^ rootsED-, 
sit). A consul, one of the two 
higbcst magistitktes in the Boman 

consfil&ris, 0, adj. (cotuul), 
Fcitaining to a consul, consular; 
as subfl. One wbo has bceu con- 
sal, one of the rank of consul. 

consfil&tns, t»,- m. {consul), 
The ofiicc of consul, consulship. 

consfilo, Sre, ui, tum, v. tr. aud 
intr. (kindr. with contut). To con- 

snlt, deliberate ; to ask one'8 opin- 
ion ; to take measures ; to care fur. 

consnltus, .a, um, part. Sce 
coneUlo. As adj. Well^considered, 
lAiowing, skiltiil, experienced, 
versed in ; as subs. A lawycr ; of- 
ten with iuris, one versed in tlie 
law, a jurisconsuit. 

con-snmo, ^r«, mpsi, mptum, 
V. tr. To take up together or en- 
tirely ; to devonr, consnme, waste 
away; to squander, destroy; to 
spend, pass, wastc; to weaken, 

con-sorgo, 9re, surrexi, aur» 
reetum, v. intr. To rise up to- 
gether ; to rise. 

con-t&bfilo, are^ ofrt, atum, v. 
tr. {tabala, a bo:ird). To cover 
with boards ; to fumish a bridge* 

Gontactns, us, m. {contingo), 
A touching, touch, contact. 

con-tego, ire, exi, ectum; v. tr. 
To cover up or over ; to hlde. 

con-temno, dre, mpsi, mptum^ 
T. tr. {temno, to scom). To scora, 
esteem lightly, despise, disdain» 
hold in contempt, contemn. 

con-templor, ari, atus «um, y. 
dep. {templum). To consider, ob- 
serve ; to survey, gaze upon, con- 

contemptio, dnis, -f. {contem" 
no). Disrcgard, contempt. 

contemptor, oris, m. {contem' 
fio), A scomer, dcspiser. 

contemptrix, idSf f. {contemp' 
tor), She who dcspises, a scoracr. 

contemptns, a, um, part. See 
contemno. As ac^. Despicable, 
contcmptiblc, vile. 

con-tendo, ^r<?, di, tum, v. tr. 
and intr. To strctch, brace up, 
draw tight, sti^ain ; to cxcrt, bend ; 
to exert one'8 self, strive eagerly 
after, strive to reach; to strive, 



dfspnte, flght, contend ; to com- 
'pare, contrast; to assert, moin- 

contentio, onitt f* (contendo). 
A Btretching, stnuning, a strong 
exertion, effort ; strife, contention ; 
comparison, contrast. 

contentos, a, um, part See 
eontendo. As at]^. Strained, tense, 
tigtit ; eagcr, intent. 

contentns, a, imii, part. See 
contineo. As a^J. Contented, sat- 

con-termlnns, a, vm, ad^. 
Bordering upon, neighboring. 

con-tSro, §re, trivi, Mtum, y. 
tr. To mb togetber ; to wear ont, 
waste, fipend, pass, exhaust. 

con-terreo, ere, ut, itum, y. tr. 
To frighten, scare, terrify. 

con-tlcesco, ire, Hcui, v. incep. 
(tdceo, to be silent). To become 
Btiil, lceep cilence. 

contlgnns, a, tim, adj. {eon- 
tingo). Touching together, ad- 

contlnens, wti», part. See con^ 
nneo. AsadJ. Hanging together, 
a4}oining, nnintermpted ; oonti- 
nent, moderate, temporate. 

contlnentia, ae, f. {conHnens). 
Contincnce, temperance, modera- 
tion, selt-restraint. 

con-tlneo, «r«, tM, tentum, t. 
tr. {i9neo). Toboldtogetber, btnd, 
contain, comprise, inyolve; to 
hold fast, snpport, maintain; to 
keep back, restrain, check, re- 

eon-tin?o, ^e, tigi, tactum, y. 
tr. and intr. (tango). To toach, 
take hold of, reach, border npon, 
attara to, come to ; to be connect- 
ed with, concem ; to happen, be- 
fall, tum out, come to pass. 

contlnno, adv. {contimmtt). \ 

Withont any interroption, im- 
mediately, forthwith. 

contlnnns, a, um, ac^* {eontf» 
neo). Joining together, nninter- 
rapted, continnoBB, successiye. 

contio, ani», f. (conventio, a 
coming together). An assembly, 

con-torqneo, ere, torsif tor» 
twm, j. tr. To whiri, brandish, 

contra, ady. and prep. with 
acc. {con). Against. contnuy to ; 
oyer against, oppositeto; in re- 
tura, in reply ; on the contnuy. 

con-tr&ho, fyre, xi, ctum, y. tr. 
To draw togcther, coUect, assem- 
ble ; to bring upon; to sborten, 
contract, diminish. 

contr&rins, a, um, adj. {eon' 
tra), Lying over against; oppo- 
site, contrary, opposed, hostile. 

contfimacia, ae, f. {contHmax, 
liaughty). Hanghtiness, insolenoe, 

contlfmelia, ae. f. {eon, tum-, 
rooi of tHmeo). Insnlt, affh>nt; 
invective, disgrace, ignominy. 

cdnns, *, m. A cone ; the apez 
of a helmet. 

con-vftlesco, ire, vdkd^ y. in^ 
cep. {vOleaco, to wax strong). To 
regain health. 

con-yeHo, 9re^ velH, vulaum, y. 
tr. {velh, to pluck). To tear. 

convSniens, ntie, part. See 
eonvinio,' As a4j. Agreeing, con- 
sistent, harmonions ; fitting, ap- 
propriate, suitabto. 

convSnientia, ae, f. {eonrg- 
niens), Agreement, accord, hnr- 
mony, sjmmetry, conformity, fit- 

con-vSnio, ire, veni^ ventum, 
V. tr. and intr. To meet, assem- 
ble; to agree witb, be adapted 



to; 08 impark, U is generalljr 

eon-yerto, «re, *»', »«m, v. tr. 
and intr. To turn rotind, tum, 
Hpply ; to chaiige, alter, transform. 

con-Yicium, >, n. (akin to vox), 
A loud noise, cry, clamorr abuBe, 
reTiling, reproAch. 

con-vinco, ^, viciy victumf r, 
tr. To overcome, convict of, 
prove ; to provc false, refute. 

con-viva, 00, m. and f. {vtvo), 
A tdble-companion, guest. 

con-vivinm, «', n. (vivo)* A 
feast, baiiquet, entertainment 

con-vdco, are, 00*, atum, v. tr. 
To call together, assemble, con- 

cooptatio, oniSf f. (coqptOt to 
choose). Elcction, choice. 

copia, ae, f. (corif ops), Plenty, 
abandance, wealth, fnlness ; abili- 
ty, power, opportnnity; provis- 
iOns, supplies. Flur., copiaCf arumf 
f. Forces, troops. 

cdpidse, adv. {cSpia). In great 
abnndance, plentifully ; diffusely, 

cdqno, ^e, o», chmf v. tr. To 
cook ; to torment, vex, (disturb ; 
to fever. 

cor, cordiSf n. The heart, sonl, 
feeling ; cordi mm, to be in one'8 
facart ; to be agreeable, dear. 

coram, adv. and prep. with abl. 
{coHf o8f oria), In the presence 
of, face to face ; personally. 

Corinthns, t, f. Ccirinth, a 
city of Peloponnesus, on the isth- 
mus of Corinth. 

C5riolann8, t, m. C. Mareius 
Coriolanns, a brave aristocrat, 
who derived his sumame from 
the storming of CuriOli. 

comn, u8, n. A hom ; hoof ; 
of ft river: braaoh; of a bow: 

fip ; of li cApe : pofnt ; By ine£o».| 
bow.- * ,- "' 

comnte, #> ik. The comcl- 

cdrdna, a«, f. A crown, gar- 
land, wreath. 

cdrono, afCf ari, iUumf v. tr. 
{cdrona), To croWn, wrcatho, 
surround^ inwreathe. 

corpns, driSf u. A body^ sub- 
stance, mass. 

<$orrectio, dnisi f. {corripo), 
Amendment, improvement^ cor« 

cortl^o, 9ref rexiy rettum, Vi 
tr. {coUf rBgo). To straighteui 
bring into order, set right ; to im- 
prove, amend, con*ect. 

coi^rlpio, iref rtpttif reptum, v. 
tr. {coHf rOpio). To seizc upoil 
vlolently ; to seize, catch ; to plun- 
der, attack ; to shorten, aljridge. 

corrobdfo, ore, avif o^Mm, v. 
tr. {coHf fobdrOf to strengthen)( 
To strengthcn, invigorate, cdrrob* 

corrnmpo, gre, rupit ritptumt 
V. tr. {coUf rumpo), To destroy» 
corrapt, seduce. 

dlirmo, grcf w, v» tr. and Intr. 
{con, ruo). To fall together, break 
down ; to overthrow. 

cortex, icM^ m. and ft Bark^ 

Cornncftninf}, i^ m. Tiberins 
Coruncanius, of Camerinm, the 
first pontlfex maximus of a pie- 
beian family. 

corvns, »', m. A raven. 

Corvns, t, m. M. Yftierins 
Corvus. 8ee Vaigriua, 

C&rycldes nymphae. The 
Corycian nymphs, i. e., the 
nymphs of the Corycian cave on 
the sido of Mt. Pamassus. Acc, 
CoryeUku. Ov. i, 151. 



cSrTmbns, t, m. A clnster of 
fruit; a claster*of flowers; esp. 
fh^qncnt aa a claster of iyy-ber- 

cwtcdtit, f. A whctstone, a 

coftta, aef f. A rib. 

cotidie, adv. {qttot, die$), Bai- 
ly, every duy. 

crassttiido, ini$, f. {croMus, 
thick). ThickncM. 

Crassns, t , m. I. Pablins LI- 
clnins Crassns, consnl witb C. 
Casslus Longinns, B. C. 170, re- 
markable for his knowlcdge of 
iib.Q iut pontijicale. IL Cains Lt- 
clnins Crassus, tribune of the pco- 
ple, B, C. 145. 

crftter, eris, m. A mixing- 
bowl ; the aperture of a volcanic 
mountiin; a (volcanic) opening 
of tlie earth. . 

Crftterus, i, m. One of tbe 
most distinguishcd of the generals 
of Alexunder the Oreat. 

creber, bra, brum, ac^. (root 
CBE-, in eresco), Frequent, thick« 
close, numerous; crowded with, 
abounding in. 

crebro, adv. {erSber). l^re- 
qnently, repeatedly. 

credo, ire, didi, dUum, t. tr. 
and intr. (cbe-, faith, do, to put). 
To trust to; confide in ; to trust ; 
to intrust, oonsign ; to think, bc- 
lieve, snppose. 

credillas, a, tim, a^. {credo), 
Tmstfhl, triisting ; credulous, con- 

crSmo, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
To bum, consurae by flre. 

creo, are, ars, atum, v. tr. To 
make, beget, bring forth, prodnce ; 
to choose, elect, prepare, cause, 
occasion. In perf. part. with abl., 
sprang firom, bom of, etc ; or as | 

snbs., m. or f. An oflbpring, a 
Bon or daughter. 

crSpido, fni», f. A moand, 
dnm, dikc. 

crSptto, are, v. intr. (freq. of 
crgpo, to rattle). To rattle, clat- 
tcr, rustle, creak, crr.ckle. 

cresco, ire, creri, erebtm, ▼• 
incop. («w). To grow, arise, 
spring, be bom, cume forth; to 
incrcase, riso in hcight, rise ; to 
prosper, become great. 

CrSte, ee, f. Crete, an island 
in the Mediterranean lea, now 

cretus, a, um, part. 8ee ereeeo» 

crimen, 9nia, \i.{cemo). A fault, 
chargc o^inst, accusation, crimey 
reproach, oflence, guilt. 

crimlnatio, dnie, f. {criminor^ 
to accuse). A complaint, accosa- 
tion, calumny. 

crinis, ia, m. Halr. 

crlnitas, a, um, ac^. {erinie). 
Covered with hair, hairy. 

crista, ae, f. (kindr. with eri- 
nu). A tuft on the head of ani- 
mals, esp. a cock's comb ; a erest, 

Crltdbulns, t, m. A pnpil of 

crdceas. a, um, a4j. {erdeue^ 
saffron). Safiron-colored, yellow. 

crocddilas, i^ m. A crocodile. 

Cr5t6ni&tes, ae, m. An in- 
habitiint of Cruton, a town on 
the cast coast of Bruttii. 

crfidSlis, e, ac|j. {crudus). Cra- 
el, bloodthirsty, nnmerciful, un- 
feelinf?, hard-hearted. 

crQdelltas, atie, f. {crudeUs). 
Cmelty, severity, barbarity. 

crjidltas, atie, f. {eriidu*). An 
overloading of the stomach, indi- 

crudos, a, um, a^}. (contr. of 



enOdttB, firom ertior). Baw, 
bloody ; nnripe, immatare. 

crnento, dre, avi, atum, v. tr. 
(crueTitw), To stain with blood, 
besmearwith gore. 

crnentas, a, «m, a4J. (crmr). 
Bloody, bloud-stained, gory, cru- 
el, bloodtliirsty. 

craor, om, m. A stream of 
blood, blood, gore; bloodi>hed, 

cras, cruriSf n. A leg, shank, 

cfiblcliliim, f, n. {cHbo). -A 

cilbile. tj?, n. {cHbo). A coach. 

cfibltam, e, n. {cHbo). The el- 
bow (as seiTing for leaning np- 
t>n) ; an ell, a cubit ; the Roman 
cubit was 17.4744 Eng. inches. 

cfibo, are, td, rnrcly avi, itum^ 
V. intr. To lie down, recline. 

calmen, inia, n. Top, sammit, 
roof, gable ; acme, height. 

culmas, f, m. Stalk, stcm. . 

calpa, a«, f. Fault, blame; 
crime, transgression. 

cultio, otM, f. {cOlo). Cultlva- 
tion ; agri, a tilling of the ground. 

coltor, on'«, m. {c6lo), A till- 
er, planter, husbandman ; inhabit- 
ant, dweller; worshipper; foster- 
er, supporter. 

caltura, ae, f. {edlo). A tilling, 
cnltivating ; care, cultnre, cultiva- 

caltas, a, um, part. See cdlo. 

caltas, ua, m. {cclo). Tillmg, 
cnlture, care, cultivation; orn»- 
ment, adomment, splendor; re- 
spcct; worship; clothing, dress, 
manner of life ; refinement, civil- 

cam, prep. with abl. With. 

cam, adv. and conj. When, 
eeeiag that, since, as, although ; 

cum — ftmi, not only — but also, 
both — and. " 

Cjimanas, a, «m, adj. Of Cu- 
mae, an ancient colony of the 
Chalcidians, in Campania, on the 
sea-coast; Cumaean. 

cfimfilo, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
{cUmttiua, a heap). To hcap or 
pile up ; to augment by heaping ; 
to increase, 

cunae, drum^ f. (kindr. with 
cObo). Cradlc. 

caoctatio, onit^ f. {cunctor). 
A tarrying, lingcring ; delay, hesl- 
tation, doubt. 

canctor, aW, aitu8 sum, v. dep. 
To tarry, wait, linger, loiter, hesi- 
tate, delay. 

caoctas, a, um, a^}. (contr. 
frora coniunctus). AU to^ether, 
all in a body, the whole, all, en- 

cfipide, adv. (ciiptdus). Eager- 
ly, passionately. 

cfipldltas, diis, f. (cHpidm). 
A desire, wish, longin^; preedi- 
ness, lust, passion ; avarice ; par- 
ty spitit; ambition. 

cfipido, inia, f. rarely m. {dt- 
pio). Desire, lon^ng, grecdiness, 
iust ; amoroas deslre, love. 

Cfipido, tnia, m. Cupid, the 
son of Venus, god of love. 

cfipldas, a, um, mdj. (cHpio). 
Longing for, yeaming after, de- 
sirous, eager, fond ; greedy, lust- 
ftil ; languishing for, loving. 

cfipio, gre, ivi (ii), itum, v. tr. 
To desire, long for, wish; to fa- 
vor, wish well to. 

car, adv. (contr. from gudre). 
Why, wherefore. 

cara, ae, f. (qttaero). Care, so- 
licitude, pains-taking, attcntion; 
concern ; sorrow, anxiety, trouble, 
an object of concem, love. 



cHr&liiim, t, n, Red ooraL 

cjiria, ae, f. (kindr. with tbe 
Sabiiie word Qutris), One of the 
thiity parts into wliich Romainfl 
divided the Roman people ; the 
senate as the reprcsentative of tbe 
euriae; one of 4be edifioes in 
which the senate beld its meet* 
ings, the Curia, senate-bouse. 

Cilrias, t, m. M' Carius Den-r 
tatus, the conqueror of the Sam- 
nites, tlie Subines, the Lncanians, 
ond of Pyrrhuti, celebrated for 
liis moderation.. Used also iu tbe 
plnral, denoting members of tbe 
family of COrius, or men UkQ Ca- 

cnro, ore, av», atum^ ▼. tr, (ou- 
ra), To take care of ; to care for; 
to take care; to hcal, cure; to 
administer, govem. 

carrlcaiam, t, n. (cwto). A, 
race-couriie, race. 

carro, ifr^, cUcurri^ ctir«t<m, t. 
intr. To run ; to flow ; to fl^ ; to 
hasten, speed on. 

carras, im, m. {curro), A car, 

curso, aret v. freq.. (ctrrv). To 
run hitber and thither. 

carsas, u», m. {curro). A mn- 
ning, race, course, voyage, jour- 
ney, pass;)ge, progress, direction. 

carvamea, fnis, n. {curvo). A 
bendin^, bend, vanlting. 

carvatara, ae, f. (curvo). A 
bending ; rotaet the rim. 

carvo, are, dvi, ahim, v. tr. 
(curvus). To bend, cnrve. 

carvas, a, um, adj. Crooked, 
bent, curved; winding, stooping, 

cuspis, tdta, f. A point, spike ; 
a spenr, ju velin, lance. 

custodid, ae, f. (custoe). A 
watching, watch, ^are, gyersight, 

gwd ; by raeton., persons wli0 
serve as guards, a guard, watch ; 
restvaint, custody. 

castost odie, m. and f. A prer 
server, guard, ^eeper, watch ; eu9r 
todee eorpori», body-guards. 

ctttis, is, f. The skin. 

Cyftne, ea, f. The nymph of 
a fountain ncar Syracuse. 

Cycllides, um, f. The Cycltt<> 
des, islands lying in a circl^ 
around Delos, in tbe Aegeaa. 

Cyclops, dpit, m. A Cyciopai 
in plur., Cycldpet, um, m, The 
Cyclops, a race of giants. 

eyonas, i , m. A swan. 

Cydnns, t, m. A river of Ci- 
licia, near Tarsns. 

cymba, ae, f. A boat, skifT. • 

Cynthns, t, m. A mountaiii 
of Deios, celebrated as the birih- 
place of Apollo and Diana. 

Cyreuenses, ium, m. The in- 
habitants of the Greek colony of 
Cyrene, in Cyrenatca, on thenorth 
coast of Africa, now Barca. 

Cyras, t, m. I. Cyrus the EU 
der, founded the Persiain empire, 
B. C. 658-629. 11. Cyrus Mi- 
nor, or Cyras the Younger, son 
of Darius Nothus, and brotber of 
Artaxerxes Mnemon, kiiled, in 
rebellion against his brother, at 
the battle of Cunaxa, B. C. 401. 


4ficrfim9, archaic for laerima. 

Daedlilas, t, m. The famous 
Athcniun architect of the Orecian 
myth, fatber of Icarns, and buitd- 
er of the Cretan labyrinth. 

Dftmasichthon, Onie, m. A 
son of Niobe. 

daoino, are, aW, ait%m, y. tr. 
{dammm)^ Tq cQnd^ian, «en^ 



tence; to blnd, oblige; to cen- 
Bure, disapprove ; to condemn, 

damnosns, a, um, adj. (c^am- 
num), Injurious, hurtfol, de- 

damniim, «, n. Hart, iiarm, 
damage, injury, loss. 

Danae, £8, f. Daughter of 
Acrisius, and mother of Perseus 
by Jupiter, who visited her in the 
form of a shower of gold, when 
she was shut up in a tower by her 

daps, dapia, nom. and dat. sing. 
and gen. plur. wanting, f. A state- 
ly feast for religious purposes ; in 
gen., a feast,banquet, food,yiandSb 
. Darens, t, m. L. The son of 
Hystapes and father of Xerxes, 
B. C. 521-485. II. DartJus Co- 
domannus, with whose death the 
Persian empire ended, B. C. 330. 

de, prep. with the abl. From, 
away from, of, concerning, over, 
out of, at, on acconnt of, about. 

dea, a«, f. A goddess. 

de-bello, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
and intr. To conquer complctely, 

debeo, 6r«, w', itumt v. tr. (de^ 
habeo), To have or hold from ; 
hence, to owe, be in dcbt ; to be 
indebted, be obliged ; to be des- 
tined ; with the inf. to be render- 
ed by ought, must, etc 

dSblllto, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
(debilis, wcak). To weaken, en- 
fceble, enervate; to break down, 

debltom, t, n. (dSbeo), A debt, 

de-cedo, Sre, eesai, ceasum, v. 
intr. To go away, depart; to 
mako wuy for (as a mark of re- 

dScem, Indecl. nnm. a^j. Ten. 

de-cerno, Sre, crevi, cretum, v. 
tr. and intr. To decree, decide, 
determine, resolve. 

de-cerpo, ire,p8i,ptum, v. tr. 
{carpo), To pluck or pull off, 
crop, gathcr. 

de-certo, dre, dvi, dtum, v. in- 
tr. To fight out; to fight, con- 
tend, dispute. 

decessus, us, m. (decedo), De- 
parture, decease, death. 

dScet, ere, cuit, v. impers. It is 
becoming, suitable, proper, fitting. 

de-cido, gre, ctdi, v. intr. {cd- 
do). To fall off"; to fall down ; to 
die, drop, sink. 

dScImas, a, um, ord. num. acy. 
{dScem). Tenth. 

•D^cius, i, m. Thc namc of a 
Roman gens, thc most cclebrated 
individuals belonging to it were 
the two D6cii (P. DCcius Mus, 
fathcr and son), who, as consuls, 
voluntarily devoted themselves to 
death to save their country, the 
formcr in the Latin war, B. C. 
340; thc latter in the Samnite 
war, ^. C. 295. 

de-clpio, Sre, cepi, ceptum, v. 
tr. (papio). To take down or from ; 
to catch, entrap, beguilc, cheat. 

de-claro, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
(cldrm). To make clear or known, 
reveal, manifest, declare, pro- 
claim, demonstrate, prove. 

de-ciino, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
and intr. (root clin-, bend). To 
tum aside, bend down or away $ 
to divert. 

de-clivis, e, adj. (cUvua). SIop- 
ing downwards, down-hill, steep. 
As subs. DecUve, is, n. Slope, 

d€coro, dre, dvi, dtum, y. 
tr, (ddcus, grace). To adoru. 



attirc, embellishy honor, disdn- 

dec6nis, a, um, acy. {dicoTf 
comclincss). Bccomin^, fitting, 
sccmly, proper; gracefUl, hand- 

de-cresco, Bre, erevi, ereium, 
V. intr, To grow lcss ; to wanc, 
decrcase, diminish ; to disappear. 

de-cnrrO| Sre, cHcurri, more 
commonly curri, cureum, v. tr. 
and intr. To run down, movc, 
flow, siope down ; to mn through 
or ovcr. 

decnrsns, a, um, part. See 

de-dScns, dris, n. (dicus, 
grace). Disgrace, dishonor, in- 
famy, shame, blot, blemish. 

de-dignor» ari, ahte sum, v. 
dep. {dignor, to thinlL woithy). 
To disdain, scom, refuse. 

dedltio, OHM, f. {dido). A sur- 

de-do, 9re, dtdi, ditum, v. tr. 
To surrender, give up, submit. 

dS-duco, Hre, xi, ctum, v. tr. 
To lead or draw do\7n ; to con- 
duct, accompany, cscort (as a 
mark of respcct); carbasa, to 

de-f &tigatio, onit, f. {fdtigo). 
Weariness» fatigue. 

dSfectio, onis, f. {deffcio). De- 
sertion, defcction, revolt; failing, 
disappearan6e ; soiie, aif eclipse. 

de-fendo, gre, di, sum, v. tr. 
(root FBNi>-, strike). To ward off, 
keep off, rcpel, avert; to guard, 
protect, dcfend ; to support, main- 

d€-f Sro, ferre, tiUf, latum, v. 
irr. To bear or bring away ; to 
bring, carry ; to hand over, offcr, 
transfer; tobringto land; tore- 
port, announce. 

d§-fIcio, iref feei, fectvm, Y. 
tr. and intr. {fOrio). To descrt ; 
to bo wanting ; to fiiil, faint, ceasc ; 
to forsake. 

dS-finio, ire, lvi{ii),Uum, t. 
tr. To set bounds to, limit, dctcr- 
mine, flx, restrict, confine, dcfinc. 

de-liecto, ire, xi, xum, T. tr. 
To bend or tnm aside. 

de-fleo, ere, evi, etttm, v. tr. 
and intr. To weep over, hmient, 
dcplore, bewail. 

d§-flno, ire, xi, xum, v. intr. 
To flow down, glide down, dc- 
socnd, be spilled ; to pass away, 

de-formis, e, adj. {forma), 
Missbapen, ugly, odious. 

de-frenatas, a, um, &dj. {fie- 
num), Unliridled, unrestraineU. 

de-fnngor, i, functue tum, v. 
dep. To have done with ; to ac- 
quitone's sclf of; to get rid of, 

dego, ire, degi, v. tr. {de, dgo"), 
To spend, pnss, lead, live. 

de-gr&vo, dre, — , dtum, v. tr. 
To weigh or press down ; to over- 
power ; to burden, incommode. 

dS-Icio [d^Icie], ire, ieei, 
ieetum, v. tr. (tdkrto). . To throw 
down, ovcrthrow, kill. 

de-inde, and dein, adv. Af- 
terwards, then, furthermore ; next, 

de-labor, i, lapma tum, v. dep. 
To slip, sink or fall down ; to fSdl 
or slide into, descend. 

dSIatns, a, um, part. See d&^ 

delectatio, onis, f. {d&ecto), 
Dclight, amusement. 

de-iecto, are, Svi, atum, v. tr. 
{lacto, a freq. of lOeio, to al- 
Iiirc). To allure, entice, delight, 
charn^i ^use, attract, engage. 



dSlectns, a, tim, part. See de- 

deleo, ere, evi, etumj ▼. tr. To 
blot oat, annihilate, destroy, ef- 
fice ; bella^ to put an end to. 

de-libo, arej dvi, atum, v. tr. 
To take a taste of ; tu call, pick 

dellcfttns, a, um, ac[j. {de^- 
ciae). That gives pleasnre, deli- 
dous, charminj;. 

dellciae, drum, f. (de, jjlc-, 
root of kteio, to entioe). Allure- 
ments, charms, delights, pleas- 

de-Iictnm, »', n. {Unquo, to 
lcave). Prop. a fault of omission, 
hence, gen. a fault, offcnce, crime. 

de-llgo, gre^ legi, lectum, y. tr. 
mgo, ire), To choose, pick ont, 

dellr&tio, onia, f. {deliro, to 
devidto from the straight line). 
Folly, madness ; dotage. 

Delius, a, um, a^j. {Deloe). Of 
Belos, Dclian. As subs. DeUus, 
i, m. Tfae Delian god, ApoHo. 
Also Delia, ae, f. The Delian god- 
dc88, Diana. 

DSIos, i, f. A small island In 
the Aegean Sea, one of the Cyci&- 
des, the birthplace of ApoIIo and 

Delphi, orum, m. The famons 
city of Phocis, the seat of the 
Delphic oracle. 

delphin, inie, m., and delphl- 
nns, i, m. A dolphin. 

dSinbrnm, i, n. {deluo, to puri- 
ty). A shrine, sanctuary, temple. 

de-mens, tUis, adj. Out of 
one's mind, senseless, foolish, 

de-mergo, 9re, ni, rsum, y. tr. 
To sink, plonge into, bury, hide. 

dS-mSto, 8re, meuui, measum. 

V. tr. (m^^o,' to reap). To mow, 
reap, cut down or off. 

demissns, a, um, part. See 
demitto. As ac^. Sunkcn, droop- 
ing; low, lowly. 

de-mitto, ire, miai, misaum, y. 
tr. To iet fail from, let down ; to 
8end down; to lower, drop; to 
piunge ; with se, to stoop, desceiid. 

demo, ire, dempsi, demptum, 
y. tr. {de, Smo, in the scnse of to 
take). To take off or away. 

Demdcrltns, t, m. A cclebra- 
ted philosopher, bom «at Abdera, 
a town on the coast of Thrace ; the 
originator of the atomic theory. 

de-monstro, are, avi, atum, y. 
tr. To iiidicate, designate ; to de- 
monstrate, show, prove. 

demnm, adv. At length, at lost. 

deui, ae, a, distrib. niim. acy. 
{decem), Tcn ac a timc, ten oach, 
by tens. 

denlqne, adv. (kindr. with de- 
mum). At last, at Icngth ; lastly, 
iinally; in fine, in short; there- 
npon, and then. 

dens,. dentia, m. A tooth. 

densas, a, um, ad}. Thick, 
dense, close ; opp. to rdnu, loose, 

dennnti&tio, onie, f. {denun- 
tio). An annonncement. 

de-nnntio, dre, dn, dtum, y. 
tr. To annonnce, declare; to 
mcnace, threaten. 

de-pello, 9re, pHii, pubum, y. 
tr. To drive away ; to repulse. 

d€-pendeo, ere, y. intr. To 
hang down. 

de-perdo, gre, didi, ditum, v. 
tr. To lose. 

de-pI5ro, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
and Intr. {ptoro, to cry aioud). To 
wail, lament, bewail, deplore; to 
regard as lost ; to give ap. 



dd-pAno» 9re,pd9vl, pdHium, y. 
tr. To lay down, off, or aside ; 
to deposit, commit to the care of ; 
to give ap, resign, get rid of. 

de-porto, are, avt, aium, y. tr. 
To corry uff or away, acqaire, 

deposltimi, t, n. (elipdno), 
Wluit i8 intrasted, a deposit, truBt. 

de-precor, ari, ahu tum, v. 
dep. To pray eamestly to; to 
beg of| beseecli ; to pray against, 
avert or ward off by prayer, dep- 

de-prShendo [prendo], ire, 
di, aum, y. tr. To seize apon, 
catch ; to discem ; to detect, dis- 

depressns, a, um, part. See 

de-prlmo, gre, pretn, pressum, 
V. tr. ( prgmo), To press or weigb 
down, sink down ; to trample on. 

de-pngno, are, avi, aium, y. 
tr. and intr. To fight oat, con- 
tend, combat violently ; proeUum, 
to fight ont, bring to an end. 

de-piito, are, dvi, atum, y. tr. 
To ijecl^on, csteem, consider; to 

dereiictns, a, um, part See 

de-rSlinqno, Ifre, Uqui, Uctum, 
y. tr. To leave beliind, forsake, 
abandon, descrt. 

de-rlgesco, Sre, gui, v. ineep. 
To grow stiff, become rigid. 

de-scendo, ire, di, sum, v. 
intr. {aeando), To go or come 
down, descend ; to dismount ; in 
tikx, to pierce, penetrate. 

de-scrlbo, gre, psi, ptum, v. 
tr. To write down, copy, repre- 
sent, explain ; to marli off, divide, 
arrange ; to ascribe, allot, assign ; 
to sketch out, draw» delineate. 

descriptio, oiU», f. (deseribo). 
A marking out, delineation, rep- 
resentation, description; disposi- 
tion, order, arrangement. 

dS-sSro, ire, airui, sertum, y. 
tr. To leave, abandon, desert, 

dSsertns, a, um, part. See eU- 
8iro, As ady. Desert, solitary, 
waste ; forsaken, abandoned. 

deslder&tio, onis, f. {desidgro). 
A longing for, missing. 

dSsiderinm, t, n. {desidiro). 
A yeaming, wishing or longing 
for; a missing, wanting; necd, 

desIdSro, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
To yeam, wish for, long after; to 
miss, feel the want of. 

de-sllio, ire, silui, sultum, y. 
intr. {sdlio), To leap down, dis- 
mount, alight. 

de-slno, ire, Kvi {sii), situm, 
V. tr. and intr. To abandon, give 
over, cease, desist, stop, end. 

de-slpiens, ntis, ac^. {sdpiens), 
Foolish, mad, without sense ; opp* 
of sdpiens, 

de-sisto, Sre, stUi, stitttm, y. 
intr. To stand off or aloof ; to 
cease, desist from. 

de-solo, are, dvi, atum, y. tr. 
{sobts), To leave alone, forsake, 
abandon, desert. 

despecto, are, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
(freq. of despicio), To look down 
upon, overlook. 

despSratio, onis, f. {despero). 
Hopelessness, despair. 

de-spero, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
and intr. To despair of ; to be 
hopeless, have nohope of, give np. 

de-splcio, ire, exi, ectum, v. 
tr. {spgcio, to look). To look 
down npon, despise, disdain. 

destXnatns, a, to», part. See 



desHno. As rabs. detUnEta^ 9rum, 
n. A parpose, design, iutention, 
plan, andcrtnlcing. 

de-8tIno, are, drt, o^um, y. tr. 
(akin to ato), To flx, appoint, es- 
tablish, design, aesign. 

ile-strao, fre, xi, etumj y. tr. 
To tear down, pall to pieces, rain, 

de-sado, are^ Soi^ Sium, y. in- 
tr. To sweat greatly ; to exert or 
fatigne one*8-self. 

de-saStns, a, um, part (de- 
suesco). As ac[j. Disused, anac- 
oastomed, unfamiliar. 

de-siim, e9»e,fm, y. irr. To 
be absent, be wanting, be missing. 

detSrior, iue, sup. dUerrimut 
[no positive], adj, (from an obsol. 
pos. diter, from de), Lower» in- 
ferior, worse, poorer, meaner. 

deterrlmas, a, um. Scedet9rior, 

de-test&bUifl, «, adj. (testor). 
Exeorabie, abominable, detesta- 

dd-tr&ho, ire, xi, ctum, y. tr. 
To draw or talie off or away ;'to 
dispamge, detract trom. 

dS-trecto, wv, avi, atum, y. tr. 
(tracto). To decline, refUse to do. 

dg-tarbo, are, aci, Stum, y. tr. 
To drive or cast down. 

Deac&lion, onis, m. Son of 
Promdtheus, l^ing of Plithia, in 
Thessaly, and hnsband of Pyrrha. 

deas, i, m. ' A god, deity. 

devers5riam, t, n. {devereor, 
to tum aside). An inn, lodging. 

dS-vinco, ^e, vid, victum, y. 
tr. To conquer completely, oyer- 
come, snbdae. 

dd-vias, a, um, adij. {via), Tbat 
lies out of the way, rethred ; de- 
yioas, inaccessible ; erroneoas, an- 
reasonable; ansoitable. 

de-volvo, ire, volvi, vOSUum, 
y. tr. To roU down. 

de-ydveo, ere, vovi, votum, y. 
tr. To vow, devote, glye up, ded- 
icate ; to curse, execrate. 

dexter, tSra, tgrum, and tra, 
trum, comp. dextgrior, sup. dexti' 
mtu, acy. Bight, on the right, to 
the right ; handy, suitable ; favor- 
able, lucky, fortunate. 

dextSra, or dextra, ae, f. (sc 
manua). The right hand. 

di- or dls-, insep. prep. (kindr. 
with bis, duo). Asnnder, apart, 
in two ; sometimes with anegative 

di. See deut. 

Dia, ae, f. An ftncient name 
of the island Naxos. 

di&Idsas, i, m. A conversa* 
tion, dialogue. 

Diana, ae, f. Diana, daughter 
of Jnpiter and Latuna, and sister 
of ApoIIo. 

dico, gre, a». ctum, v. tr. To 
say, tell, mention, relate, assert, 
afiOrm ; to prononnce, deliver ; to 
describe, sing, celebrate in verse ; 
to name, call, appoint, fix upon. 

Dictaeas, a, um, adj. {Dicte, 
a mountain in Crete). Dlct^can, 

dictator, oris, m. {dido, freq. 
of dico), A dictator. 

dictam, », n. {diso). A saying, 
word, maxim, proverb, conunand, 

Dictys, yot, m. The name of 
a sailor. 

dies, ei, m. and f., plor. m. A 
day, time, season ; light of day ; 
a set day, appomted tlme; space 
of time, period. 

diffSro, ferre, distitU, dilSium, 
v. irr. {dis, firo). To carry asun- 
der ; to scatter, disperse ; to pub- 
lish; to put off, delay; to diffcr, 
be different; to be difitingoished 


difltclle, comp. -«i», snp. iif- 
ficimme, ady. With difflcalty. 

diflricllis, «, comp. -tbr, sap. 
dffTtriUftnita, a^j. (rflf, fMUs). 
Difflcnlt, troablesome; hard to 
plense or raaiiasre, obstinate, cap- 
tions, morosc, sariy. 

difTido. gret fisu» ntm^ r. 
semi-dep. {dU,fido, to trnst). To 

diffindo, gre, fidi, fasum, v. 
tr. idin, Jitido), To cleave asun- 
der, spiit. 

difflno, 9rB, «t, y. intr. (dts, 
fluo), To flow in diffierent direc- 
tions; to waste away. 

diflr&gio, «r«, fHffit fagttum, 
V. intr. (dts, fHgio). To flee in 
diffferent dlrcctions, dispcrsc, dis- 
apper.r ; to flce asunder. 

diflTando, ire^fudi^ fuaum^ t. 
tr. (rfij, fundo), To pour or 
spread out, Uifi^ase; to spread, 
scatter ; to chcer up, gladdeu, ex- 

dlsItUH, f , m. (root dic-, point 
out). A fingur, toe. 

digne, adv. {diffnua). Worthi- 
ly» flt'y. becomingly. 

di^nltas, atist f. {dignus). 
Worthiness, wortb, merit, dcsert; 
greatness, grandeur, authority ; 
ranls ; excellence, splendor. 

di^nns, a, um, a4). (root dic-, 
point ont, hence orig. pointed 
ont). Worthy, deseirlng, becom- 
ing, proper, snitable. 

di-^redior, gridi^ gressua «um, 
Y. dep. {grAdior). To step or go 
apart, separate ; to go away, de- 

dl^ressns, ti«, m. {dtgrgdior). 
A going away, departure. 

dllatus, a, «m, part See dif 

dlllgens, ntis, part. See dttigo. 

Asacy. Carefhl, assidnons, at- 
tentiye, accnrate, diligent; frugal, 
thrifty, econoniical. 

dill^enter, adv. {diligetts). At- 
tentively, carefully, assidnously. 

dillirentia, ae, f. {di&gens), 
Carefulncss, attentiveness, ear- 
nestnesB, diligence, eoonomy, fra- 

di-llgo, ere, lexi, lectum, T. tr. 
{ligo). To esteem highly ; to val- 
ue, love. 

dl-luo, 9re, ta, ti^t<m, v. tr. To 
dissolve ; to do away with. 

dl-raetior, iri, mensus sum, t. 
dep. To measure out. 

dl-mlco, Sre, avi and eui, 
atum, V. intr. To flght, contcnd. 

dl-mldius, a, t<m, acy. (m^ 
diua). Half. 

dl-mitto, ire, misi, miasum, v. 
tr. To scnd in different directions ; 
to send away, dismiss, let go, dis- 
charge, disband; to renounce, 
givc np, forsake, forego. 

di moveo, ere, mom, motum, v. 
tr. To part, separate, scatter, dis- 

Dind^ma, orum, n. A moan- 
tain in Mysia, sacrcd to CybCle. 

DidgCnes, is, m. A Stoic phi- 
losopher, teacher of Carneftdes 
and Liielius. 

Dirce, ea, f. A fountain near 
Thcbes; in Boeotia. 

dlrectos, a, um, part. See di- 
rfgo. As a^j. Straight, npright, 
steep ; straight forward, direct. 

dl-rlgesco, ire, gui, v. incep. 
To become rigid. 

dl-rlgo, gre, rexi, rectum, t. tr. 
{rligo). To direct, guide, arrange. 

dlrlmo, ire, emi, emptttm, v. tr. 
{dts, gmo, in the orig. sense, to 
takc). To break off, dissolve, de- 



dI«rIpio, 9rei riptdt reptufn, t. 
tr. {rdpio), To tear asunder, tcar 
in picces ; to ravage» pluiider« 

dirltas, atis, f. {dirus). Flefce- 
ness, ansrerity. 

' dl-rnmpo, Sre, rupi, rupium, 
T. tr. To breuk in pieces, bretfk 
off, sever. 

dlras, a, um^ ac^. Fearfal, aw- 
ftil; ill-omencd, portentous, hor- 
rible, dreadfal, abominable, de- 

dls, dUe,t ^en. ditiay comp. dU 
Hor, sup. dUisstmua^ adj. Bich. 

Dis, DUiSf m. Pluto, the god 
of the infernai regions. 

dis-cedo, ire, cesai, eeasum, v. 
intr. To go asunder, sepnrate, go 
away Arom, lcave, depart; to 
deviate, swerve fi*om; to pass 

discessvs, tu, m. {discedo). 
Separation, departure, removal. 
, discldiam, t, n. {discindo), 
Separation; yariance, animosity, 

di-scindo, gre, §efdi, scissum, 
T. tr. To tear asunder. 

discipllna, ae, f. {disetpiOus, a 
leamer). Leaming, instruction, 
teaching, training ; discipline, sci- 
enoe, knowledge. 

disco, «re, didiei, v. tr. To 
learn, become acquainted with. 

discordia, ae, f. {discors). Dis- 
agreement, dissension, discord. 

dis-cors, rdis, adj. {cor), Dis- 
cordant, disagreeing, at variance, 
nnlike, different 

discrimen, inis, n. {dis, cemo), 
Danger, risk; distinction, differ- 

dis-cfitio, gre, eussi, cussum, 
T. tr. {quatio), To shake off, dis- 
pel, dissipate. 

dlsertnii, a, um, adj. Well- 

Bpokeni ilaent$ elegant, flccom- 
plished ; sagacious, sbrewd. 

dis-Icio [disjlcio], ifff, ieei, 
iectumf r. tr. {idcio), To scatter, 
disperse, l)reak in pieces, destroy. 

disinuctio, onis, f. {disiungo), 
Separation, disunion; difference. 

disiunctns, a, um, part. See 

dis-inngro, gre, nxi, nctum,Y. 
tr. To unyoke, nnbindj to di- 
vide, separate, be at variance. 

dis-par, gen. pOris, a4J. Un- 
equal, unlike, different. 

dis-penso, are, doi, Sium, r. 
tr. {panso, freq. of pendo, to 
weigh). To distribnte, dispense. 

di-sper^o, Sre, rsi, rsum, v. tr. 
{spargo). To scatter, disperse. 

dis-pono, gre, pOsui, pdsitum, 
v. tr. To arrange, dispose. 

dispfitatio, onis, f. {dispHto). 
Arguing, disputing; argumenty 
deb:ite, discusslon. 

dis-pfito, are, avi, tUum, t. tr. 
To investigate, discuss, examine. 

dis-sentio, ire, nsi, nsum, t. 
intr. To think otherwise ; to dis- 
agree ; to be unlike, diflfer. 

dissensio, onis, f. {dissenHo), 
A difference of opinion, disagree- 
mcnt, discord, dissension. 

dis-sSro, Sre, s9rw, sertum, T. 
tr. {sfyv, to join). To examine, 
argue, discuss, treat of. 

dis-sldeo, ere^ sedi, sessum, t. 
intr. {sgdeo). To be at Tariance, 
disagree, think differently. 

dis-sllio, ire, ui, v. intr. {salio), 
To leap asnnder, fly apart, burst 

dis-sImHis, e, b6j, Unlike, 

disslmllltudo, inis, f. {dis- 
similis), Unlikeness, difference. 

disslpo, Sre, Sm, Stum, t. tr. 



To Bfirefld ftbtxMui, disperse, 

tcr ; to demolish, dettroj, sqnan- 

der, diSBipate. 

dis-sdcio, ortf, aci, atum, ▼. tr. 
To difliJoin, disonite, set at yari- 

diflfidlatns, a, um, part. See 
diiaoho. Aii adj. Lax, remiss, 
nc^li^eut, careletis, licentious, dis- 

dis-solTO, ir€t «o/rt, adliUum, 
V. tr. To unloose, untie, di!»unite, 
dissolve, break up, destroy} to 
aljolish, abrogate, annul. 

dis-suAdeo. ire, auasit iuSaum, 
▼. tr. To adYise a^ainst, diasuade. 

dis-suo, ire, — , atUum, y. tr. 
(suot to stitcb). To unstitch, dis- 
soive, open. 

diHtantia, ae, f. (disto). Dis- 
tance, diiference, diversity. 

di-stingno, ire, nxi, nctum, ▼. 
tr. {stinguOf to quench). To set 
oif, dccorate, adom; to distin- 
gnish, discriminate. 

di-sto, dre, v. intr. To stand 
apart, be separate, distant } to dif- 
fer, be diffcrent. 

dis-trlbao, ire, ui, utum, ▼. tr. 
To divide, distribnte. 

dia, comp. diuHuB, snp. diuH»^ 
Hme, adv. (old abl. of di»), A 
long time, long, long since. 

diornas, a, «m, a^j. {diea), Per- 
taininsr to a day, daily. 

diutias, comp. of diu, 

difitarnltas, dJti», f. {diiiiur'- 
mts). Length of time, long dnra* 

difitnrnns, a, «m, a^j. {diu). 
Of long duration, lasting, long. 

di-vello, Sre, velU, vulaum, ▼. tr. 
(veliOf to pluck). To rcnd asun- 
dcr, tear awayi sepai^te. 

diversos, a, um, part. and adS. 
{diverto; to tum away). Tomed 

In difltont w&ys, apnrt, sepamtey 
opposite, contraiy, di^rent, un- 
like, remote. 

dlTes, ftit, comp. divtHor, sup. 
divftisstmua, aci^. Bich. 

di-vldo, Sre, viii^ tiaum, ▼. tr. 
(root viD-, separate, whence also 
vtdiM). To part asnnder, di^ide, 

divine, n6.Y.{divinn9). Throngli 
dtvine power, »»y divine inspini- 
tion ; adniirably, diviuely. 

dlvlnltas, mia, f. {divtnus). 
Oodltead, divinity ; power of di- 
▼ining, divination ; di^ine quallty, 
godlike excellence. 

divino, drc, Svi, Sium, ▼. tr. 
{divinua). To foresee, predict, di- 
vine, prophesy. 

dlvinns, a^ um, ac^. {divus). 
Divine; divincly inspired, pro* 
phetic; superhuman, admirable, 

dlTltiae, Smm, f. {divea, 'tiis), 
Biches, wealth. 

divltior, comp. of divea. 

di^QS [dlos], a, um, Bid^. (kin- 
dr. with detia). Divine ; as snbs., 
divua, f, m., and diva, ae, f. A 
god, a goddess, a deity. 

do, dare, didi, ddtum, v. tr. To 
give, grant, allow, cqmmit, in<< 
trast, cdncede, permit; to give up 
or forth, resign ; to bestow, far- 
nish, afford, offer, present; to ut- 
ter ; to consign ; vela venti», to 
spread ; hracchiai to extend ; ma- 
nu», to yicld, snrrender ; calla re^ 
tro, to bend back ; poena», to pay 
the penalty, snffer punishment 

ddceo, ere, ui, ctum, v. tr. To 
teach, inform, teH; fabulam, to 
bring ont, exhibit. 

ddcllis, e, a<^. {ddceo). Easily 
tanght, docile. 

4o9tnnAfaeft{ddc»o). Teach- 



ing, instractlon, sdencei emdition, 
learning, doctrine. 

doctHB, a, um, part. See ddceo, 
As adj. Leamed, skilled, yersed, 

ddcQnfientum, i, n. {ddceo), A 
lesson, example, pattem, warning, 
proof, specimen. 

Dddouaens, a, um, adj. {Do- 
ddnat a city in Epirus, famed on 
account of its very ancient ora- 
cle). Of Dodona, Dodonean. 

dolAbra, ae, f. {ddh, to bew). 
An axe (as a military weapon or 
an agricultnral implement). 

doleo, ire, u», ttum, v. tr. and 
intr. To suffer pain, ache ; to dc- 
plore, lament, grieve for, be sor- 
ry for. 

dolor, oris, m. (ddleo). Fain, 
distress, sorrow, anguisli, vexa- 
tion, chagrin. 

ddlus, t, m. A device, artifice ; 
guile, fraud, deceit, deception. 

domabllis, e, ailj. {ddmo). Ca- 
pable of being subdned, tamable. 

domestlcus, a, um, adj. (dd' 
mua). Pertaining to the honse, 
familiar, honsehold, domestic ; 
native, bclonging to one'8 own 
conntry; private. 

domlcllinm, i, n. {ddmua). A 
dwellins?, abode, home. 

ddmlna, ae, f. {ddmimu). A 
mistress, lady. 

domlnor, ari, atua mm, v. dep. 
(ddmfnus). To have dominion, 
bear rule, domineer. 

doralnns, t, m. {ddmwi), A 
master of tho house, master, pos- 
sessor, proprietor, lord, ruler, 

domlto, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
(freq. of ddmo). To tame, break 

dSmo, Sre, ui, l^tim, ▼. tr. (akin 

to Eng. tame). To tame, oonqner, 
yanquish, ovcrcome ; undie, to 
boil soft, Ov. viii. 110. 

domus, us and t, f. A house ; 
ddmi, at horae, in tho house ; by 
meton., a bnilding, dwclling, or 
abode of any sort. 

donSc, conj. (contr. from rlonl'- 
cum, which has the snme mcan- 
ing). As long as, while ; until. 

dono, are, avi, atum, v. tr. (c/o» 
num). To present, bcstow. 

donum, i, n. {do). A gift, prcs- 
ent ; a votive oflTcring, sncriflce. 

Doris, idi», f. Danghter of 
Oce&nus and Tethys, wife of Ne- 
reuR, and mothcr of fifVy sca 

dormio, ire, ivi {ii), {tum, T. 
intr. To sleep, rcst, rcpose, 

dorsnm, i, n. Tbe back ; the 
slope of a hill. 

dos, ddtis, f. {do). A marriage 
portion, dowry ; gift, endowment» 

dotalifl, e, adj. (doe). Pertain* 
ing to a dowry or portion. 

drftco, oni», m. A sort of ser* 
peni, a dragon. 

dromas, adia, m. A drome- 

drf as, adis, f. A wood nympb, 
a dryad. 

dtibltaUo, onie, f. {dobieo). 
XJncertainty, donbt, hesitancy, hr» 
resolntion ; a considcration. 

dlfblto, are, avi, Sium, v. tr. 
and intr. {dnbiue). To doubt, hesi- 
tatc, waver, delay. 

dfibius, a, um, adj. {duo). Un» 
certain, donbtful; irresolnte, nn- 
dccided ; dangerous, critical ; in 
dubio est, it is doubtful. 

dnco, ire, xi, ctum, v. tr. To 
lead, condnct, draw, bring, take ; 
toxeckon» oonBider, hold; to ac- 



connt, esteem; to tnoye, !ncite, 
indnce, allure ; to protiuct, pro* 
]on.?; to dcrive; to talce on, os* 

dudam, ady. {diu, dum). A 
long timo since, for a lojig time. 

Doellias, i, m. I. Marcus, 
the fathcr of C. Duellins. II. 
Caius Ducllius, a Roman consul, 
who pained tlic first naval victoiy 
oyer thc Caithaginians, B. C. 260, 
and in whose honor the Columna 
rostrata was erected in the Fomm. 

dolcSdo, fm«, f. {dulcis). 
Swcctness, cluinn. 

dalcesco, ire, dulcui, y. incep. 
(jdulcis). To bccumo sweet. 

dolcis, e, a4j. Sweet, agree- 
ablc, pleasant, charming, kind, 

dom, coi^. Whilst, nntll, aa 
long as ; provided ttiat, if only. 

dum-mddo, coi\j. Proyided 

dnm-taxat, adr. (toan^, firom 
taxo, to esthnate). Only, simpljr, 
mercly, at least, to a certain ez- 
tent, so far. 

dao, otf, o, nnm. a^). Two. 

dad-decim, indecl. nom. a4j« 
(dicem). Twelye. 

dflplex, icis, a^j. (dtio, p!teo, to 
folU). Twofold, donble. 

diipllco, are, avi, Shan, y. tr. 
{d&plex). To double ; to bow, bend. 

durltia, ae, f. {durm). Hard- 
ness, liarshness. 

durlties, £i, f. {dunu). Hard- 
ncss, harshness. 

duro, are^ aviy atum, y. tr. and 
intr. (diirvs). To harden, endui*e, 
last, remain. 

dunis, a, um, adj. Hard, mde, 
rouf;h, harsh, cruel, nnconth, bnr- 
densome, hardy. 

dax, dacia, m. and t (root 

Dt*c-, doco). A lcadcr, gulde, gcn- 
ernl, commander. 
Dyard&nes, is, m. Thc name 

of a river in India. 


$, or ex, prep. with the abl. 
Out of, from, of, directly after, by 
rcason of, accordinj? to. 

Sbrietas, ati», f. {ebrius). £bri- 
ety, drnnkenness. 

^brias, a, nm, a^j. Drnnken. 

Cbor, dris, n. Ivory; any- 
thing madc of ivory. 

ecce, interj. Bchold ! lo ! 

£chton, Onis, m. One of the 
hcroes who sprung np from the 
dnigon*s tectb, sown by Cadraas; 
the fathcr of Petitheus, aud haa- 
band of Agave. 

ec-qui, quae or qtia, qtiod, Sn- 
terrog. a4j. pron. {ec « ecee). Any, 
if any, whether any. 

ec-qois, — , quid, interrog. suba. 
pron. Whether any one, any- 
body, anything» 

CdSpol, interj. (for deriy. see p. 
188). By Follux! in faith! tmlyj 

fi-dico, 9re, xi, ctum, y. tr. To 
declare, puhlish, decree; to ap- 
point, establish, ordain. 

edltus, a, um, pari. See edo, 
As ndj. Higb, lofty, elevated. 

Sdo, ire or essey edi, esum, y. 
tr. To eat, consume. 

fi-do, 9re, didi, ditum, v. tr. To 
put forth, bring forth, give Wrth 
to, beget ; to givo out, utter, pub- 
lish, declare, divulge; to biing 
abont, cause. 

e-ddceo, ere, cui, etum, y. tr. 
To teach thoroughly, instmct, in- 

e-duco, ire, xi, ctum, y. tr. To 
lead, draw or bring ont or np. 



S-dtt co, are, av», o^tim, ▼. tr. 
{ediico), To bring up, reur, edu- 
cate, nourish, support. 

eflTectus, us, m. {efficio). Ef- 
fect, result 

eff Sro, ferre, extHli, elSttim, ▼. 
Irr. (eXffgro). To bring or carry 
out, esp. to carry out for burial ; 
to bury ; to lift np, extol, trans- 
port ; to declare, proclaim. 

efletus, a, umt adj. {ex, feiua, 
firuitfUl). Exhausted, wom out. 

efflcio, ire, feci,fectum, v. tr. 
(«r, focio), To flnish, effect, ac- 
complish, cause, make, form, exe- 
cute ; to make out, show, prove. 

efflgies, ei, f. {effingo, to 
form). Form, likeness, image. 

elQo, are, avi^ atum, v. tr. (ex, 
fo, to blow). To blow or breathe 

effl5resco, ire, rtd, v. incep. 
{ex,Jiore$co, to begin to blossom). 
To bloom, spring up, flonrish. 

efflao, gre, xi, v. intr. {ex,fluo), 
To flow or run out, flow forth ; to 
blow away, escape ; to pass away, 
vanish ; to slip from. 

eff ddio, fyre, fodi, fossum, v. 
tr. {ex,fOdio), To dig out, dig np. 

effrenfite, adv. {ex, jfrenum), 
Unrestrainedly, violently. 

eff flgio, ^e, fugiy fHgiium, v. 
intr. {ex, fHgio), To fly from, es- 
cape, avoid, shun. 

effnlgeo, ere, ai, v. intr. {ex, 
fulgeo). To shine or glcam forth. 

effundo, gre, fudi, fusum, v. 
tr. {ex, fundo). To pour out. 

6geo, ere, ui, v. intr. To want, 
be in need of, lack ; to do with- 
ont, di^^pcnse with. 

6-g8ro, ire, geasi, gestum, v. tr. 
To bring out ; to throw out, dis- 

6go, mei, subs. pron. I. 

Sg5-met, onlynom. and acc. 
memet, subs. pron. I myself. 

e-gr6dior, gridi, greaawt $um, 
V. dep. {grddior), To go or como 
ont; to ascend; to disembarki 

e-gr6gias, a, um, ac^J. {grex). 
Excelient, eminent, surpassing, 
distin^nished, illustrious. 

ei, inteij. Ah! Alas! 

e-i&cillor, ari, atua eum, v. 
dep. To hurl or throw out; to 
shoot out. 

5-iecto, are, avi, aium, v. tr. 
(freq. of efcio). To cast out, 
throw up. 

e-Icio [e-jlcio], ire, ieci, iec^ 
tum, V. tr. {iOcio), To cast oat, 
drive out, eject, expel. 

eilflfitus, t», m. {eialo, to wail). 
Wailin^ lamentation. 

e-labor, i, lapsua sum, v. dep. 
To slip away, escape, disappear. 

e-l&bdro, are, dvi, atum, v. tr^ 
and intr. To exert one*s self, Uilie 
pains with ; to work out, elabo- 

Sieganter, adv. {el^gana, an- 
other form.of eligena, f^om &igo). 
Tastefully, elegantly, gracefuily, 

eiSphantns, t, m. An ele- 

El€u8,a,t<m, a(^.(£&'«). Eleaa. 

e-lSvo, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
To lift up, raise, lighten, alleviate ; 
to lessen, impair, disparage, di- 
minish, weaken. 

e-IIcio, ire, Ucui, Ucftum, v. 
tr. {Idcio, to lure). To draw out, 
draw forth, bring out, elicit. 

e-llgo, gre, tegi, lectum, v. tr. {th 
go, ire), To pick out, choose, se- 

Elis, idis, f. The most west- 
erly district of the Peloponnesns, 



with a capftal of the same name, 
in tlie viciiiity of wbich the Olym- 
plc games wcre celebratcd. 

eiix, fcis, m. {elicio). Ditch, 

eldsinm, i, n. A short saying, 
sentence, maxim; an inscription 
on a tomb-stone. 

e-Iaceo» ere, «*, v. intr. To. 
Bhine forth, appear, be conspicu- 

S-lado, ire, si^ sum, v. tr. and 
intr. To play out ; to jeer, moclc, 
banter, make sport of ; todeceive, 
fnistrate, elude. 

e-luo, ire, ui, utum, v. tr. To 
wash olf, wash, clean ; to get rid 

elfivies, ei, f. {eluo), A chasm, 
abyss, ravine. 

S-mendo, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
{mendum, a blemish). To con-ect, 
amend, improve. 

e-mergo, ire, rsi, rsum^ v. tr. 
and intr. To raise up ; to come 
forth, arlse, emerge, come up, 
shoot out. 

e-mSrltas, a, um, adj. (mgreo). 
Th:it has bccome unfit for ser- 
vicc, worn ont ; stipendiie, having 
served one's time under, etc. 

e-metior, %ri, emensus sum, v. 
dep. To pass through, traverse. 

e-mlco, are, cui, catnm, v. intr. 
To spring ont or forth, rush forth, 
appear quickly. 

e-mlneo, ere, m, ▼. intr. (mi- 
neo, to project). To stand out, 
project ; to be prominent, be con- 
spicuous ; to rise. 

e-mlnas, adv. {mdmts), At a 
distance, from a distance. 

e-mitto, gre, misi, missum, v. 
tr. To let go forth, send out, send 
forth, discharge. 

e-mdrior, i (arch. ii-i), mortuus 

aum, V. dep. To die off, dle, per- 
ish, pass away, cease. 

S-mango, 9re, nxi, tictum, ▼• 
tr. {mtmgo, to blow the nose). To 
wipe the nose for another (imply- 
ing that he is adriveller and can- 
not do .it for tiimsclf ) ; hence, to 
outwit, cheat ; me emunxeris lau- 
tissime, you ynW liave played apon 
me most cleverly. Cic. de Am, 
xxvi. 99. 

en, inteij. Lo! behold! see! 

g-nervo, are, dvi, atum, ▼. tr. 
{nerrus). To enervate, weaken, 

Snim, coiy. For, indeed, for 

Snim-vero, coiy. Yes traly, 
of a trutb, indeed. v^, 

e-nitor, i, nisus and nixmj^^ 
V. dep. To force one'8 way i^l 
to exert one*8 self, strive. 

Ennins, t, m. The father of 
Epic Roman poetry, bora at Ru- 
dlae in Calabria. 

ensis, is, m. A sword. 

e-nfim6ro, are, doi, dtumf ▼. 
tr. To count out^ reckon, esti- 
mnte, pay ; to recount, relate. 

e-nnotio, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
To divulge, speak out, declare. 

eo, ire, ivi (ii), itttm, v. irr. 
To go. 

eo, adv. {is). Thither, to that 
spot. For eo - quo, see is. 

e5dem, adv. {idem), To the 
same place. 

Eoas, i, m. The name of one 
of the steeds of the sun. 

£das, a, um, adj. {Eos, dawn). 
Bclonging to the morning, mora- 
ing, eastera, orient. 

Ephyre, es, f. An old name 
of Corinth. 

Eplcleras, i, f. «ThoHeireas; 
a play of Caecilius. 



•EpImSthis, tcUs, f. Danghter 
of Epimrtheus, . i. e. Pyrrha, the 
wife of Dcucalion. 

Spistlila, otf, f. A letter, an 

£p5peu8, ei, m. A Tuscan 

e-pdto, or^, avi, potum, ▼. tr. 
{potOf to (Irink). To drink out. 

Spiilae, arum, f. See gpiUum. 

fipOl&ris, e, aiij. {gpithtm). Per- 
taining to a banquet, at a ban- 

Splilor, arit atus 8um, ▼. dep. 
(gpQlum). To feast, banquet. 

Spiiluiii, i, n., plur. SpiQae, 
arum, f. A banqnct, fcast. 

Sques, ftis, m. {gquus). A 
horseman ; one of tho iqyXtes, the 
ordcr of knights, who, among the 
Romans, hcld a middle rank be- 
twecn the senate and the plebs, a 

Squldem, adv. (a demonstr. ^- 
and qyXdem). Indced, yerily, tru- 
ly, certainly, to be sure, of conrse. 

6quus, i, m. A horse, steed. 

ErSbtts, if,m. The lower world. 

erectns, a, um, part. Sce eri' 
go. Asadj. Elevatcd, lofty, no- 
ble, resolute. 

erga, prep. with acc. Towards, 

ergo, coi^. Therefbre, hence, 
then, consequently. 

Erldanus, i, m. The Greek 
name of the river Padus, the Po. 

e-rlgo, ire^ rexi, rectum, ▼. tr. 
(rggo). To raise up, erect, cheer 
np, set np, enconrage. 

Erinys, yos, f. A Fury. 

e-rlpio, gre, ui, eptum, v. tr. 
(rapio). To take or snatch by 
force, take away, rescne, dcliver. 

err&tlcus, a, um, adj. (erro). 
Wandcring, roving, erratiCy wild. 

erro, are, avt, atum, ▼. intr. 
To wander, wandcr about; to err, 
mistake, go astray. 

error, ons^ m. (^erro), A wan- 
dering; agoing astray, an error, 
a delusion, deception. 

S-riibesco, ire, ri2bui, v. incep. 
To grow red; to fecl asliamed, 

&-rfidio, ire, ivi (ii), Uum, ▼. 
tr. (ritdis). To polish, educate, 
instruct, teach. 

Srfidite, comp. -ius, snp. -»«- 
slme, adv. (erHdUus). Leamedly, 

Srfiditus, a, um, part. See erd- 
dio. As ac|j. Leumcd, accum- 
plished, well-informed, skillcd, 

e-rnmpo, ire, rupi, ruptum, v. 
tr. and intr. To burst or sally 
forth, break out or fortb. 

e-ruo, ire, rui, rHtum, v. tr. To 
throw out, pluck out, dig out. 

Erycinns, a, um, adj. (Eryx), 
Erycinian. As subs. Erycina, ae, 
f. Vbnus. 

Erymanthns, i, m. A river 
which rises in a chain of moun- 
tains of the same namc in Arcadia. 

Er^hms, i, m. A mythical 
Idng of thc sonthem part of Asia 
Minor, from whom the Erythracan 
sea receives its name. 

Eryx, pcis, m. A mountain on 
fhe wcstem coast of Sicily. 

esca, ae, f. (ido). Food ; a 
bait, Inre. 

6t, coig. And, also, too, and 
indeed, even ; et^et, not only — 
but also, both — and. 

6t-Snim, coig. For, becanse, 
since, truly. 

Ethimantns, i, m. A river of 

St-iam, coi\). And also, too^ 



likewise, and eTen, yet, ttfll; 
etinm atqtte ^iiam, affain and again. 

etinm-nani, coig. Tet, till 
now, still. 

etiam-nane, coi^. Even at 
tbo prcsent time, still. 

eUam-si, conj. £yen if, al- 

et-8i,coQj. Thongh, although. 

Enbolcns, a, wn, adj. {Eu- 
boea, aii islond iti the Aegean Sea, 
east of Ilellai»). Euboean. 

Enmfinldes, um, f. A enphe- 
mi&tic name for the Fnries. 

Eumolpns, t, m. L A fabn- 
lou8 Tlmiciun einger and priest of 
Cerc5, who introduced the £leu- 
sinian mysteries iuto Attlca. II. 
A descendant of the Mune, son of 
Musacus, and pupil of Orphens. 

Enphr&tea, it, m. A river of 
Syna, rising in the mounUiins of 
Armenia, forming the boundary 
of Syria and Mesopotamia, and, 
after its junction with thc Tigris, 
emptying into the Persian Oulf. 

Enropa, ae, f. Europe.* 

Enrotaa, ae, m. A river of La- 
conia, on the banks of which 
Sparta stood. 

eurns, i, m. South-east wind. 

Enrf dlce, es, f. The wife of 

e-vftdo, 8re, ti, mm, t. tr. and 
intr. To go forth, go, escape, get 
away ; to climb np ; to pass over, 
leave behind; to tnm ont, end, 
resnlt, become. 

e-vanesco, gre, vanui, v. incep. 
(vanesco, to pass away). To pass 
away, disappear. 

€v&ttlda8, a, um, a4j. {evanee- 
co), Vanishing, passing away. 

g-vSho, erej vexi, vectum, v. tr. 
To carry out or forth ; to elevato. 

e-vello, ire, velli {vulai), vul- 

tum, v. tr. {veHo, to plnck). To 
pluck out ; to pull off. 

€-vSnio, ire, teni, ventum, v. 
intr. To come out, fall ont, come 
to pass, happen, result. 

e-ventns, us, m. [evinio). Oc- 
currcnce, event; result, issue; 
fatc, lot. 

Sversio, onie, f. {everto^. Over- 
throwing, subvcrsion, destruction. 

€-verto, gre, ti, eum, v. tr. To 
tum out ; to overturn, overthrow, 
subvcrt, rain, dcstroy. 

e-vldens, ntie, a(^. {v€deo). 
Clear, evident, plain, manifest, 

evldenter, adv.' {ivfdene). 

evltabllis, e, a^j. {evUo). 

dvito, are, avi, atum, v. tr. To 
shun, avoid. 

S-voco, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
To call out or forth. 

e-vdlo, are, avi, atum, v. intr. 
To fly out or foith, rnsh forth. 

S-v5mo, gre, ui, itum, v. tr. To 
vomit forth, dhscharge. 

ex, prep. with the abl. See S. 

ex-aeqno, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
To make equal with; to make 
level or smooth, equalize. 

ex-aestuo, are, dci, atum, v. 
intr. To boil np ; to glow. 

ex-aggSro, are, avi, atum, v. 
tr. {agger). To heap np. 

exftmen, inie, n. (contr. fh)m 
exagimen, extgo). A swarm. 
- ex-&nlmis, e, a(iy. {arama). 
Lifcless, dead. 

ex-ftnlmo, dre, avi, Stum, v. 
tr. To deprive of life or spirit ; 
to alarm or terrify greatly, 

ex-ardesco, ire, arei, v. incep. 
To bnrst ont in a blaze, take fire; 
to be kindled, break oot, 



ex-asp6ro, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
{aaii&rot to make roagh). . To ex- 
asperate, raake ficrce. 

ex-aodio, irct ivi (n), Uumf y. 
tr. To hear thoroughly or diB- 
tinctiy ; to hear, listeli to. 

ex-cedo, Sre, ce»sif ceasum, v. 
Intr. To go out, go beyond, de- 
part ; to depart from life, die ; to 
Tanish, disappear ; to rise above, 
rise, exceed. 

excellens, ntiSf*pajt. See ex- 
ceUo. Aa udj. Distinguished, sur- 
passing, superior, exeellent. 

excellentia, ae, f. {excellena). 
Superiority, excellence. 

ex-cello, ^e, «t, tum, v. tr. 
and intr. (root cell-, impel). To 
rise, be eminent, distinguish one'8 
self ; to surpass, excel. 

excelsas, a,'um, part See ex- 
eello. As adj. Elevated, lofty, 

exceptio, onis, f. {excfpio). Ex- 
ception; restriction. 

exceptns, a, um, part. See ex- 

ex-cldo, ire, etdi, v. intr. (c<X- 
do). To fall out or down ; to slip 
out, escape ; to pass away ; to be 
lost, perish, fail. 

ex-cido, ire, cidi, cisum^ v. tr. 
{caedo), To cut ont or off, hew 
down, raze, demolish, lay waste, 
destroy, banish. 

ex-cieo, ere, and -cio, ire, ivi, 
Uum, V. tr. {cio, to put in motion). 
To excite, call out, call for. 

ex-clpio, 8re, cepi, ceptum, v. 
tr. {cdpio). To tiike out, take up, 
catch, rcceive, capture; toexcept; 
to foilow after, succied ; to con- 
tinne, prolong; to take up one*s 
words, i. e., to repiy. 

excisns, a, um, part. 8ee ex- 

exclto, are, avi, aium, v. tr. 
(freq. of excieo). To call forth, 
arouse, stimulate, cause. 

ex-clftmo, are, avi, atum, v. 
tr. and intr. To ciy out or aloud, 

ex-cliido, Sre, ti, sum, v. ti 
{claudo). To shut out, exclude, 
remove, separate, hinder, pi-e- 

ex-cors, rdis, adj. {cor). With- 
ont undL-rstanding, Benscless, sil- 
ly, stupid. 

ex-clibo, are, m, itum, v. intr. 
{cHbo, to lie down). To lie out on 
guard ; to kcep watch. 

ex-cnrsio, onis, f. {curro). An 
excursion; running a race (as a 
military exercise). 

excJisatio, onis, f. {excUso). 
An excusing, excuse. 

ex-cuso, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
{causa). To excuse. 

ex-cfitio, ire, cussi, cussum, v. 
tr. {qudtio). To shake out; to 
send forth ; to throw out, oflf, or 
away ; to drive out, dispel, sliake. 

ex-Sdo, 8re {esse), edi, esum^ v. 
tr. To eat up, dcvour, consume. 

exemplar, aHs, n. {exemplum). 
Pattem, model ; transcript, copy ; 
image, likeness. 

exemplnm, i, n. (prob. exTmo). 
An example, copy, illustration, 

ex-eo, ire, ivi (n), ttum, v. irr. 
To go out or forth, go away ; to 
riso, ascend ; to pass over ; de vitOf 
to depart from life, die. 

exerceo, ere, cui, citum, v. tr. 
To work thoroughly, train, excr- 
cise, employ, occupy, practise ; to 
vex, harass. 

exercltatio, onis, f. {exerdto, 
a freq. of exerceo). Exercise, 



exercltas, ««, m. {exerceo). An 

ex-halo, are^ avt, atum, v. tr. 
(Ao^, to bicathe). To breathe out 
or forth, exhale. 

ex-haorio, ire, hauai, hattatum, 
T. tr. To dnw out, empty, ex- 

ex-hlbeo. ere, ui, ftum, v. tr. 
{hdbeo). To display, 8ho\v, ex- 

ex-horresco, Sre, homd, v. 
incep. {horreo), To tremble or 
shndder exceedingly; to be ter- 

ex-hortor, ari, atus aum, v. 
dcp. To urge on, exhort. 

ex-lgfo, gre, egi, actum, v. tr. 
{dgo), To drive out; to exact, 
demand; to conclude, finish; to 
consider ; to measure, weigh ; to 
spend, pass. 

exl^ne, adv. {exiguus). Slight- 
ly, narrowly, scantily. 

exlgaaa, a, um, ac^. (prob. ex- 
fyo). Scanty, sraall, pctty, poor, 
mean, narrow, contracted. 

exllis, e, a^). (contr. from ex- 
tgilia, from eaXgo), Small, thin, 

exUIter, adv. {exiUa). Thinly, 
meaj^rely, penuriously. 

exlmias, a, um, adj. {exXmo). 
Exceptcd, extraordinary, ancom- 
mon, distinguished. 

ex-Imo, dre, emi, emptum, v. tr. 
{Smo, in the sense of to take). To 
talte away, remove, waste, re- 

ex-istlmo, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
{aesHmo). To judge, consider, es- 
teem, snppose, thinlc. 

exltiabllis, e, adj. {exltium). 
Dcstructive, fatal, deadly. 

exltiam, t, u. {exeo). Destruc- 
tion, ruin. 

exttas, %u, m. {exeo). A gO' 
ing out, issne, end, result 

ex-5rior, iri, ortua aum, v. dep. 
To arise, spring up. 

ex-oro, are, aci, atum, v. tr. 
To prevuil upon, pei suade by ^n- 

ex-pallesco, ire, pallw', v. in- 
cep. {paUeo). To grow or tum 
very pale. 

ex-pSdio, ire, itd {i%), itum, v. 
tr. and intr. {pes). To disent;\ngle, 
frce; to be proficable, advauta- 
geous, nseful, expedient. 

expSditio, onia^ f. {expgdio). 
An expedition, campaign. 

expSditus, a, um, part. See 
expedio. As adj. Unimpeded, 
disengaged, unencumbered ; free, 
casy, ready, at hand. . 

ex-pello, Sre, phU, pulsum, v. 
tr. To drive or thrust out or 
away, cxpel. 

ex-pSrior, iri, pertua aum, v. 
dep. (root PERi-, try). To try, 
put to the test, prove, attempt. 

ex-pers, tia, adj. {para). Hav. 
ing no part in, destitute of, fi-eo 
IVom, without. 

expertas, a, um, part. See 

ex-pSto, Sre, p9iim (n), pgti' 
tttm, V. tr. and intr. To long for, 
aspire to, seel^ after, desire. 

ex-pleo, ere, evi, etum, v. tr. 
(obs. pleo, to fill). To fill out ; to 
satisfy, appease ; to fulfil. 

expletus, a, um, part. Sce ex- 
pleo. As adj. Full, complete, per- 

ex-pllco, are, avi and ui, atum 
and itum, v. tr. {p&co, to fold). 
To unfold, exphiin, set forth, 

expldratas, a, um, part. Seo 
expldro. As adj. Ccrtain, surc. 



ex-pl5ro, are, dvi, atum, y. tr. 
(pl5ro, to cry aloud). To search 
out, iiivcstigate, explore. 

ex-pdno, SrCf pdaui, pdsituntf 
▼. tr. To put or lay out, expose ; 
to disembark, land; to set fortli, 
explain, expound. 

ex-prlmo, ire, pressi, pressum, 
V. tr. (prgmo). To press or force 

ex-probro, dre, dvi, dtum, v. 
tr. {prdbrum, a sbameful act). To 
upbraid, reproach, taunt. 

expuguatio, onis, f. {expug- 
no). A takiuy: b}' stjrm, storming. 

ex-pagno, dre, dvi, dtum, y. tr. 
To talie by assault ; to storm. 

ex-8anguis, e, a^j. Bloodlcss, 
palc, wan, pallid. 

ex-scldium, i, n. (scindo), Dc- 
struction, overthrow. 

ex-s6qnor, i, ctUus sum, v. dep. 
To follow to tlie end, pursue, ac- 
compaTiy; to fpllow up, cany 
out, perform, executc ; to relatc, 

ex-sSro, gre, rui, rtum, v. tr. 
(siro, to joiu). To put out, thrust 

ex-sllio, ir$, ui and ii, uUum, 
V. intr. {salio). To spring out or 
forth, Icap up, start up. 

exsllium, i, u. {exsul). Exile, 

ex-sisto, ire, stiti, stitum, v. 
intr. To step out or forth, come 
forth, emerge, appear ; to spring, 
proceed, arise, become ; to be vis- 
ible or manifest, exist, be. 

ex-sorbeo, ere, ui, v. tr. {sor- 
heo, to suck in). To suck out or 
np ; to drain ; to swallow up. 

ex-spatior, dri, dtus sum, v. 
dep. To get out of, or break from, 
the course. 

exspectatio, onis, f. {exspec- 

to). Anawaiting, expecting, ex- 

ex-specto, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
To look out for, await, expect ; to 
hope for, long for ; to fear, dread, 

ex-spiro, dre, dvi, dtum^ v. tr. 
and intr. To breathe out; to 
breathe one's last, expire. 

exstinctus, a, um, part. Sco 

ex-stinguo, ire, nxi, nctum, v. 
tr. {stinguo, to quenLh). To put 
out, quench, cxtinguish; to de- 
prive of life, dcstroy, annihilate ; 
pnss., exstingui, to die. 

ex-stirpo, dre, dci, dtum, v. tr. 
{stirps). To pluck up by the root, 
root out, eradicate, cxtirpate. 

ex-sto, dre, v. intr. To stand 
out or forth, project, stand above ; 
to be vislble, appear ; to exist, be 
extant, be. 

ex-strno, ire, xi, ctum, v. tr. 
To pile or heap up ; to load ; to 
build up, raise. 

exsnl, alis, m. andf. {ex, sd- 
lum). A baiiishcd pcrson, an exite. 

exsfilo, dre, dvi, dtum, v. intr. 
{exsul). To be an exile, live in 

exsulto, dre, dvi, dtum, v. intr. 
(freq. of exsilio). To spring vig- 
orously, Icap or jump about ; to 
exult, rejoice, boast, revel. 

ex-snrgo, Sre, surrexi, surrec- 
tum, V. intr. To rise up ; to rise. 

extemplo, adv. {ex, tenipdre). 
In a vcry little time, immediately. 

ex-t6nuo, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
{tinuis). To make thin, reduce. 

exter or extSrns, a, um, comp. 
extgrior, sup. extremus or extimus, 
adj. {ex). On the outsidc, out- 
ward, extemal, foreign, strange; 
comp. extgtHor, ius, outer, exterior ; 



nip. exirhnua and exHmtu, onter- 
most, utmost, extrcme, last. 

externas, a, umf aclj. {extgnu). 
Oatward, extemal ; strange, for- 
efgn ; as sat>8., extemuSy i, m. A 
foreigner, stranger. 

ex-terreo, ere, ui, Uum, v. tr. 
To strlko with terror, frighten, af- 

ex-CImesco, 9re, mtd, v. incep. 
{ttmeo), To be greutly afiraid of, 
await wlth fear or dread. 

ex-tollo, Sre, V. tr. To raise 
up, elevate, exalt. 

ex-torqneo, ere, n, tum, v. tr. 
To twist or wrench oat, wreat 
awaj ; to tali:e away, remove. 

ex-trftho, ire, traxi, traetum, 
y. tr. To draw oat, nse ap, con- 
same, x^ass. 

extremos, a, um, a^l* See 

ex-oo, ire, ui, iUum, v. tr. (con- 
tr. for ex^uo, from root du-, pat ; 
cf. in-duo), To pat off, draw oat 
or off, pall off, strip ; to lay aside. 

ex-iiro, ire, ueei, uatum, v. tr. 
To bam ap, bum, consome. 


f%1iios, t, m. Q. Fftbius Maxl- 
mas Canctator. Sce note to line 
1, page 177. 

Fabrlcios, «, m. Caius F&biY- 
cius Lusclnus is first mentioned 
B. C. 285; consul B. C. 282 and 
278 ; one of the most promincnt 
antagonists of Pyrrhus. 

f &brIco, are, avi, dtum, v. tr. 
{fdber, workman). To construct, 

f abtaa, ae, f. {fari). Narra- 
tlve, account, story, play. 

f acetos, o, um, adj. {fades), 

'^rry, witty, humorous, facetious. 
cies, ei, f. {fOcio), Form, 

flgnre, shape; face, conntenance, 

I &clle, comp. -itM, sap. fOciU 
Ume, udv. {fOctlis). Easily, un- 
questionably, readily. 

f &clli8, e, comp. -tor, sap. ya- 
cilUmus, a<j|j. {fdcio). Easy to 
do ; affiible, easy, ready ; good- 
natured, compliant. 

f&cHItas, atis, f. {fdcfHa^. 
Ease, facility, coarteoosness, a£Ea- 
bility, good nature. 

fficlnos, dris, n. {f&cio). A 
dced, act ; esp. a bieid deed, crime, 

f &cio, h-e, feci, factum, v. tr. 
To do, make, cause, effect, per- 
form, create, produce, commit; 
to valne, esteem, regard ; to rcp- 
resent ; to sappose, assume. 

factom, i, n. {fOcio). A decd, 
act, exploit, event. 

f acoltas, atis, f. {fddUs), Ca- 
pability, power, means, opportu- 
niry ; stock, store, abundance ; in 
plar., goods, riches, etc. 

faex, faecis, f. Dregs, grounds, 
impnrities ; the liquor or brine of 

f figns, f, f. A beech tree. 

falcatos, a, um, adj. {falx, a 
sickle). Scythe-shaped. 

iallax, acis, acy. {fallo). De- 
ceitful, deceptive, fallacious. 

fallo, Sre, flfelli, falsum, v. tr. 
To deceive, disappoint, escape the 
observation of, beguile, dupe; 
Jidem, to break. . 

falsas,,u, um, adj. {faJlo). De- 
ceitful, faise, counterfeit, spurious, 
feigned, ill-grounded, undeservcd. 

fama, ae, f. {fdri), Rcport, 
ramor, tradition, public opinion, 
renown, fame, reputation. 

fames, is, f. Hungcr. 

f amilia, ae, f. {fdmiOus), A 
family, domestics, household. 



f fimlli&ris, e, adj. {fanaUa). 
Pertaining to a family, domestic, 
private ; familiar, intimate, friend- 
ly. As subs. A familiar acquaint- 
ance, friend. 

f fimlliarltas, ati», f. {fdmfli' 
aria). Intimacy, friendsliip. 

fftmlli&rlter, adv. {famiUa- 
rw). Intimately, on friendly terms. 

f fimfilatus, ta, m. {famHhu). 
Servitude, slavery, 

ffimfilas, i, m. A slave, ser- 
Tant, attendant. 

Fannins, t, m. I. Caius Fan- 
nius Strabo, son-in-Iaw of Caius 
Laelins. II. Marcus Fannius, the 
father of the foregoing. 

fas, indecl. n. Divine law ; [of- 
ten equivalent to an adj.], right, 
proper, allowable, hiwful. 

fastldium,^ t, n. Loathing, 
aversion, haughtiness, pride. 

fastlgium, i, n. ifaatiffo, to 
slope). The slope, pediment, top, 
summit; the most exalted rank 
or dignity. 

f &teor, iriffaasus swn, y. dep. 
ifari). To confess, admit, own. 

f Atldlcus, a, um, a4j. (fatum, 
dico). Prophesying, prophetic. 

f atlfer, «m, grwn, a4j. {fatumf 
firo). Deadly, destructive. 

f fttlgo, are, avi, atvm, v. tr. 
{fatis, sufflciently, ago). To fa- 
tigue, weary, tire ; to vex, harass. 

fatum, f, n. {for). Destiny, 
fatc ; calamity, mishap ; destruc- 
tion, dcath. 

fautrix, icis, f. {faveo). A 
patruness, protectress. 

laux, faucis [only abl. sing. 
fauce]^ pluT.fauces, ium, f. The 
throat ; a defile, pass. 

faveo, ere,fdvi,fautum, v. in- 
tr. To favor, befriend, protect; 
to applaud. 

f ftvilla, ae, f. (kindr. with/*r). 
Glowing ashes, embers, spurk. 

f&vor, oris, m. {faveo). Favor, 
good-will, partiality. 

f &vas, t, m. A honcy-comb. 

ftLX,facis, f. A torch. 

faxit, for f ecSrit. See fado. 

fecundus, a, um, adj. (root 
Fu-, or FE-, produce, same as yt- 
in /««). Fruitful, fertile ; fertiliz- 
ing ; prolific, abundapt. 

fel, feUis,n. Gall, blle. 

f ellcltas, o^, f. (/0&x). Fer- 
tility ; good fortuue, happiness. 

f eliclter, adv. {feUz). Luck- 
ily, fortunately. 

. f elix, icis, a4j. (root fe- ; cf. 
fecundus)» Fertile, auspicious, fa- 
vorable, lucky, happy, successful. 

f emlna, ae, f. (root fe-, cf./5- 
cundus). A female, womim. 

f emlneus, a, um, adj. {femi- 
na). Womanly, wouianish, ef- 

f enSror, dri, dtus sum, v. dep. 
{fenus). To lend on interest. 

f enns, dris, n. (root fb- ; cf. 
fecundus). Whiit is produced, 
interest, gain. 

f era, ae, f. {firus). A wild 

f grftlis, 0, a(^. Pertaining to 
thedead; deadly, fatal. 

f erax, dcis, a^. {firo). Fer- 
tile, fruitfnl. 

f Sre, adv. Almost, almost al- 
ways, generally. 

fSrlnuM, a, um, ac^. {fira), 
Pei-taining to wild beasts. 

f erio, ire, v. tr. To strike, 
smitc, kill. ^ 

ferltas, dtis, f. {fgrue). Wild- 
ness, savageness. 

ferme, ndv. {fire). Almost, 
nearly, gcnerally. 

f firo, ferre, tnU, tatum, v. irr. 



To cairy, 1)c«r, bring, lead, drlve, 
conduet ; to tcll, say, assert, make 
known ; seferre, to move, hastcn, 
rush, flow, mount, run di)wn, etc. 

f erocltas, oft», f. {firox). Im- 
pulbiveness, hi^h spirit, rasbness ; 
Biivaj^cncss, fcrocity. 

f firox, ocia, ac^. (firo). Bold, 
splrlted; savage; headstrong, in- 

ferreos, a, um, adj. {ferrum). 
M:ide of iron, iron ; hard, unfcel- 
ing, cruel. 

ferriigo, «mm, f. {ferrutn). Iron- 
rust ; a dusky color. 

ferrnm, t, n. Iron ; the sword, 
or anj iron instmment. 

fertmtas, atie, f. {ferHUs, 
frnitfhl). Fraitfulness, abun- 

f eros, o, tim, a4j. Wild, sav- 
agc ; rude, barbarous, cruel. 

ferveos, ntis, part. See fer- 
veo. As acy. Hot, bnming, glow- 
ing, boiling; impctuous, furious. 

ferveo, ere, bui, v. intr. To 
boil, ferment, glow, rage, rave. 

fervor, om, m. {ferveo), A 
ragng, violent heat; vchemence, 
ardor, pnssion. 

fe!«»tos, a, um, a(]j. (kindr. with 
fdtiffo, fatiaeor, etc). Weary, 
exhausted, feeble, infirm. 

festioatio, oniSf f. {featino, to 
hastcn). A hastening, haste, 

festos, a, um, adj. Solemn, 
pubiic, festal, festive. 

f Stos, us, m. [root fe-, pro- 
duce). Bearing, birth, offspring, 
proffeny, brood, fruit, produce. 

f Ibra, ae, f. {Jindo). A fibre, 

fictilis, e, adj. {fingo). Shap- 
en, flctilc, earthen. As subs., ^- 
Ule, is, n. An earthen vessel. 

fictos, a, tim, part. See Jtngo. 
As adj. Feigned, fictitious, false, 

f icus, i and us, f. A flg tree, 

f ideiis, e, adj. {ffdes). Faith- 
fhl, trustwoithy, trusty, sure, safe. 

fldeiitas, atis, {. {fidiUs). 
Faithfulness, trustlness, fidelity. 

fldes, A', f. {fido, to tru»it). 
Faitli, fidelity, honesty, credit, be- 
licf, promisc, trath, confirmation, 

f ides, is, f. A lyre, cithem, 
lute, stringcd instrumcnt. 

f Iducia, ae, f. {fido, to trust). 
Trust, confidcncc, reiiance, assur- 
ance, deposit 

fldos, a, um, adj. {fido, to 
trust). Trusty, faithiul, sure, firm, 

figo, ire, fxi, fxum, v. tr, To 
fix, fasten, drive in ; to transfix, 
pierce, kill. 

f Igura, ae, f. {Jingo). Shape, 

fllia, €te, f. A daughter. 

fllius, t, m. A son. 

f ilnm, t, n. A thread ; string, 

findo, ire, fldi, Jlssum, v. tr. 
To cleavc, split,"divide. 

fingo, Sre, Jlnxi, fctum, v. tr. 
To shapc, form, fashion ; to mould, 
A*amc, invcnt, represcnt, conceive. 

f Inio, ire^ ivi (tt), itum, v. tr. 
{finis). To iimit, bound, check, 

flnis, M, m. and f. A limit, 
boundsiry, end. 

f lo, JiM, factus sum, pass. of 
fddo. To be made, he done, be- 
come, happen, occur, take place. 

firmamentom, t, u. {Jirmo). 
A snpport, prop, stay. 

firmitas, atis, f. {Jirmus). Sta- 



Wlity, duHibility, firmness, con- 
etancy, strengtb, power. 

finno, arej aci^ atunij v. tr. (^r- 
mua). To make firm, strengthen. 

firmus, a, um, adj. Steadfast, 
Btal)le, strong, firm, solid, con- 

fisttila, ae, f. A pipe, tnbe, 
reed, 8hepherd*s plpe. 

fissas, a, Mm, part. See findo. 

fi xus, a, umy part. See figo. 

Flaccas, «, m. Lucius V&16- 
rius Flaccus, consul B. C. 195, aiid 
censor with Cato the Elder, B. C. 
184, nnd died as pontifex B. C. 180. 

flagello, are, dvi^ dtum, y. tr. 
{JlageUum^ a ,whip). To whip, 
scourge, lash. 

flagltiosus. a, um, adj. {fldgi 
iium). Shameful, infamous, dis- 
graceful, flagitious. 

flagltium, f , n. {fldgito^ to de- 
mandeamestly). Orig., buming 
desire ; hence, a shameful act, bin, 
shame, disgrace. 

flagro, dret dvi^ dtum, v. tr. and 
intr. To blaze, bura, glow. 

flamen, inis, n. {flo^ to blow). 
A blowing, blast, a gale, wind. 

Flamlnlnus, »', m. I. Titus 
Quinctius Flamlninus, consul B. 
C. 198; conquered Philip at Cy- 
noscephaiae B. C. 197; received 
a triumph B. C. 194; censor B. 
C. 189. IL Titus Quinctius Fia- 
mlnlnus, consul, B. C. 150, with 
M' Acliius Balbus. IIL Lucius 
Flamlninus, brother of No. L, 
consul B. C. 192, but expelled 
firom the senate for his disgraceful 
conduct by Cato the Censor, B. C. 

FlAmlnius, », m. Caius Fla- 
mlnius. Sce noteto line 1, page 179. 

flamma, ae^ f. (kindr. with 
fl&gro), A flame, light, passion. 

flammlfer, ^a, <6rum^ acy. 

{flamma, fSro). Flame-bearing, 
buming, fiery. 

flavens, nft>, part. {fldveo, to 
be yellow). As adj. Gold-col- 
ored, yellow. 

flavesco, «re, v. incep. {fldveOy 
to I)e yellow). To bccome ytilow 
or gold-colored. 

flavus, a, um, a(|j. Tellow, 
flaxen, gold colored. 

flebllis, e, adj. {fleo). Lamen- 
table, tearful, doleful. 

flecto, ire, flexif flexum^ V. tr. 
and intr. To bend, curve, tum, 
direct, move, prevail upon, soothe, 

fleo, ere, evi, etum, v. tr. and 
intr. To weep, lament, bewail. 

fletus, uSf m. {fleo). A weep- 
ing, lamentation, tears. 

flexlbllis, e, adj. {flexus). Pli- 
ant, flexible, tractai)le; fickle, 
wavering, inconstant. 

flexllis, «, adj. {flexua). Pliant, 

flexus, t/9, m. {flecto). A bend- 
ing, tuming, winding. 

floreo, ere, wi, v. intr. {flos). 
To bloom, blossom ; to flourish, 
be eminent, distinguished. 

flos, fldris, m. A blossom, 
flower; crown, omaYnent. 

fluctus, us, m. {fluo). A wave, 
billow, flood. 

flnlto, dre, dvi, dtum, v. freq. 
{fluo). Toflow, wave. 

fliimen, inis, n. {fluo). FIow- 
ing water, a river. 

flumlnens, a, um, adj. {flu- 
men). Pertaining to rivers, fouud 
in or frequentiniir rivers. 

flno, ire, fluxi, fluxum, v. intr. 
To flow, come forth, drip. 

fliivins, t, m. {fluo). A river. 

f ocus, t, m. A bcarth ; nltar. 

f odio, Sre, fodi, fossum, v. tr. 
To dig. 



foedo, Sre, aci, aiwm^ ▼. tr. 
(Joedus, 2.). To defilo, diFflgnrc. 

foedos, iria, n. A Icague, com- 
pact, trcaty, covenant. 

foedus, a, um, aclj. Foul,* fll- 
thy, ugly, abominablc. 

f olinm, t, n. (kindr. with Jlos). 

f dmentimi, t, n. (fdveo). A 
warm lotion, fomcntation. 

fonfi, fontis, m. A spring, 
soarce, fonntain. 

for, fari, faltu sum [Ist pers. 
for, uot used], y. dep. To speak, 

fdrftmen, fnM, n. (ycro, to 
piorce). An opeuing, hole, aper- 

fore, and f 5rem, eqniralent 
to fatunu esae, and essem. 

f oris, is, more freq. plur. fd- 
res, um, f. A door, gate ; tblding 
or double doors. 

fbrma, ae, f. (firo), Form, 
flgurc, Htature, size, beauty. 

formica, ae, f. An ant. 

formid&bnis, e, a^j. (/ormf- 
do), Terrible, formidable. 

formido, tnis, f. Fear, terror, 

formo, are, am, Stum, ▼. tr. 
{fortna). To shape, foshion, form. 

fbrmosns, a, um, adj. {forma), 
Beautiful, handsome. 

fornax, acis, f. A fumace, 

fbrs, abl. forte, other cases 
wanting, f. ifiro). Chance, hap. 

forsltan, adv. (fors, sit, an). 
Perhaps, it may be. 

fortasse, adv. (fors). Perhaps. 

forte, adv. (fors). Perchance, 

fortis, e, adj. (firo). Brave, 
strong, vigorous, courageons, val- 

forllter, ady. (fortis). Stronff- 
ly, vigorously, boldly, manfully, 

fortltudo, inis, f. (forfis). 
Strcngth, rcsolution, bravery, in- 
trepidity, fortitude. 

fortoitos, a, um, a4j. (forte), 
Casual, accidental. 

fortiina, ae, f. (fors). Chance, 
lot, luck, fate, fortune; also, the 
goddcss Fortune. 

fortunatns, a, tim, part. (/or- 
tano, to prosper). As adj. Pros- 
perous, Incky, happy, fortunate. 

fdmm, i, n. A public place, 
market-place ; the Fomm; by 
meton., afbirs of state, adminis- 
tration of justice. 

f orns, i, m. A gangway ; plor., 
fdri, hatchcs. 

fossa, ae, f. (fossus, tVom fd- 
dio). A ditch. 

fossio, onis, f. (fddio). A dig- 
ginjT, trenching. 

f oveo, ere, fovi, fotum, t. tr, 
To warm, keep warm, cherish, 
foster, caress. 

fractns, a, t<m, part. See^an- 
go. As a4j. Weak, faint, dis- 
heartened, powerless. 

frfiglUs, e, a4j. (frango). £a- 
sily broken, brittle, Aragile, weak, 

frftgor, 5rt», m. (frango). A 
crashing, crash, noise, din. 

fr&gosus, a, um, adj. (fragor)» 
Roush, unevcn. 

fragom, t, n. A stmwberry. 

frango, ire, fregi, fractum^ T. 
tr. To break, shiver, crush. 

frater, tris, m. A brother. 

frftternus, a, um, acy. (frater). 
Brotherly, frateraal. 

fraudo, are^ avi, atum, t. tr. 
(fraus). To cheat, . beguile, de- 



firans, fraudiSf f. Deceit, im- 
position, fraud ; deiusioTiy error. 

frSmo, Bre^ td, itum, t. tr. and 
intr. To murmur, rage, liowl, 
grumble, mntter. 

firennm, i, n. plur. freniand a, 
orum, m. and n. A bridle. 

frSquens, niis, &dj. Constant, 
repeated, frequent, numerous, 
crowded ; well-stocked. 

frSqnentia, ae, f. (frgquens). 
A numerous afisemblj, multitude, 
crowd, throng. 

frSqoentOy Sre, avi, atum, v. 
tr. (Jrgquefis). To throng, crowd, 
peuple, frequent ; to celcbrate. 

frStum, «, n. A strait ; thc sea. 

fretnsy a, um, aclj. Reljing 
opon, trusting to. 

frigldas, a, um, a^). {frigeo, 
to be cold). Cold. 

frigns, dris, n. Cold, coolness, 
chill ; the winter. 

IVondeo, ere, ui, v. intr. (frons, 
ndis). To be In leaf ; to become 
green ; to put forth leaves. 

frons, ndis, f. A leafy branch, 
foliage ; a leafy chaplct. 

frons, ntis, f. Tbe forchead, 

firactnosns, a, um, ndj. (frue- 
tus). Productive, fruitful, prof- 

frnctns, ua, m. (fruor). Fmit, 
gain, profit. 

fruglfer, gra, grum, ac^. (frux, 
flro). Fruit-bearing, fruitftil. 

frugllSgns, a, um, adj. (frux, 
Ujo). Fruit-gathering. 

frnor, t, fructua and fruttus 
aum, V. dep. To delight in, enjoy. 

fmstr&, adv. (kindr. with/rau- 
do). Without effect, in vain. 

frnstror, ari, atus sum, v. dcp. 
(frustrd), To make of no eficct ; 
to deceive. 

fHftex, icis, m. A shrab, bnsh. 

frux, frugis, more freq. in plu- 
ral, fruges, um, f. (kindr. with 
frttor). Fruit, fruits. 

f ueo, are, avi, atum, v. tr. (fH- 
cus, a dye). To color, dye. 

ftfga, ae, f. A fleeing, flight 

filgax, acis, adj. (fugio). 
Swift, fleet, fleeting. 

f iigio, gre, fugi, fOgitum, y. 
intr. (fnga). To flee, fly, shun, 
•avoid, escape, pass away. 

f figo, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. (fi^ 
gio). To cause to flee, rout, pnt 
to flight. 

lulcio, fre, fulsi, fultum, t. tr. 
To prop up, support, stay. 

fnlgeo, ere, fuhi, v. intr. (kln- 
dr. with fulvus). To flash, glis- 
ten, gleam, shine. 

f fillca, ae, f. The coot, a wa- 

fnlmen, inis, n. (contr. from 
fulgimen, from fulgeo). Light- 
ning ; a thunderbolt. 

fultns, a, um, part. Seefuldo. 

fnlvns, a, um, adj. Deep <x 
reddish yellow, tawny. 

f nmo, dre, dvi, dtum, t. intr. 
(fumus). To smoke, steam, reek. 

f umns, t, m. Smoke, steam, 

f unaie, is, n. (funis). A torch. 

innda, <se, f. (fundo). A sling. 

fnndftmen, inis, n. (fundo, 
dre, to foand). A foundation. 

fandfimentnm, t, n. (fundo, 
dre, to found). A foundation, 
ground-work, basis. 

fnndltns, adv. (fundus, the 
bottom). From the very bottom, 
firom the foundation, atterly, en- 
tirely, totally. 

fnndo, gre, fudi, fuxum, t. tr. 
To pour, pour out, shed ; to scat- 
ter, spread, cast, harl ; to cast to 



the groand, prostrate; to ponr 
forth, uttcr; to roat, vanqaish; 
to bring forth, bear, prodace. 

f nnebris, e, a4J.(/untM). Of or 
pertaining to a funcral, fnnereal. 

f nnestas, a, tim, ac|j. {funtia), 
Caasing death, fatal, destractive, 
deadly ; moamfal, sad, ominoas. 

fnngor, t, fimctua «tfm, v. dep. 
(prob. akin to fiigio), To get rid 
of, discharge, perform, execute; 
tepulchro^ to receive the rites of 
barialy to be baried. 

f nnis, t«y m. A rope, line, cord. 

f finns, jFm, n. A faneral pro- 
oession, barial, ftineral ; death ; a 
oorpse ; destrnction, ruin. 

forca, a«, f. A two-pronged 
forlt ; a fork-shaped prOp, pole or 
stake for sapporting the gable of 
a hoase. 

f llri&lis, e, ac^j. (fana, ftiry). 
Farious, raging, dreadful, fcarfal ; 
makingmad, infuriating. 

fiiriosas, a, um, adj. {faria, 
fury). Full of madness or rage, 
road, raging, furious ; inciting to 
firenzy, maddening. 

Farias, t, m. Lucins Furius 
Fhllus, consul B. C. 136, an abie 
general in the Namantine war, 
and distingaished for his literary 

f iiro, 8re, td, v. intr. To rage, 
rave, be farious. 

f iiror, ori», m. (fUro), A rag- 
ing, raving, rage, madness, fury. 

fartim, adv. (fur, athief ). By 
stealth, secretly, privily. 

furtam, t, n. {fur, a thief ). 
Theft, rohbery ; a secret action, 
crafty deccit, trick, artifice, strat- 

fusllis, e, a4j. (Jundo), Mol- 
ten, fiuid, liquid. 

f iituras, a, um, part. See aum. 


6. an abbreviation for Gaiua. 

Gftbinias, a, um, adij. Gabln- 
ian ; lex, a law proposed by Aalos 
G&binius, B. C. 139. See page 259. 

Gades, ium, f. A colony of 
the Phoenicians in Hispania Bae- 
tlca, now Cadiz, 

Gftias, t, m. See Caiua. 

g&lea, ae, f, A helmet. 

Gallia, ae, f. Gaal. 

Galllcas, a, um, adj. {OalUa), 
Gallic,'of Oaal. 

galllna, ae, f. (goMm, a cock). 
A hen. 

Galus, t, m. Cains SnlpTcfas 
Gaius, consul B. C. 166, an emi- 
ment orator, Greek scholar, and 
astronomcr; in plur,, men like 
Galns, or of the family of Galos. 

Ganges, ia, m. One of the 
largest rivers in Asia and the most 
impoitant one of Hindostan. 

garrfilns, a, um, adij. {garrio, 
to ehutter). Chattering, babbling. 

gaadeo, ere, gavisus sum, v. 
scmi-dep. To rejoice inwai-dly; 
to be glad, delight in. 

gaudiuni, t, n. {gaudeo), Joy, 
gladness, deiight. 

f^fiza, ae, f. (A Persian word). 
The royal treasare. 

gSlIdus, a, um, acij. {gSlu), 
Very cold, icy cold, frosty ; chiU- 

gSIu, u8, n. Icy coldness, ice, 
frost, cold. 

gSmlno, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
and intr. {gSminue), To double, 

gSmlnas, a, um, adj. Twin, 
double, twofold, both, two. 

gSmltas, U8, m. {gSmo), A 
groaning, groan, sigh. 



gemina, ae, f. (root gen-, pro- 
diice). A bud; precious stone, 

gSmo, gre, ta, ttumf t. tr. and 
intr. To sigh, groan ; to bemoan. 

ggiia, ae, f. A cheek. 

gSner, ^ri, m. (root gen-, pro- 
duce). A son-in-Iaw. 

irSnSro, are, avi, atumf \. tr. 
(ffSnus). To beget, produce, create. 

gSnerosus, a, t/m, adj. ( ggnus). 
Of noble birth, noble, magnani- 

gSnetrix, icis, f. {gSrator). 
A niother. 

ggniallter, adv. (ggnidHSf jo- 
vial). Jovlally, merrily. 

gSnlcfilatns, a, um, adj. ( ^^- 
ntcHlum, a dim. of ginu), Knot- 
ted, jointed. 

ggnltor, om, m. (root oen-, 
produce). Parent, father, sire. 

gSnltns, a, um, part. See ffiff- 

gens, ffentis, f. (root gen-, pro- 
duce). A clan, nation, race. * 

gSnn, u8, n. The knee. 

gSnns, SriSf n. (DOt gen-, pro- 
duce). Birth, dcsccnt, race, kind, 

germana, ae, f. A sistcr. 

germanns, t, m. A brother. 

gSro, ire, ffessi, gestum, v. tr. 
To bear, carry, have, hold; to 
manage, conduct; se fferere, to 
behave, conduct one'8 self ; bel- 
lum, to wage. 

gestio, ire, ivi (tt"), itum, v. in- 
tr. {ffestust gesture). To use pas- 
sionate gestures ; to exult ; to de- 
sire passionatcly. 

gesto, dre, dvi, dtum, v. freq. 
iffSro). To bear, carry. 

glgas, antis, m. A giant. 

glgantens, a, um, a^j. {giffat). 
Of the giants. 

gigno, ire, ffgfiui, ffSnXtum, y. 
tr. (root OEN-). To beget, engen- 
der, bear, produce, bring forth. 

Glabrio, onie, m.' See AciliuSy 

gl&cialis, tf,acU. {fflOeiea). Icy, 
ft-ozen, full of ice. 

gl&cies, ei, f. Ice. 

gladins, i, m. A sword. 

glans, fflandis, f. An acom. 

gleba, ae, f. A clod. 

glomSro, dre, dvi, dttan, v. tr. 
(ffldmtu, a bail). To furm into a 
ball, raake round, collect. 

gloria, ae, f. Gloiy, renown, 
fame, honor. 

glorior, dri, dtua sum, v. dep. 
{ffloria). To glory, boast, vaunt, 
pride one*8 self. 

gloriosns, a, um, ac^. ( fftdria). 
Famous, renowned ; boasting, 

Gnatho, dnis, m. The name 
of a parasite in the Eunuchus of 

Gobares, is, m. A Persian 

Gorgias, ae, m. A famous 
Greek sophist of Leontini, in Si- 
cily, contemporary with Socr&tes. 

Gorgonens, a, um, acy. {Gor' 
ffo, a Oorgon). Of or belonging 
to Gorgon, Gorgonean. 

Gracchns, t, m. I. Tiberius 
Graccbus, the father of the two 
tribunes Tiberius and Caius Grac- 
chus, and of Sempronia, the wife 
of Scipio Africanus Minor. II. 
Tibcrius Sempronius Gracchns, 
son of the foregoing and of Cor- 
nelia, the daughter of the elder 
Scipio Africanus, bom about B. C. 
164 ; tribune of the people B. C. 
133, when he proposed the enact- 
ment of an agrarian law, a revo- 
lutionary meosore, which resulted 



In hto anmflsinatioii the nme year. 
III. CaioA Semprunins Gracchus, 
tbe brothcr of No. II., according 
to Plutiirch hine years younger 
than bia brother, tribnne B. C. 
123; at first Cains took Itttle part 
hi public matters, bnt after hta 
brother^s death he nrgcdthere- 
fonuB which had been proposed, 
and likewise fell a yictim to the 
arroganoe and Tiolence of the 
aristocracy, B. C. 121. 

grftcais, 0, comp. ••iorf aap. 
ffrOcilUmu», ac^. Thhii alendery 

gr&dior, t, ffreanu nm», y. dep. 
To stcp, walk. 

gr&do8, U9, m. {grHdwr), A 
step, degree, grade. 

Graecia, ae^ f. {Chraeeua), 
Greecc; Mctgna Graecia^ Lower 
Italy, colonizcd by the Greeks. 

Graecoa, «, um, ac|j. Greek, 
Greciun. As snbs., Graeetta, »*, 
m. A Greek. 

gramen, Itim, n. Grass, plant, 
herb, weed. 

grandis, «, adi. Large, great, 
tall, aged, old ; grand, lofty, sub- 
lime ; grandie natu, old, aged. 

grando, ini», f. Hail. 

Gr&nlcDS, t, m. The Grani- 
cus, ariver of Mysia, famous for 
the victory of Aiexander over the 
Persians, B. C. 334. 

grftnlfer, gra, grumf a^j. {gra" 
num, fSro). Grain-bearing. 

grftnum, t, n. A grain, seed, 

grassor, ari, Siua mm, t. dep. 
(freq. of grOdior). To go; to 

gr&tes, usu. only in nom. and 
acc. plur. f. {gratus). Thanks, 
thanksgiving, return. 

gratia, o^, f. igrSius). Favor, 

esteem, loye, friendship; channy 
loveliness; thanks, gratitude, re- 
tum ; abl. gratid, for the sake of ; 
referre gratiam, to requite a fa- 
Tor ; gratiaa agere, to give thanks ; 
exigere gratiam, to exact a favor. 

gr&tor, ort, atua aum, v. dep. 
{gratua). To wish joy, congrata- 

gratQd, a, tim, acy. Acceptable, 
pleasing, agreeable, kind ; tliank- 
ful, gratefol. 

grftvldiu, o, um, acy. {grO» 
via). Laden, fllled, full. 

grftyis, «, adj. Heavy, over- 
loaded, bnrdensome, burdened, 
laden ; unpleasant, offensive ; irk- 
some, gricvous, painfnl, troabie- 
fiome; hifluential, eminent. 

grftyltas, atia, f. {gravia), 
Weight, heaviness ; sevcrity, ve- 
hemence ; dignity, importanoe, 

grftvlter, adv. ( grdvia). 8eri- 
ously, heavlly ; witb chagrin or 

gr&vo, dre, dvi, dtum, y. tr. 
{gravia). To weigh down, bur- 
den, oppress ; in paaa., to be an- 
noyed ; to take amiss, bear with 
reluctance, etc. 

grSminm, t, n. The lap, bo- 

gressns, ua, m. {grOdior), 
Step, way. 

grex, grigia, m. A flock, 

gtlbemator, dria, m. ( gHber- 
no, to steer a ship). A steersman, 

gnrges, ftia, m. A raging 
abyss, whirlpool, gulf ; by meton., 
waters, sea. 

gnstatus, ua, m. {gusto, to 
taste). A sense of taste ; taste, 



jrvtta, CM, f. A drop; spot, 
ITuttQr, Orts, n. OuUet, throat. 


hfibena, ae, f. (kabeo), A rein. 

h&beo, ere, ui, Uum, v. tr. To 
have, hold, possess, keep ; to hold, 
deliver, utter ; to treut, use ; to 
regard, consider; to make, do, 
perform, etc 

h&bltabllis, e, a^j. {MbUo), 

h&bito, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
and intr. (freq. of hObeo). To in- 
haltit, dwell, reside. 

h&bltns, ua, m. {haheo). The 
condition of a thing, the appear- 
ance of ttie bodj, size, character, 
postni^e, attitude. 

hac, adv. {hic), By this waj, 

h&c-tSniM, adv. Thas fai, ta 
this place. 

haedns, t, m. A kid. 

Haemonius, a, tim, ac^. Hae- 
monian, Thessaltan. 

Haemns, or -os, t, m. A high 
range of mountains in Tlirace, 
now the Balkan, 

haereo, ere, hctesi, haeeum, v. 
intr. To stick fast; to hang, 
cleave, adhere; to be flxed, sit 
fast, remain fast ; to be embar- 
rassed, at a loss, etc. 

H&IIcarnassus, t, f. A city 
of Caria, birthplace of Heroddtus. 

h&IItns, u8, ni.{hdlo, to breathe). 
Breath, exhalation. 

h&matns, a, um, adj. {hamue). 
Furnished wlth a hook, hooked, 
crookod, barbed. 

Hammon, dnie^ m. An ap- 
pellation of Jupiter, worshipped 

in Africa nnder the form of a 
ram. His temple and &moa8 ora- 
cle were situated in the oasis 
Hammonium, now Siwah, In the 
Libyan desert. 

Hanundnii, orum, m. The 
inhahitants of Hammonium. 

hftmus, t, m. A hook, barb. 

Hannlbal, aUa, m. A son of 
Hamilcar, a famous Carthaginian 
general in the second Punic war. 

hasta, ae, f. A spear, lance, 

hastlle; is, n. {haeta). The 
shaft of a spear ; spcar. 

hand, adv. Not at all, not, by 
no means. 

hand-qufiqnam, adv. {quie» 
quam). By no meuns, not at all. 

hanrio, ire, hauti, hauetum, v, 
tr. To draw, draw in, driiik up, 
drain, drink; to exliaust, con- 
sujne ; to take ; to spill, slied. 

hanstns, tM, m. {haurio). A 
draught, stream. 

hfibSto, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
{hibes, blnnt). To blunt, duU. 

Hebms, t, m. The chief rlver 
in Thraoe. 

hedfira, ae, f. Ivj. 

Heilce, ee, f. * The Great Bear,» 
a constellation. 

Hfillcon, dfue, m.. A moun- 
tain in Boeotia, sacred to Apollo 
and the Muses. 

Hellanice, m, f. The sister of 
Clitus and nurse of Alexander. 

Hellespontus, t, m. The Hel- 
lespont, the strait lying between 
the Thracian Chersonese and Asi^ 
Minor, now the DardaneUe». 

h€mIc)rcUnm, t, n. A seml- 
circulur alcove or place to sit in. 

Hennaens, a,um, adj. Hen« 
nean, of or belonging to Henna, 
a dty in the centre of Sicily. 



berba, m, f. OraM, green 
blade, herh, plant. 

herbesGO, *r«, ▼. incep. {her- 
ha). To grow into grcen stalks 
or hlades. 

hercle, or hercjfle, interj. 
{IlercHle*). By Hercules ! trulj ! 
indeed ! 

Hercfiles, m, m. Son of Ju- 
ptter and Alcmena, and hnsband 
of Deianira. 

hSres, edia, m. and f. An heir, 

herosy om, m. A dcmi-god, 

HSsiddns, •', m. A Oreek poet, 
of Ascra, in Boeotia. 

HespSrldes, um^ f. The Hes- 
pendes, daughters of Hesp6rus, 
wbo, on an island beyond Mt. 
Atlas, kcpt watch over a garden 
with golden apples. 

Hesperins, a, um, acy. {Hea- 
pBrus), Of or situatcd towards 
the west, westcrn, Hcsperian ; li- 
tU8, the shore of the westem ocean. 

Hespfiras, »', m. The evening 
Btar, Hesperus. 

hesternns, a, um, ac^. {hgri, 
yesterday). Of yesterday, yes- 

hiatns, im, m. {hio), An open- 
ing, aperture, cleft. 

hibernns, a, um, ac|j. {hiemt). 
Belonging to winter, wintry, win- 

blc, haec, hoc, dem. pron. 
This ; he, she, it. 

hic, adv. {hic), Here, hereup- 
on, herein. 

hiems [hiemps], gmis, f. Win- 
ter, storm, cold. 

hinc, adv. {hic). From this 
place, hence, hereupon. 

hinnitns, us, m. {hinnio, to 
neigh). A neighing. 

hio, are, atfi, atum, ▼. tr. and 
intr. To stand open ; to gape. 

Hippdtftdes, ae, m. A de- 
scendant of Hippotas, i. e. Aeulus. 

hirsatns, a, um, adj. {hirtus). 
Rough, sbaggy, bristly. 

hirtus, a, um, adj. Rough, 

Hispania, ae, f. Spain. 

Hister, tri, m. The Bannbe. 

histrio, ofUa, m. A stage-play- 
er, actor. 

h5die, adT. (contr. from hoe, 
die). To-day, now. 

Homerns, i, m. Homer, the 
famons Oreek poet. 

homo, inia, m. and f. in sense, 
but m. only in construction. (pcr- 
haps frora humus). A man, wo- 
man, human l^eing. 

hdnestas', atis, f. (hdnestus). 
HonoraI)leness, respectability, in- 
tegrity, probity ; beauty, grace. 

hdneste, adv. {hdnestus). Hcn- 
orably, nol)Iy, bccomingly, fairly, 
properly, virtuously. 

hdnestns, a, um, Rdj, {hdnor). 
Honored, distinguislicd, honor- 
able, respectablc; creditablc, be- 
cuming; proper, worthy, nob!e, 

hdnor, -os, oris, m. Honor, 
rcspect, esteem, dignity, offlce, re- 
ward, oiTiament, charm. . 

hdn5rabilis, e, adj. {hdnoro, 
to honor). Honorable. 

honoratus, a, um, part. {hdno' 
ro, to honor). As adj. Honored, 
distin^uished, respectable. 

hora, a«, f. An honr (among 
the Romans of varying lcngth, 
according to the time of the year, 
the interval between sunrise and 
snnset being reckoned as twelve 
honrs); a time, season; personi- 
fied : the Hours. 



horrendnsy a, tim, part. See 
horreo. As a4j. Fearful, dread- 

horreo, er6, — , v. tr. and intr. 
To be rongh ; to tremble, shiver, 
shudder ; to be frightened. 

horrldas, a, um^ adj. (horreo). 
Rodgh, shaggy ; frightful, terrible. 

horror, oris, m. {horreo), A 
shalving, shivcrlng, cold flt, ague- 

hortftmen, tnia, n. (hortor), 
Enoonragement, incitement. 

hortator, orie^ m. An inciter, 

hortor, dri, atua 8utn, v. dep. 
To encourage, mcite, instigate, 
cheer, exhort. 

hortos, t, m. A garden. 

hospes, Htis, m. and f. (kindr. 
with hoetiSf strangcr). Viaitor, 
guest, friend ; host, stranger. 

hosplta, act f . (hospes). A for- 
eigner. As ac^. Hospitable. 

hospltalis, e, a^). {hospes). 
Relating to a guest or host ; hos- 
pftalee dii, the gods of hospi- 

hospltiam, t, n. (hospea). Hos- 
pitality, hospitable reception ; inn, 

hostllis, e, adj. (Aoffos). Hos- 

hostis, t«, m. and f. An ene- 
my ; orig., a stranger. 

huc, adv. {htc). Hither, to this. 

hiimanltas, atis, f. {humanus). 
Human natnre, hnmanity; hu- 
mane condnct, philanthropy, gen- 
tleness, lcindness ; good-breeding, 
elegance of manners or language, 

hnmanns, a, um, adj. {hdmo). 
Pertaining to man, human ; Itind, 
obliging; well edncated, well-in- 
formed, learned, polite. 

hlfmerns [flmSrns], t, m. The 


hnmldns, a, um, adj. {humeo, 
to be wet). Moist, damp, humid, 
wet ; rich in springs. 

hiimliis, tf, comp. -tor, snp. hU' 
milllmusy a^j. {hHmus). Low, 
lowly, small, slifjht; humble, 
base, mean, poor, abject, insignifi- 

hQmo, are, doi, dtum, v. tr. 
{hamus). To bury. 

hiimor, dn«, m. (kindr. with 
humeoy to be wet). Liiuid, fluid, 
moisture, water; circumjluus, the 

hiimns, i, f. The earth', soil, 

Hyades, um, f. The Hyades, 
a groap of seven stars in the head 
of Taunis. 

Hf men, Hnis, and HirmSnae- 
ns, i, m. The god of marriage, 
son of Apollo and the muse Cal- 
lidpe; nuptials, wcdding. 

Hyrcftnia, oe, f. A conntry 
of Asia, north and west x>f tho 
Caspian Sea. 

I, imperatlve of eo. 

i&cens, ntis, pnrt. See iOceo. 
As a4j. Prostrate, dejected, cast 

i&ceo, ere, ui, itum, v. intr. To 
lie, be low or prostrate, be cast 
down or dcjected, lie idle, dor- 
mant or dead ; to hang loose. 

iacio, Sre, ieci, iactum, v. tr. 
{akin to iOceo). To throw, cast, 
hurl ; to throw out, utter ; to con- 
struct, lay. 

iacto, are, dvi, atum, v. tr. 
(flreq. of iOcio). To throw, toss ; 
to aUcge, say, boaBt of. 


lACTUSA — nxTBn 

iactilra, ae, f. (tOeto). Athrow- 
ing, esp., ft throwlng ovcrboard ; 
loss, sncrifice. 

iactos, t», m. (tdcto). A cast- 
ing, tbrowing. 

i&cjfi&trix, iof, f. (tdcfifor). 
Sbe that hnrls. 

i&clilor, arit Stua «um, y. dep. 
{idcUlum), To tbrow the jayelin ; 
to throw, cast, harl. 

iftcfilam, t, n. {iOeio). A dart, 

iam, adv. Now, at this or that 
time, already, premntly. 

iam-dAdnm, ady. At thin t!me 
and for a long time previoaflly, 
now for a long time. 

IfipetlSiiIdes, M, m. {Tdfiiiua, 
the name of a Titan). Son of la- 

Ibi, adv. (t»). There, in that 
place. then, tberenpon. 

Icftrns, t, m. A son of Daedft- 

Ico, gre, ici, ictum, y. tr. To 
strike, smlte, hit. 

ictas, tM, m. (fco). Stroke, 
blow, thrust 

Ida, €te, or Ide, ««, f. A monn- 
in Phrygia, near Troy. 

Idaeus, a, um, a^j. (Ida). Of 
or belOnging to Mt. Ida, Idean. 

id-circo, adv. {drca). For that 
reason, tberefore. 

Idem, eftdem, Idem, dem. 
pron. {13, and dem. saffix -dem), 
The same. 

Idoneaa, a, um, acij. Fit, sait- 
able, capable, proper, sofflcient; 
descrving, worthy. 

iScor, iecdris, iSeindria, and/ff- 
etndria, n. Tbe liver. 

ieifininm, t, n. {iSitinua, hnn- 
gry). Fasting, hunger. 

igitar, coig. Thcrefore, then, 

lirnftnis, a, tffn, a4j. (m, ptSk 
rua, from g-noaeo). Ignorant of, 
inexpericnced, anawure ; nu- 
known, obscnre. t 

icrnftyia, ae, f. {iffndvua). In- 
activity, slotb, cowardice. 

ignftyns, a, um, adj. {in, ff-no' 
rua, active). Inactive, siothfal, 
slaggish, cuwardlyt 

ignliisr, ira, Srum, a^). («^niff 
fgro). Fire-bearing, fiery. 

i^nis, ia, m. Fire, heat, light- 
ning, passion, splendor, brilliancy, 
Instre, glow. 

igndbllis, e, adj. (tn, ff^ne^H»), 
Unknuwn, undistingnished, ob- 

igndmlnia, ae, f. {in, ff-no- 
men). Dlsgrace, dishonor, igno- 

ignftrfttio, onia, f. (t^7i5ro). 
Want of knowledge, i<morance. 

ignoro, are, avi, attm, y. tr. and 
intr. {iffnarua). Not to know, be 
ignorant of. 

ignosco, gre, novi, notum,Y. tr. 
{in, ff-noaco). To pardon, foiigiyoi 
excusc, overlook. 

igndtas, a, um, a4j. (m» ff-no- 
tua). XJnlmown, base, low-boniy 

ilex,teia,f. Tbeholm-oak. 

Ilia, ium, n. plur. The flankfl. 

Ilidneas, ei, m. A son of 

ill&c, adv. In that direction. 

iile, illa, illad, dem. pron. 
Thut, hc, she, it. 

illlc, adv. (tVfe). Thcre. 

illinc, adv. {iUe). From that 
or yonder place, thence, on that 

illfic, adv. {ille). To that place 
yonder, thithcr. 

nif rii, orum, m. The lUyri- 



ImS^o, €ttis, f. Imitation, copy, 
image, liiceness, semblance, sliad- 
ow, phantom. 

imber, bris, m. A heavy or 
vlolent rain, a shower of rain. 

Imltor, ari, aius sum, v. dep. 
Toimitate, reprefient, copy, por- 

imm-. See inm-. 

immlneo, ere^ v. intr. (m, mr- 
fieo, to jut). To overhang, im- 
pend, threaten ; to be eager for. 

immnnis, e, a4j. (tn, muntu). 
Witbont offlce or dnty; free or 
exempt from ; inactive. 

implSrator, oris, m. (inp9ro), 
Commander-in-chief, leader, gen- 

impStro, are, ovt, Shtmf v. tr. 
(m, pdtro, to bring to pass). To 
acoomplish, effect, obtain, pro- 

impStus» us, [impgtif abl. for 
impitu, Ov. iii, 67.] m. (m, pdto). 
An attadL, assanit, impulse, vio- 
lence, vehemence, impetuosity, 

imns, a, tim, a4J. See infgrus. 

In, prep. with acc. and abl. 
Wlth the acc., Into; with the abl., 
in, on, or among. 

In&chldea, ae, m. A descen- 
dant of Inftchns, son of Oce&nus 
and Tethys. 

In-aeqn&lifl, «, acy. Uneven, 

In-&moenn8, a, um, a4j. Un- 
pleasant, disagreeable, gloomy. 

In-&nlma8, a, um, adj. {ani- 
ma), Lifeless, inanimate. 

Inftnis, e, adj. Empty, void, 
useless, vain, trivial, unsubstan- 
tial; as subs., Ino/M, t«, n. An 
empty space, a void. 

In-&r&tn8, u, «m, adj. {aro). 
Unploughcd» (kllow. 

inbecilJItas, a/t>, f. {inheciU 
Itu), Wcakness, helpIessneKS. 

iubecillns, a, um, udj. Weak, 
fecble, helpless. 

in-bellis, e, a(iy. {bellum). Un- 
warlike, unfit for wur. 

in-caleseo, gre, cdhn, v. incep. 
To grow warm or hot, become 
heated, glow; to kindle. 

iu-cedo, gre, cessi, cessum, v. 
tr. and intr. Tu march along, 
move forward, advunce. 

incendinm, t, n. {incendo, to 
set fire to). A burning, fire, con- 

inceptnm, t, n. {incipio). A 
beginning, undertaking. 

in-certns, a, um, adj. Uncer- 
tain, insecure, dim, doubtful, ir- 
resolute, hesitating. 

incesso, 6re, ivi, or cessi, v. tr. 
{incedo). To fall npon, attack. 

in-cldo, ire, cidi, easum, v. In- 
tr. {cddo). To fall into or upon ; 
to fall in with. 

in-cido, ire, cidi, cisum, v. tr. 
{caedo), To cut into, carve, in- 

in-clpio, gre, cepi, ceptum, v. 
tr. {cdpio). To begin, attempt. 

incisas, a, um, part. See ir^ 

in-clto, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
(freq. of cieo). To set in rapid 
motion ; toincite, encourage, spur 

in-clino, dre, avi, atum, v. tr. 
and intr. (root dlin-.). To bend 
or incline, lean, turn. 

in-clltns [-clfitns], a,um, acij. 
{clueo, to hear one'8 sclf ealled). 
Celebrated, renowned, famous. 

in-clndo, gre, st, sum, v. tr. 
{claudo). To shut up, Include ; to 
sheathe; to obstruct, hinder; to 
endose, finish, end. 



iB-€09iiItm, a, iim, a^j. (coy. 
notco), Untried, nnknown. 

iii-cdla, ae, m. aiid f. (edlo). 
An inlmbitant, resident. 

incomiiidde, adv. {ineommd' 
dtu). XJnaetLsonablyt unfortu- 

in-commSduiii, i, n. (tncom- 
mddut). Inconvenience, trouble, 

in-comm5dns, a, um, acy. In- 
convenient, troublesome, nnsait- 

in-compMte, adv. (eon, pd- 

no). Withont order, disordcrly. 

in-condltns, a, um, a4j. {eon' 

do). Wiiliout order, confused, 


in-consolftbnis, e, a^j. {eon- 

$dlor), Iiionsolaljle, ineurable. 

in-constantia, ae, f. Incon- 

stancy, ficklcncRS, inconsisfency. 

in-consnlte, adv. {eonsultus). 

Inconsiderately, nnadvisedly. 

in-credlbllis, e, ac^j. {credo). 

Incrediblc, that cnnnot be believed. 

incredlblllter, adv. {incredu 

htlia). Incredibly, extraordina- 


in-crSmentnin, i, n. {eresco). 
Orowth, increase. 

in-crfipo, are, ui, f^t/m, and 
avi, atum, v. tr. and intr. {eripo, 
to rattlc). To make a noise, rus- 
tle, rattle ; to reprove, npbraid. 

in-cresco, ire, evi, v. intr. To 
increase, angment. 

in-cQbo, m-e, ui, rfum, rarely 
avif dtum, v. intr. To lie in a 
place, lie upon. 

in-cnltus, a, um, adj. {cdlo). 
XJncultivated, rude, unadorned. 

in-eambo, gre, ui, {tum, v. in- 
tr. {cHbo). To lean or rccline np- 
dn ; to fall upon. 
in-curia, ae, f. {cHra). Care- 

lossness, want of care, n^lgence, 

in-cnrro, ire, eurri {citcurrt), 
curaum, v. intr. To run into, as- 
sail, rash at ; to huppen, occar. 

incnrso, are, aci, atum,Y. freq. 
{incurro). To run or dash ngainst. 
in-cursus, us, m. (incurro). A 
running a^ninst, assault, attack. 

in-cnrvo, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
To bend. 

in-CQSt5ditns, a, um, adj. {cm- 
todio, to gnard). Ungnarded, un- 

in-ciitio, ire, euasi, cua»um, v. 
tr. (guatio), To strike into, ex- 
cite, produce (terror). 

inde, adv. {is). From that 
place, thcnce, after that, then, 

in-deiectus, a, um, adj. {de- 
icio). Not thrown down. 

index, fcis, m. and f. {indteo), 
Of persons : an informer, discov- 
crer of things: a sign, indica- 

India, ae, f. India, extend- 
ing rrom the Indus to China. 

indlcinm, i, n. {index). A to- 
kcn, proof, disclosnre. 

in-dlco, ire, xi, etum, v. tr. 
To deciare publicly, annoance. 

in-dlco, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
(intens. of indico). To declare,. 
make known, show, manifest, re- 

indlg^ens, ntia, wdij. {indigeo), 
In want of, needy. 

indlgentia, ae, f. {indigena). 
Need, waiit. 

indlgeo, ere, ui, v. intr. {ifidu, 
archaic for in, igeo). Toneed, 
want, stand in need of, require. 

indignandas, a, um^ ac^. 
{indignor), To be deemed un- 



indignatio, dnt«, f. (indignor). 

Displensure, indignation. 

in-dignor, dri, atua sum, v. 
dep. {dignor^ to think worthy). 
To be angry or displeased at. 

in-dignnSy a, wm, adj. Un- 
worthy, nndcserving, unbecom- 
ing; intolefable ; severe, cruel. 

in-do, Bref didi, ditum, v. tr. 
To put into ; to impart, give to. 

in-doctns, a, um, aclj. Un- 
lcarncd, untaught, unsldlful. 

indoles, t«, f. («Wi^, archaic for 
t», OL-, grow). Natural quaJity, 
natural ahility, disposition. 

in-d51esco, ire, ddlui, v. incep. 
(dako). To feel pain, be grieved. 

in-ddmltns, a, um, adj. {d0- 
tno). Unsubdued, unrestrained. 

in-dotatns, a, um, adj. {dos). 
Unportioned, unendowed. 

in-dnco, ire, xi, ctum, v. tr. 
To lead, draw or bring intoor up- 
on ; to overspread ; to move, ex- 
cite, persu ide, induce. 

indnlfTCO, ere, ai, tum, v. .tr. 
and intr. To be kind to, bepleased 
with ; to cherish, indulge in. 

in-duo, Bre, ui, utum, v. tr. 
(root Du-, put). To put into, put 
on, clothe ; to assume. 

in-duresco, Sre, durui,Y. incep. 
{durus), To grow hard, become 
hard, harden. 

in-dujro, dre, dvi, dhm, v. tr. 
To make hard, harden. 

Indns, a, um, adj. Indian; 
83 subs. Indi, orum, m. Indians. 

Indns, i, m. A river of India, 
rising on the sonthem slope of the 
Paropamlsns {Hindu-Kuah), and 
emptying into the sea of Arabia. 

indnstria, ae, f. {indnstriu^, 
industrious).. Industry, diligence, 
assidnity; de induttrid, pnrpoae?. 
ly, intentionally. 

In-eo, ire, ivi (ii), itum, y. hr. 
Togo into, enter, begin, adopt; 
to engage in, enter on. 

In-ers, rtis, adj. {ara), Unskil- 
ful; inactive. idle. 

In-exercitatns, a, um, adj. (ex- 
erceo). Untrained, unpractised, 

In-expertus, a, um, adj. {ex- 
pSrior). Untried, unproved. 

in-expugnabllis, e, adj. {ex- 
pugno). That cannot be taken by 
assanlt ; thatcannot be rooted out. 

inf amia, cte, f. {infdmis, dis- 
leputable). Infamy, disgrace. 

in-ifaustns, a, um, adj. (faus^ 
^, favorable). Unlucky, unfor- 

in-fectQs, a, um, adj. {fOcio). 
Unperformed, unfinished. 

in-felix, icis, adj. Unhappy, 

in-fensus, a, um, adj. (root 
FEND-, strike). Hostile, inimical. 

inf Srior, xm, at^j. See infSrus. 

infernns, a, um, a4j. (strcngth- 
ened form of infirus). Lower, 
underground, infemal. 

in-f Sro, ferre, tnU, Idtum, v. 
irr. To bring into or against, 
bring forward, introduce ; to in- 
flict ; bellum, to wage. 

infSrns, a,um, comp. infgrior, 
sup. infimus or imtis, ac^. What 
is below, the lower ; underground, 
infemal ; ad infSros, to the lower 

infestns, a, um, adj. Hostile ; 
nnsafe, distnrbed, molested. 

in-f loio, »re, feci, fectum, v. 
tr. {f&oio). To stain, dye, color ; 
to spoil, corrupt. 

in-fidus, a, um, ac^j. Faith- 
less, treacherous. 

in-flnitus, a,um, adj. {finio). 
Boandless, conntless, infinite. 



inilniillas, SH$, f. {injirmvs). 
Weakness, fecbleness, infirmitj. 

in-firmas» a, um, a4). Wcak, 
fBcbte, inflrm. 

in-fltior» Sri, Shu tum, y. dep. 
(fateor). To deny, disown. 

in-flamino, Srs, Sci, Stvm, y. 
tr. (Jlamma), To 8et on fire, kin- 
dle, exdte. 

in-flo, Sn, avi, Sium^Y. tr. {Jh, 
to blow). To blow Into or npon, 

in-flno, ire, xi, xum, y. intr. 
To flow into ; to steal into. 

infrft, ady. comp. in/iriut. 
liOwer, farther down ; and prep. 
wltli acc {infSra, sc parte), Be- 

in-fractas, a, um, a4|. {Jran- 
go). Brolcen, bent. 

in-fando, ire,fudi, fueum, y. 
tr. To ponr into, poar in. 

in-gSmisco, ire, gimui, y. tr. 
and intr. (incep. of ggmo), To 
groan or sigh oyer 

in-gSmo, ire, «*, y. tr. and in- 
Ir. To groan or sigh oyer, la- 
ment, bcwail. 

in-irSniam, i, n. (root oen-, 
prodnce). Natural disposition, 
chanicter, genias, talents, ability ; 
a genius, a man of genius. 

in-gens, ntis, snp. wanting, a^. 
(root OEN-, prodnce). Hage, pro- 
digions, great. 

in^enans, a, um, a^. (root 
OBN-, prodace). Injiate, nataral ; 
free-bom, worthy of a &eeman, 
poble, upright. 

in-g^ro, 9re, geeai, gestum, y. 
tx. To Garry, pat or pour into or 
apon ; to hurl. 

in-grAtas, a, um, a^j. XTn- 
pleasant, disagreeable ; angrate- 
|i>-pr|lrcsco, ^«, y. incep. 

(^ro). To grow heayy» beoome 

in-grSdior, t, gressue tum, y. 
dep. ( grddior), To go into, enter, 
enternpon; to.walk, adyance, go 

in-grno, 9re, ui, y. intr. ( g-ruo), 
To rash upon, assail, atmck. 

In-li&bni8« e, acy. {habtlie^ fit). 
Unmanageable, nnwieldy. 

In-hlbeo, ire, m', ttum, y. tr. 
{hdbeo), To keep back, restnua, 
hinder, preyent. 

In-hum&ne, ady. {kHmanue), 
Craellj, inhnmanly. 

In-hjim&nltas, atie, f. Inhu- 
man oonduct, chnrlishness. 

In-hfimftnns, o, um, adj. In- 
human, rnde, sayage ; nnmanner- 
ly, nnpoUshed, diarlish, ill-brcd, 

In-iens, euniia, part. See tneo; 
aetaa, early, yonthful. 

in-icio [injlcio], »•«, Om, 
iectum, y. tr. {idcio), To throw 
on, fn, or Into ; to lay apon. 

tnlmicltia, ae, f. {itamicu»), 
Enmity, unfriendliness, Hostiii^. 

In-Imicas, a, um, a4|. {SmU 
eut), Hostile, unfHendly, iniml- 
cal, injurions ; as sabs. An ene- 
my, a foe. 

In-iqaaa, a, um, a^). {aequue), 
Uneqnal, uneyen, nnfair, adyerse, 
hostile, unkind ; impatient, repin- 
ing, discontcnted. 

Inltiam, t, n. {ineo), An en* 
trance, beginning; Mltia, secret, 
sacred rites ; inttio, abl. used ad- 
verbially: in the beginning, at 

iniuria, aet f. {iniuriua, wrong- 
fVil). Injiiry, wrong^ yiolence, af- 
front, damage. 

In-inssns, ua [only in the abj.J, 
m* (ilibeo), Withont the command. 



In-instQs, a, t<m, a^j. Uignst, 
wrongfal, harsh, severe, anreason- 
able, oppressive. 

in-laciimo, are, avi, aium, v. 
intr. (tocrima). To weep at or 
over, bcwail, lament. 

inlScSbra, oe, f. (iti&cio, to al- 
lure). Enticement, attraction, 
chann, lure. 

in-lido, gre, lisi, Hsum, v. tr. 
{laedo), To strikc or dash against, 
beat against or npon. 

in-llno, ire, levi, ^ftum, y. tr. 
{ilxtOt to besmear). To smear, 

in-lucescOy Bre, luxi, t. incep. 
iKufeo)» To grow light, dawn. 

in-ludo, ire, luai, Utaum, v. tr. 
Hnd intr. To jccr at, mnke game 
of, ridicale ; to scoff, mock at. 

in-lustris, e, adj. (root luc-; 
cf. lux). Bright, illustrious, fa- 
mons, distinguished ; lustruus, 

itt-lnstrOy are, ain, SHtm, v. tr. 
{luetro, to make light). Tu light 
np, clear up, explain; to render 

in-mlidesco, gre, dui, v. incep. 
[oply in the perf.]. To bccome 
wet or moist. 

tn-manis, e, adij. (root ma-, 
whence magnua), Huge, vast, 
monstrous, savage, frightiul, in- 

inmftnltaSt atia, f. (inmwiie). 
Hugeness, vastness ; enormity, 

in-mSmor, <3fn>, adj. Unmind- 
ful, forgetful, regardless. 

in-mensns, a, um, adj. {me- 
tior). Vast, immense, immeasnr- 
able. As snbs., inmensum, i, n. 

inmSrlto, adv. {inmiritua), 
Undeservedly, nqjustly. 

in-mSrltns, a, um, adj- {mg- 
reor), Undcserving, guiltless, in- 

inmissio, onis, f. (inmitto). A 
letting in, in^Tafting. 

in-mltis, e, a^j. Harsh, rough, 
severe, stem, inexorable, fierce. 

in-mitto, Hre, misi, miaaum, v. 
tr. To let in, send in or upon, 
place in ; to incite, hasten ; to let 
grow nnrestratned or wi!d ; habe" 
naa, to slacken, give ; capillos, to 
leave unshorn or untrimmed ; se 
inmittere, to thruw one's seif upon. 

in-mddSr&tns, a, um, adj. 
Measureless ; unrestrained, unbri- 
dled, immoderate. 

in-modlcus, a, um, a^j. £x- 
cessive, extravagant. 

in-morior, i, mortuua sum, v. 
dep. To die in or upon. 

in-mortalis, e, aJj. Immortah 

inmortailtas, atis, f. (inmor- 
talis), Immortality, undying re- 
nown, fmperishableness. 

in-m5tns, a, um, adj. {mdveo). 
Unmoved, immovabie, unshaken, 

iu-mnrmiiro, are, avi, atum, v. 
intr. To murmiir at or ngainst. 

in-muto, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
To change, alter. 

in-natns, a, um, part. {in-naa* 
cor). Asadj. Innate, natnral. 

in-necto, gre, xui, xum, v. tr. 
{necto, to bind). To join, tie or 
fasten to, together, or about. 

in-nitor, i, niaue or nixua afim, 
Y, dep. To lean or rest upon ; to 
snpport one*8 self by. 

in-n5cuns, a, um, adj. {ndceo). 
Harinless, inoifensivc, innocent. 

in-nfimSrabllis, e, adj. {numg' 
ro), Numbcrless. 

in-ntfmSrns, a, um, acy. Num- 
berless, countless. 


InSpla, ae, f. {fnopt). Wmt, 
scarcity.; need, indijrcnoe. 

lu-ops, dpis, a4|. Destitate, 
needy, indi^ent ; without power, 

In-ornfttiis, a, tim, a<^. Un- 

iup-. See imp-. 

in-par, drU, sidj, Uneqoal. 

inpSdimentnm, •', n. {inpidio). 
A hindcrance, impe4iment ; plar., 
ittpidimenta, orum, n. Trayel- 
Hng equipage, luggrtge, esp. the 
baggage of an army, inciuding 
the Ijcaata of burden and their 

in-pSdio, ire, iti (ti), itum, v. 
tr. (pes). To hinder, obstruct, 

in-pello, ire, pali, ptUaumy v. 
tr. To piish, drive or strilie 
against ; to set in motion, nrge on, 
impei ; to incite, instigate, stimu- 
late, pcr^iuade. 

in-pendeo, «re, v. tr. and intr. 
To overhang, impend, tiireaten, 
be imminent. 

in peratam, t, n. {inpgro). 
That which is commanded, a com- 
m:md, order. 

ini>erito, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
and intr. (intens. of inpiro), To 
govcm, rule, command. 

in-pSritns, a, tim, ac^. Inex- 
perienced in, not knowing, unac- 
quainted with, unsl&illed, igno- 

inpSrinm, t, n. {inpero). Or- 
der, command; control, sway, 
authority, power ; sovereignty, do- 
minion, realm, empire, l^ingdom. 

in-pSro, drCf art, dtumf v, tr. 
{pdro). To put upon, irapose as 
a burden ; hence, to order, enjoin, 
command, rule, govern, control. 

in-pertio, ire, ivi (u), Uumf v. 

tr. {partio, to shaie). To share 
witli, impart. 

in-pietas, a^'«, f. Want of 
reverence, impiety, nngodliness. 

in-pina, o, tim, a^). Irreverent, 
wicked, impious, undutifnl, un- 

in-pleo, eref ert, etum, v. tr. 
{pleOf obs., to fill). To fill up, fill 
fuil; to impregnate; to fulfil, 
discbarge, execute, perform. 

in-pllco, are, avi, atum, and 
ta, ttum, V. tr. {pkco, to fold).<To 
infold, entwine, entangle, impli- 
cate, envclop, engage ; to connect 
intimately, unite, assoeiate, join. 

in-ploro, are, aoi, atum, v. tr. 
{pioro, to cry aloud). To im- 
plore, besecch, invoke. 

in-pono, ire, pdsui, pdsftum, 
V. tr. To place, lay or put in' or 
upon ; manum ultimam, to paton 
the finishing touch. 

in-portiinltas, atia, f, {inpor- 
tOnus, unfit). Unfitness ; unman- 
nerliness, mdeness, incivility. 

in-pdtens, ntie, a^). Pow^ 
less, impoteut, not master of one'8 
self. " 

* in-primis, adv. {primus), Jn. 
the first place, chiefly, especially. 

in-primo, dre, prestif pressum, 
V. tr. {prgmo), To press in or 
upon, impress, imprint. 

in-pr5bas, a, um, a6j, Bad, 
inmioral, base» corrupt; immod- 

in-proTldns, a, t<m, acy. {pro' 
video). Not foreseeing, improvi- 

in-plidenter, adv. {inpitdensj 
shameless). Sbamelessly, impn- 

inpnlsns, us, m. {inpetto), Im- 
pulse, thrust, effort. 

in-parns, a,, um^ (^* Unclean, 



impnre, nnchftste, infamoas, Tile, 

in-pfito, are^ avi, atum, v. tr. 
To set down into the account ; to 
attribate, ascribe, rcckon. 

inqaam, or inquio, is, t^, ▼. 
def. To say. 

inquino, aref avi, atum, t. tr. 
To pollute, defile. 

in-qniro, ire, sivi, »Uum, v. tr. 
(quaero). To seek or inqnire af- 
ter ; patrios in annos, to inqnire 
how long bis father has to live. 

inr-. See irr-. 

ih-reqnietns, a, um, adj. {re- 
^ies). Never resting, unqniet, 

in-rldeo» ere^ rUi, risum, v. tr. 
and intr. To laugh at, joke, jecr ; 
to mock, ridicule, scorn. 

inrlgatio, onis, f, (inrigo, to 
water). A watering, irrigating. 

inritamentnm, t, n. {inrUo). 
Incitcment, incentive. 

inrito, are, avi, atum, t. tr. 
To proToke, incite, excite, stimu- 

in-rltnii, a, um, a^j. (ratus). 
Invalid, of no effcct ; vaiii, nse- 
less, ineffectual. 

in-roro, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
To moisten or wet with dew ; to 
besprinkle, wct. 

in-rompo, ire, rupi, ruptum, 
T. tr. and intr. To break, burst, 
or rush in or upon. 

insania, ae, f. (insantts). Mad- 
ness, frenzy, foliy, raving. 

in-sanas, a, um, a^j. (sanus, 
sound). Mad, raving; enraptared, 

in-scins, a, um, adj* (scio). 
Not knowing, ignorant, of, uncon- 

in-8cribo, 8re, psi, ptum, v. tr. 
To writo in or npon, inscribe. 

indector, ari, atus sum, t. dep. 
(freq. of insiquor). To pnrsue ; 
to censnrc, blame, inveigh against, 

in-sSqnor, i, cutus sum, v. dep. 
To foUow, follow aftcr. 

in-sSro, 8re, tit, tum, v. tr. (s8- 
ro, to join). To put, bring, or in- 
troduce into ; to insert ; se ins&r- 
Sre, to engage in. 

in-sldeo, ere, sedi, sessum, t. 
intr. (sddeo). To slt upon, settle 

insldiae, arum, f. (instdeo). 
Ambush, ambuscade, snares ; any 
plot, device, or artifii e. 

in-signis, e, adj. (sifjntum). 
Distinguished by a maik, strik- 
ing, remarkable, extraordinary, 
distinguishcd, eniinent. 

in-slnno, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
and intr. To introduce by wind- 
ings or tumings ; se, to ingratiate 
or insinuate one's scif. 

in-slpiens, ntis, ndj. (sdpiens). 
Unwise, scnseless, foolish. 

inslpienter, ndv. (inHpiens), 
Unwisely, foolishly. 

in-sisto, ire, stiti, t. tr. and 
'intr. To stand or ti-ead upon; 
superfluctus, to hovcr over. 

insltio, onis, f. (tit^^ro). Au 
ingrafting, grafting. 

in-sdlens, ntis, a^j. (sdleo). 
Contrary to cnstom ; haughty, ar- 
rogant, insolent. 

in-somnia, ae, f. (insomnis, 
sleepless). Sleeplessness, want of 

in-s5no, dre, ta, v. intr. To 
sound loudly, resound, roar. 

in-spiro, dre^ dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
and intr. To blow into or upon. 

in-st&bllis, 0, acy. Unstable, 
not flrm, nusteady, tottering. 
1 in8tar,indecl.n. Besembhinee, 



imiige, llkenen, manner, fom, 
flKure ; with tlie gen.., like. 

in-etillo, are, avi, atumf y. tr. 
{ttiUa, a drop). To pour in by 
drops; toinstil. 

in-stltoo, iret tit» &wn^ ▼. tr. 
{atatuo), Toinstitnte, establish; 
to instruct, train up, educate. 
'inelltatom, i, n. {imtttuo), An 
arrangeinent, plan or mode of life ; 
an ordiuanou, institution; pur- 
poee; intention. desisin; instiuc- 
tion, inculctited principles. 

in-sto, are, tttti, v. tr. and intr. 
To press on, dniw nigh, be at 
hand ; to urge upon, insist, pursue. 

in-8trno, ire, xi, vtum, v. tr. 
To build, construct ; to prepare, 
fkimish ; to teach, in^truct. 

in-suAvis, e, ad^. Unpleasant, 
dis.iinrceuble. . 

iusllla, ae, f. An island. 

insnlto, ore, ati, atum, v. tr. 
and intr. (freq. of ineiHo, to leap 
upon). Tospring or leap at or 

in-snm, «Me, fui, v. irr. To 
be in or npon ; to belong or ap- 
pertain to. 

in-tAbesco, irefhui, v. Intr. To 
wa»te away by dcgrees, pine uway. 

in-tactuM, a, um, adj. {tango), 
Untouched, uniixjured^ 

in-tSger, gra, grum, comp. 
'tigrior, sup. intdgerrimut, a/dj. 
(root TAO-, tango). Unhurt, en- 
tire, whole; blameless, pure, ir- 
reproachable, spoUess. 

iutfigrltas, Stia, f. (intgger). 
Innocence, blamelessness, integri- 
ty ; soundness, vigor. 

intellSgo, ire, xi, ctum, v. tr. 
{ifUer, ligo, ire), To choose be- 
tween ; to perceive, discern, nn- 
derstand, oomprehend, know ac- 
curately ; to distinguish. 

in-temp6rani, nOs, ad^ (fem- 
piro, to restrain). Prodigate, in- 
oontinent, debauched; intemper- 

intempSranter, adv. («ntem- 
pirana). Immoderately, iatem- 

intempCrantia, a«, f. {miem' 
pirana). Want of moderation, 
iubolenoe, in^nbordinatioii. 

in-tempSratna, o, «m, adj. 
{tempiro, to restrain). Immod- 
erate, intemperate, ill-TeguIatcd. 

in-tempestivus, a, tcm, ac^. 
Untimely, unseasonable, inoppor- 

in-tendo, ire, di^ ftmandnfm, 
V. tr. To stretch out, stretch ; to 
tnrn, bend, direct one's coiirse. 

intentns, a, um, part. See t»- 
iendo. As atiy. Bent, stretched, 
intent npon. 

inter, prep. with the acc. (tn). 
Betwcen, among, amid; interee, 
reciprocally, mutuaUy, one with 

inter-cedo, ire, eesai, ceanan, 
V. intr. To intervene, occur, 
oome to pass. 

inter-elpio, ire, c^, eeptum, 
V. tr. {cdj^io). To intercept, ap- 
propriate, steaL 

inter-cludo,^0, m, eum, v. tr. 
{claudo). To shut in ; to stop. 

inter-dlco. ire, xi, ctum, v. tr. 
To forbid, prohibit, interdict. 

inter-dnm, adv. Sometimes, 
occasionally, now and then. 

inter-eA, adv.(t>). Meanwhile, 
in the mean time. 

intSr-eo, ire, ii, ttum, v. Iir. 
To he lost ; toperish. 

interfector, orit, m. {intetft- 
cio), A slayer, murderer. 

inter-f icio, ire, fed, feetum, 
V. tr. {/dcio). To dcstro7, slay. 



inter-flno, ire, ar», t. intr. To 
flow between, flow throagh the 
midst of. 

iutSr-Imo, ire, emi, *emptum, 
T. tr. {gmOf in the orig. sent>e of 
to take). To take out of the 
midst of ; to kill, destroy. 

intSrior» usf gcn. drt>, positiTC 
wanting, Btip,inf{mus, n^j. {inter). 
Inner, interior ; less known. As 
subs.y irUinora, um, n. The in- 
terior, inland parts of a country. 

intgrltns, us, m. {intBreo), 
Destruction, ruin, annihilation, 

intSrins, adT. Comp. of intra, 

inter-llno, ire, Uvi, ktum, t. 
tr. {&no, to besmear). To smear 

inter-missio, onis, f. {mitto). 
luterruption, discontinuance. 

inter-nodinm, i, n. {nodua), 
The space bctween two knots or 
Joints, an intemode or joint. 

inter-nosco, ire, ndvi, notumf 
T. tr. To distinguish, discern. 

inter-pdno, gre, pOsui, pdsi- 
tum, T. tr. To plaoa between, in- 

interinres, gtit, m, and f. An 
explainer, expounder, interpreter. 

interprStor, ari, atua eum, t. 
dep. {interprea), To cxplain, ex- 
pound, intcrprct. 

in-terrltu8, a, um, a^j. {terreo), 
Undismaycd, undaunted, untcrri- 

inter-rdgo, are, avi, atum, t. 
tr. To iu-iuii-c, ask. 

inter-snm, esse, fui, t. irr. To 
be or lie l)ctwcen, intervene ; to 
be prescnt; to take part in; as 
impcrs., intereat, it concems, is of 

inter-Tallum, t, n. Prop., the 
space between the ramparts of a 

camp and the soldiers' tents; 
spacc between, inteiTal, distance. 

in-texo, gre, xui, xtum, t. tr. 
To weave into, interlaco. 

intlbnm, i, n. Chicory. 

intlmns, a, um. Sce intSrior, 

in-tolSrabliis, e, acy. Insup- 
portabie, intolerable. 

in-toierandns, a, um, a^). 
{talero), Insupportabie, iutoier- 

in-tono, ore, u» {Sm), Stum, t. 
tr. and intr. {tdno, 'to thunder). 
To thunder. 

itt-tonsns, a, um, acy. Un- 
shom, unshaven. 

in-torqueo, ere, torai, tortum, 
T. tr. To twine, twist; to hurl; 

intrS, adv. and prep. with acc 
{interd, sc. parte). On the inside; 
in the midst, within. 

in-tractatus, a, um, acy. {trac- 
to). Untamcd, nnbroken. 

in-tr6mo, Sre, ui, v. intr. To 
tremble, shake, quake. 

in-trepldus, a, um, a^j. Not 
frightened, uhdannted. 

intro, adT. Within. 

intro, are, Svi, Stum, t. tr. (t>i- 
tra). To enter, go in. 

intro-«o, ire, ivi {ii), itum, t. 
irr. To go into, enter. 

introltus, ua, m. {introeo), An 
entering, entrance. 

in-tneor, eri, tuitua aum, t. dep. 
To look at or upon, see ; to con- 
template, considcr, obserTc. 

intus, adv. (m). Within. 

In-uudo, are, avi, atum, t. tr. 
and intr. {unda). To OTcrflow, in- 

In-usltfttns, a, um, ar^. Un- 
usual, nncommon, extraordinary. 

In-utUis, e, aty. Usciess, hurt- 

in-vftdo, ^e, vSai, vaattm, T. tr. 


and intr. To go intr>, enter; to 
Bnsault, make an attack npon. 

in-v£ho, ire, vexi, rectum, t. 
tr. :ind intr. Tu carry or brlng in 
or intc> ; to rldc, drive, sail, etc. ; 
to auack with words, iuveigh 

in-venio, ire, vini, ventttmf ▼. 
tr. To come upon ; to find, mect 
with, ditfoover ; to find oat, con- 

inventnm, t, n. {irwinio). A 
devictf, contrivance, iuvcntion. 

in-verto, ire, ti, sum, ▼. tr. To 
tum upside down ; to change, in- 

in-vetSro, Sre, avi, Stum, y. 
tr. (rgtus). To rcnder old; in 
pas8., to become old. 

in-vlcem. See vicit. 

in-victns, a, um^ ac^. (rinco). 
Uiiconquercd, unconqaerable, in- 

in-vldeo, ere, ridi, risum, v. tr. 
To look Bpitefully at; to envy, 
grudge ; to refuse, denj. 

invidia, ae, f. {invidua). Envy, 
Jcalousy ; unpopnlarlty, odium. 

invldidans, a, um, adj. (tn- 
vidia). Envious, envied, hateful, 
odious, arrogant. 

invldus, a, «n», a4). {itwtdeo). 
Envions, unfavorable. 

inviolate, adv. (invidlatua). 

iu-vioiatas, a, um, ac^. {vidlo), 
Unhurt, unii\)ured. 
- iuvisus, a, um, a^j. {invtdeo). 
Hated, hateful. 

invito, o/e, avi, atum^ v. tr. 
To ask, invite, allure, attract 

invitus, a, um, adj. UnwlII- 
ing, reluctant, against onc's will. 

iu-vius, CT, wm, adj. {via). Path- 
less, impassdble. 

iu-voco, are, am, atum, v. tr. 
To call upon, address, invoke. 

in-Tolvo, ire, volvi, vdRUwn, ▼. 
tr. To roli to or npon ; to wrap 
np, envelop. 

ipse, Ipsa, ipsom, gen. ipHuSt 
dem. pron. (ta and the snfflx -pse). 
Self, very, identical, just, exactlj. 

Ira, ae, f. Anger, ra.!?e. 

ir&cnndia, ae, f. {iracundus). 
Hastiness of temper, iraacibility. 

iracundns, a, um, adj. {ira). 
Irascible, urritable, choleric. 

irascor, t, — , v. dep. {ira). To 
be angry, be in a rafre. 

irAtus, a, um, acjj. {ira). An- 
gry, enraged. 

Iris, is and tdis,, f. Iris, the 
daujzhter of Th.turoas and Elec- 
tra, the sistcr of the Harpies, and 
messenger of the gods. 

irr-. Sce inr-. 

Is, ea, id, dem. pron. He, sbe, 
it ; thi», that,. such ; eo — qw, with 
comp.iratives, the — the. 

Ism&rius, a, um, adj. {IsmO' 
rtts, a mountain in Thrace). Of 
Ism&rus, Ismarian. 

Ism§ni8, idis, f. {Ismino»). A 
Theban woman. 

Ismenos, t, m. A son of Nidbe. 

Ismenos, t, m. A rlver near 
Thebes in Bocotia. 

Isocr&tes, is, m. A celebrated 
orator and teacher of rhetoric at 
Aihcn^ a pupil of Gorgias and 
friend of Plato. 

isse, for ivisse. See eo, 

iste, ista, istnd, dem. pron. 
(is, -te). That of yours, that near 
you, this, that. 

istic, istaec, istoc or istnc, 
dem. pron. {iste, hic), This same, 
that (jf yours. 

istinc, fldv. (istic). From the 
placc where you are, thence. 

tta, adv. {fs). So, thus. 

Itfi.llcn8, a, um, a^j. {Italia), 
Italic, Italian. 



Italia, aet f. {iTaXd^, a bull, on 
account cf tlie abundance and 
exccllcnce of its horned cattle). 

Ita-qne, conj. And tben,.and 
so, Ihcrcforc. 

Xtem, adv. (ia), Just so, like- 

iter, mnSria, n. {eo). A jour- 
ncy, road, way, passage. 

ItSro, dre, avif atumy v. tr. {itS' 
rum). To rcpeat. 

itigriiin, adv. {is, with the com- 
parativo sufiflx). A se<^ud timc, 

iiiba, ae, f. The mane of a 

iQbeo, ere^ ittsatf iusaum, v. tr. 
To ordcr, command, bid, tell. 

iucunde, adv. {iucundus). i 
Agieenbly, pleasantly. I 

iucuudltas, dtis, f. {iUcundus). ! 
Agreeableness, pleasantness, de- 1 
light, enjoyment, cheerfulness, 

iucundus, a, «m, a^j. {i&vo). 
Agreeable, pleasant, deligbtful. 

iudex, icis, m. {iadtco). A 

iudlcium, t, n. {iudex). A ju- 
dicial investigation, trial ; judg- 
ment, decision, opinion. 

iudlco, dre, di>i, dtum, v. tr. 
{iu8, dico, dre, to pronounce). To 
judgc, decide; to declare, pro- 

iiigatio, onis, f. {i&ffo, to join). 
A binding, joining (to rails, lat- 
ticcs, etc). 

iugSrum, i, n. A jnger, a 
piece of land 240 feet in length 
by 120 in breadth; mcasuring 
28,800 square feet, whereas the 
£ng. acre measures 43,560 square 

iligttlnm, i, n. (ivo-, iungo). 
The collar-bone, throat. 

ifignm, i, n. (iro-, itmgo). A 
yoke, puir; a height o'r summit 
of a mountain, a ridge, peak. 

ijimentum, i, n. (for iu^umen- 
tum, frora luo-, iungo). A beast 
used for drawing or carrying ; a 
beast of burden. 

innctus, a, ttm, part. See iun- 
go. As a^j. Unitcd, connected. 

iungo, Sre, iunxi, iunctum, v. 
tr. (root lUG-). To yoke, join to- 
gethcr, join, unite, hamess. 

iunior, ius, gen. orie. See tif- 

luno, onis, f. Juno, thc daiigh- 
ter of Satum and Bhea, sisterand 
wife of Jupiter. 

lunonius, a, um, adj {luno). 
Of or belonging to Juno, Juno- 

Inpplter, Idris, m. Jupitcr, or 
Jove, son of Saturn, brother and 
hiishand of Juno; thc chief god 
among the Romans. 

iurgium, i, n. {iurgo). A quar- 
rel, strife, dispute. 

iurgo, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. and 
intr. {iure, from ius, dgo). To 
proceed at law ; to quarrel, blame, 

iuro, dre, avi, dtum, v. tr. and 
intr. {ius). To swear; to swear 

iuris-consnltns, t, m. One 
learned in the law, a lawyer. 

ins, iuris, n. (akin to inbeo). 
Ri.irht, law, justice, equity, power, 
authority ; privilege, faculty ; ahL 
iure, as adv., justly, fairly, equl- 

ius-iurandum, iUrisiurandi, 
n. {iuro). An oath. 

iussum, i, n. {iHbeo). An or- 
der, command. 

iussus, us [used only in abl., 
iussu], m {iabeo). An order, com- 



iante, adT. {tuaiiui^ Jnsily, 

iastlUa, eu, f. (iuaiua), Jastice, 
eqoit/; moderation, clenieiicy. 

iastns, a, «m, n<V|. (tta). Law- 
fiil, right, ju8t, proper, suitablo. 

ijlrenca, ae, f. {iUveneH»). A 
young cow, heifer. 
' illvencas, t\ m. (iMniM). A 
youug bullock, steer. 

illrenilis, e, ac^. {Htcims). 
Tonthfnl, yonng ; strong. 

iaTfinlllter, adv. (lAr^ntiw). 
Tonthfully, atter the manncr of 

iavfiiiis, «, comp. iUnior, snp. 
supplied by mfniinua nSiUf atiy. 
Tuung, yonthfnl. As suIjs., ttfrif- 
fwj, w, m. and f. A young per- 
8on, a youth ; tuniorea, the yonng- 
er (men, soldiers, etc.). 

iarenta, ae, f. {iHrinia). The 
age of yoiitb, youth. 

ittveBtas, uHa, f. {iiMma). The 
aeiison of youth, youth ; by me- 
ton., the yonth, yonng persons. 

iavo, are, iuvi, iuium, t. tr. 
and intr. To heip, aid, snpport, 
bene6t; to deliprht, gnitify; as 
impers., iltvat, it dellghts, pleases. 
' iaxt&, adv. and prep. with acc 
Nigh, near to, hy the side of. 

Ixion, dnia, m. A king of the 
LapTthae in Thessaly, and father 
of Pirithous. For his crimes he 
was hurled into Tartftrus, where 
he was bound fast to a perpetnal- 
ly revolving wheeL 


Karthftgo, fnia, f. Cartha<:;e, 
a city of Northem Africa, whose 
mins are in the vicmity ofTunia. 

L., abbreviation for Lncins. 

l&MS-facio, ere, feci, faetum^ 
paBS.tfiOf ftri, factua aum, \. tr. 
{Utbo). To sliake, looscn, weaken ; 
to cauiie to totter. 

l&bSlacto, are, ari, atum, v. 
tr. (freq. of labifdcio). To slutke, 
loosen, weaken ; to causc to totter. 

l&bes, ia, f. {labor). A fall; 
blot, stain, mischicf. 

l&bo, are, ari, atum, ▼. inb*. 
(akin to labor), To totter, waver; 
navea, to roll from side to side. 

Ifibor, i, lapatta aum, v. dep. To 
slip down, fall, glide down; to 
pass away. 

l&bor, -os, OTM, m. Labor, toil, 
fatigne, hardship, struggle, dis- 

I&bdro, are, 3ri, atum, ▼. tr. 
and intr. {labor), To exert one'8 
self, labor, strive, take pains ; to 
be in difflcnity, danger or dis- 

lac, laetia, n. Miik. 

li&cedaemoD, dnia, f, Tbe 
city of Lacedaemon, or Sparta. 

L&cSdaemdBias, a, um, adj. 
{LOcidaemon). Lacedaemonian, 

l&cer, ira, 9rum, a<y. Man- 
glcd, mutilated, tom. 

l&cero, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
{Idcer). To tear in pieces, tear, 

I&certa, A«, f. Alizard. 

lacertdsus, a, um, adj. {Idcer» 
tua). Muscuiar, brawny, power- 

l&certas, i, m. The npperarm, 
the arm. 

I&cesso, ire, ivi {ii), Uum, v. 
tr. (intens. of Idcio, to entice). To 
provoke, attacic 



IScrlma, oe, f. A tear. . 

l&crlmabUis, e, acy. {laorima). 
"Worthy of tears, lamentabie. 

lacrlmosns, a, um, adj. {Idc- 
rfma), Full of tears, tearful ; tear- 

lacus, us, m, A lake, basin, 
tank, cistem. 

laedo, ere, si, aumf To 
strike; to iixjure, hurt, damage; 
to vex, offend. 

Laelins, t, m. Cains Laelius. 
See page 227. 

Laenas, a£ta, m. P. Popflius 
Laenas, consul witli P. Bupilius, 
B. C. 132. 

L&ertes, ae, m. King of Ith&- 
ca, father of Ulixes. 

laetabllis, e, a^j. {laetor), Joy- 
fnl, glad. 

laetor, ari, ahu n<m, v. dep. 
(laetiu), To rejuice, be joyful or 

laetns, a, «m, a^J. Joyful, 
cheerful, glad ; luxuriant. 

laevns, a, um, adj, Left, on 
the left hand; ill-omened. As 
subs., laeva, ae, f, (sc mdnut), 
The left hand, the left 

lambo. gre, bi, v. tr. (root lab-, 
whence perhaps lalna, a lip). To 
lick, lap. 

lamentnm, i [usuallj plural], 
n. A wailing, moaning, weeping. 

lamlna, ae, f. A thin piece of 
metal, wood, marble, etc ; a leaf, 

lancea, ae, f,- A light spear or 

langaesco, gre, langui, v. in- 
oep. {langueo, to be faint). To be- 
come faint, weak, languid. 

langoldns, a, um, adj. {lar^ 
gueo, to be faint). ^ Faint, .weak, 
slnggish, dull, languid; feeblCi 
powerless, listless. 

ykDSset^ira, 9rum, a^ (/ona, 
wool, gihro), Wool-bearing, fleecy. 

lanio, are, avi, aium, v. tr. 'T6 
tear, mangle, lacerate. 

lapideus, a, um, adj. {lapiij, 
6f stone. 

Iftpillns, t, m. (dim. of Idpie), 
A litcle stone, precious stone. 

lapis, idis, m. A stone. 

lapsns, a, um, part. See labor, 

lapsus, U8, m. [labor), A fali- 
ing, fall ; gliding, flowing, conrse 
(of a river) ; flight. 

laqueus, t, m. A noose. 

largior, tri, Uus sum, v. dep. 
(largiu), To give bountifuUy, be- 
stow, distribute, impart, grant. 

largns, a, um, ad^. Largej cp- 
pious, great, plentiful, abundant. 

lasclvns, a, um, a4j. (prob. 
kindr. with laxua), Wanton, pet- 
ulant; licentious. 

lasso, are, aoi, atum, v. tr. and 
intr. {lasaus, weary). To tire, 
weary; tosink. 

late, Ady, {latua). Widely, ex- 

IfttSbra, ae, f, (UUeo). A hid- 
ing-place, lurklng-hole, retrcat, 

Iftteo, ere, ui, v. intr. To lie 
hid or concealed. 
^ l&terclUns, t, m. (dim. of iateTf 
a brick). A small brick or tile.' 

Ifttez, icia, m. Liquid, water. 

Ifttlbfilnm, t, n. {kUeo), A hid- 

Latlnns, a, um, a^). {LOtium, 
Latiam, a country of Italy, Jn 
which Home was sitnated). Lat- 
in. As subs., Latini^ orum, m. 

I&tlto, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
(freq. of lateo), To Inrk. 

latltado, IftM, f. {Giiue). Widih, 



L§t5iii8, a, «m, acU. Of Lato- 
na, Latonian. 

Latdna, ae, f. (Atiru), LntGna, 
tbe daujthter of tbe Titan Coeus 
and Phoebe, and mother of Apol- 
lo and Diuna, whom she brought 
forth on the islund of Dclos. 

LAtdiilgeiia, ae, m. and f. (Lo- 
idnaf (/igno), Offbpring of LutOna. 

l&tro, onis, m. A hireling ; a 
roblxsr, assassin. 

l&trdclniam» t, n. {latrodnor^ 
to rob). Robbery. 

lAtas, a, umt ucy. Broad, wide. 

I&tus, SriSt n. The side; the 
lungs (csp. with rcfercnce to ora- 
tory), and in generai, physical 

laturas, a, um, part. See firo. 

laudabilis, e, acy. {Uudo). 
Praiscwurthy, commendable. 

laadatio, dnia^ f. {loMdo), 
Eulogy, panegyric, funeral ora- 

laado, are, aci, atum, v. tr. 
{laus). To praise, extol, eulogizc. 

laurus, t and us, f. A bay tree, 

laas, laudis, f. Praise. 

laate, comp. -tu«, sup. -isstmet 
adv. {lautus, Idvo). Cleverly. 

l&TO, are and ire, lavi, Idva- 
tum, lautum and lotum, v. tr. To 
wa^h, bathe. 

laxo, are, avi, atum, v. tr. and 
intr. {laxua). To open; to miti- 
gate ; to weaken, relax, ease. 

laxus, a, um, adj. Wide, open, 
loose, rooray. 

lea, ae, f. (fco). A lioness. 

leaena, ae, f. A lioness. 

LSbinthos, t, f. One of the 
Sporades, in the Ae^ean Sea, be- 
tween the Cyclftdes and Crete. 

lectiea, ae, f. {lectua). A lit- 
ter, sedan. 

lectitlas, t, m. (dim. of leetus). 
A little bed, coach. 

iectus, t, m. (root i.eo-, lay). 
A couch, bed. 

leg&tio, onis, f. (%o, are, to 
scnd as ambassador). An em- 

leg&tas, t, m. {lego, are, to 
send as arabussador). An ambas- 
sadur, legiite ; a lieutenant. 

legio, onis, f. {ISffo). Prop., a 
selecting, but always by meton.,a 
chusen body of foot-soldiers, a 
Roman legion. 

ISgo, ire, legi, kctum, ▼. tr. 
To selcct, pick out; to collect; to 

Lenaeas, a, um, adj. Lenaean, 

lenio, ire, ivi (tt), ttum, ▼. tr. 
and intr. {tenis). To soften, miti- 
gate, assuage. 

lenis, e, adj. Soft,smooth, gen- 
tle, mild, easy, calm, moderate. 

lente, adv. {lentus), Slowly, 

lentns, a, um, ac^. (perh. lemo), 
Adhesive, tough, pliant, slow. 

leo, onis, m. A lion. 

Leonnatus, t, m. One of Al- 
exander's generals. 

Leontinns, a, um, adj. {Leon- 
tini, an ancient town on the east- 
ern side of Sicily). Leontine. 

LSplJns, t, m. M. Aemllius 
Lgpfdus, consul B. C. 187 and 175, 
and chosen pontifex maximas B. 
C. 180 ; six times chosen princeps 
senatus ; dicd B. C. 152. 

Lesbos, t, f. An island in the 
Aegean Sea, off the coast of 

Lethaea, ae, f. The wife of 

leto, are, dvi, atum, ▼. tr.^ (2»- 
tum). To kill, slay. 



letam, t, n. Death ; rnin. 

ISvis, e, &dj. Light, not heayy, 
eliglit; swift; gentie, mild; in- 

levltas, atis, f. (levit, smooth). 

IgTltas, atit, f. (fiFm). Light- 
ncss, ficldencss, inconstancy. 

ISvIter, adv. {livia). Lightlj, 

I$vo, are, avi, atum, t. tr. (A- 
vw). To lift up ; to lighten, lessen, 
raise, elevate, mitigate, relieve, 
refresh, assist. 

lex, Hgis, f. {Ugo). A bill, law, 
precept, rule, regulation, contract, 
coTenant, condition. 

Ilbens, ntia, a^j. {hbet), Will- 
inj?, with pleasure. 

Ilbenter, adT. {UhenB). Will- 
ingly, cheerfuily, gladly. 

Ilber, bri, m. The inner bark 
or rind of a trce ; by meton., fl*om 
the ancient use of the bark of 
trees for writing on : a book. 

liber, ira, irum, acy. (akin to 
Ubet), Free, firank, unrestralned. 

lilber, iri, m. {Uber), An old 
Italian deity, who presided OTer 
plaoting and firnctificatlou ; laler, 
the name was applied to Bacchus, 
whose expedition to India was in- 
ventedafter AIexander'8 Indian 
campaign as Its prototype. 

iibgralis, e, adj.' {liber), Bonn- 
tiful, generous, liberal. 

IiberAlItas, atit, f. {jmralia), 
Bountifulness, generosity, kind- 

llbSrailter, adT. (libgraUs). 
In a manner befitting a freeman. 

nbSre, adT. (Uber), Freely, 
without hinderance. 

llbSri, orum [sing. Tery rare], 
m. {Hber). Children (f^e-bom, 
as opp. to the domestics, aervi). 

llbSro, are, avi, atum, T. tr. 
{Uber). To free, set free, liberate. 

llbertas, atis, f {Uber). Free- 
dom, liberty, fireedom of speech 
or thought. 

llbet, ere, uit and Ubitum est, t. 
impcrs. It plcases, is agreeable. 

llbldlnosns, a, um, adj, (A:6i- 
do). Lustful, sensual, passionate ; 
self-willed, arbitrary, 

llbido, tnis, f. {Ubet), Desire, 
lust, passion, pleasure, fancy, pas- 
sion for extraTagance. 

llbo, dre, avi, cUum, t. tr. To 
take a little from; to taste; to 
make a libation ; to offer. 

llbro, are, dvi, dtum, t. tr. {W- 
bra, a balance). To weigh ; to 
swing, poise, hurl, launch, throw. 

Ittbfcua, a, um^ a4j. Libyan. 

lilbye, es, f. Libya; Afi-ica. 

Llbys, yos, m. The name of a 
Tuscan sailor. 

Ilcentia, ae, t {Ucet). Free- 
dom, license, liberty, lawlessness ; 

llcet, ere, Ucuit and Ucftum 
eat, T. impers. It is allowable, al- 
lowed, or permitted ; one may or 
can, one is at liberty. 

llcet, coi\j. Although. 

Llchas, ae, m. An attendant 
of Herctiles. 

Llclnins, t, m. See Craaaua, 

ll^o, dre, dvi, dtum, t. tr. To 
bind, surround, unite. 

lliTO, onia, m. A mattock, hoe. 

minm, t, n. A lily. 

lillybaenm, t, n. A promon* 
tory on the westem coast of Sici- 

Umes, itia, m. (akin to llmen, a 
threshold). A boundary, path, 
road, way, track. 

limosns, a, «m, a^). {limm), 
Miry, muddy. 



nai«8, f, m. Slime, nod. 

liDKva, ae, f. A tongae, lan- 
gnagc, speech. 

liBteniB, t, n. (ftiitifii). A liu- 
•n cloth, Hnen, a sail. 

linimi, t, n. Flax. thread. 

Ilqaeo, ire, kqtd or Acut, t. 
Intr. To be clear or evident. 

Uqseaco, ire, Heui, t. incep- 
{Hgueo). To become fluid or li- 
qnid ; to melt. 

llqvldm, 0, «m, a4j. {Itqued). 
Flnid, liqnid ; clear, limpld. 

llqnor, Srw, m. {Uqueo). Fla- 
Idity, cleameM, trsnsparency ; 
fluid, liquid. 

Ilqnor, t, t. dep. {Uqueo). To 
tie fluid ; to flow ; to dissolve. 

Iltlgro, Sre, ort, aium, t. intr. 
(/i«, strife, Offo). To qnarrel, dis- 

. lltlera, otf, f. (ftfio, to besmear). 
A letter (of the alphabet); plur., 
Stfirae, arum, f. A letter, an 
epistle; litereture, leaming, let- 

Utus [llttas], dm, n. , The 
8horc, coast, beaich, strand. 

liTeo, ire, t. intr. To be black- 
and blne, be liTid. 

liiTias, t, m. Marcns LfTius 
AndronicnS) the first Boman tra- 

l5co, are, avi, aium, t. tr. {Id* 
eua). To plaoe, pnt, set ap; to 
rate, estimate. 

Idcfiples, itie, acy. Rich, opu- 

Idcas, t [plur. Idei, orum, m. 
Single places ; Iffea, orum, n. Re- 
gions, places connected with one 
another], m. A place, spot, lo- 

loliom, t, n.. Damel. 

loage, adT. {kmgua). Far, afieur 
oif; long, at length. 

longinqaas, a, um, a^j. (fon- 
ffue). Long, of lung danition, 
far ofl; remote ; foreign. 

longas, a, um, a4j. Long; 
tedions ; Tast, great, spacions. 

Idqaax, acis, a^). {toquor), 
Talkative, preting, loquacions. 

Idqaor, t, ru^tM eum, t. dep. 
To speak, say, talk, tell. 

Idrica, ae, f. A leather cniraRs, 
a corselet of thongs. 

Idram, t, n. A ihong ; a hri- 
dle, reins. 

labrlcoH, a, um, a4J. Slipperr. 

laceo» ere, xi, t. intr. (root 
Lrc- ; cf. Iux). To be light or 
clear ; to 8hine, bcum, glitter. 

Lficlfer, iri, m. {htx, firo). 
Tbc moraing star. 

LJicias, t, m. (ter). A Konum 

Inctor, ari, oHu eum, t. dep. 
{Incta, wrcbtiing). To wrestle; 
to straggle, strive, contend. 

lactas, IM, m. {Hiffeo). Sorrow, 
mouraing, lamentation, grief 

liicas, t, m. A wood or thick- 
et of trees sacred to a deily ; s 
wood, thicket. 

lAdlbriam, t, n. {IGdo). A Jest, 
langhing-stock, sport. 

lado, ire, ai, eum, T» tr. and 
intr. To play, sport ; to ridicnle, 
banter ; to delude, deceiTe. 

Ladas, t, m. The title of one 
of NaeTius*s plays. 

lildas, t, m. A play, game, 
esp. plur. Kidi, crum, m. Pablic 
gumes, spectacles, shows. 

ISgeo, ire, xi, etum, t. tr. and 
intr. To moum, lament ; to be in 
monraing for. 

lagttbris, e, a^). {Hiffeo). Per- 
taining to monraing, mouming, 
doleftil, plaintive; that caases 
moaming, diBastrooB. 



Ifimen, tnisf n. (for iuetntenf 
from Luc-, root of luceo). Light, 
brightnees, spleudor, gleam; the 
light of the eye, the eye ; an ex- 
cellent or distinguishcd person, 
an omament, glory, luminary. 

luna, ae^ f. (for luenaf from Zu- 
eeo). The moon. 

Ino, ire^ lui, v. tr. (Xov(a, lavo), 
To wash, lave; to pay a debt or 
penalty, expiate, atone for ; to un- 
dergo, suffer. 

Ifipus, i, m. A wolf. 

lurldns, a, um, adj. Pale-yel- 
low, sallow, wan, ghastly, lurid ; 
that renders pale or ghastly. 

liQscintts, t, m. Caius Fabrl- 
cius Luseinns, consnl B. C. 282 
and 278, lcader of the Romans 
against PyiThus, and famous for 
his fVugality and for his noble eon- 
duct towiirds Pyrrhus. 

lusio, onta, f. (^o). Sport, 
game, pl.iy. 

lustro, dre^ ari^ atum, y. tr. 
(bistrum, a purificatory sacrifice). 
To purify by means of a propitia- 
tory offering; to go round, wan- 
der over, traverse ; to survcy. 

Ijisus, us, m. {lUdo). A play- 
ing, play, game. 

Inx, lucist f. (root Lro- ; cf. lu- 
eeo), Light; daylight, day; or- 
nament, splendor, bri;;htness ; the 
public vicw, the public, the world ; 
life ; the eye. 

laxlfria, ae, f. {luxus). Lux- 
nry, ostentation, display. 

luxiirio, dre^ dci^ dtum^ v. intr. 
{JuxUria). To bc rank, luxuriant ; 
to be fresh or vigorous, bc instinct 
with new lifc, Ov. ix. 57. 

.loxus, us^ m. {luxus, dislocat- 
ed). Extravagance, luxury. 

L)^c&bas, ae, m. The name 
of a Toscau sailor. 

Lyeios, o» tm, acy. Lycian. 
As subs., Lydus, i, m. A Lycian. 

lif coniedes, is, m. A kiiig of 
the Isle of Scyros, with whom 
Achilles concealcd himself, dis- 
guised in female attire, and whose 
daughter Deidamia bore to the 
lattcr Pyrrhus or Neciptoiemus. 

Lf cormas, ae, m. A river of 

Ijfdia, ae, f. A conntry of 
Asia Minor, the capital of which 
was Sardes. 

Lifdus, a, um, adj. {Lydia). 

lympha, ae, f. Water, esp. 
pure or spring watcr. 

lymphatns, a, um, ac|j. {lym- 
pha). Distracted. 

Lyncides, ae, m. A descen- 
dant of Lynceus ; applicd to Pcr- 
seus, as belonging to the family. 

lynx, lyncis, m. and f. A lynx. 
. lyra, ae, f. A lute, lyre. 

Lf sander, dri, m. A celebrat- 
cd Spart^m general, who ended 
the Peloponnesian war by thc bat- 
tle of Aegospot&mi, B. C. 405. 

Ij78lmd.chns, i, m. I. One 
of the generals of Alexander tha 
Great, and after the death of the 
latter, king of Thrace. IL The 
father of Aristides, Cic. de Sen. 
vii. 21. 


M. Abbreviation for M;ircus. 

M*. Abbreviatlon for Manius. 

M&cSdo, dnis, m. A Macedo- 

MacSdonia, ae, f. Macedo- 

macies, e/, f. (mdceo, to be 
Icun). Lcanness. 



macto, oTtf, Sri, Shtm, v. tr. 
(root MAO-; cf. fnoffnua), To niag- 
tiify, glorlQr; to off.r sacrificc, 

mftcaia, M, f. A spot, stain. 

mftd^-f&cio, ire,fe-i,factmn, 
Ikiss. flo, iri, fic.'ui wm, v. tr. 
{mdHeo). To wct, moistcn, stecp. 

m&deo, e/r, m, v. iutr. To 
bti wet ; to drip. 

m&desco, ire^ ui, t. incep. 
(mddeo). To bccomo moist or 

mftdldas, a, tim, r4J. (mdcieo). 
Moi&t, wct, drcnched. 

Maeaader [-dros, -drus], 
dri, m. A rirer provcrbial for its 
miny wlndin^, which rises in 
Oi-cat Phry^'ia and flows bctween 
Lydia and Caria, emptying ncar 
Milclns into the Icarian Sea. 

Maeliufl, t, m. Sp. Maclias, a 
Roman ]cnic;ht. Sce noto on line 
17, pnge 209. 

Maenas, ddia, f. A Bacchante. 

Maeonia, ae, f. The conntry 
of Maeonia in Lydia ; henee, 1). 
Lydia. 2). Etraria, bccanse thc 
Etrascnns wcre said to be dcscend- 
ed from the Lydians. 

Mae5nias, a, um, a4j. (Mtied- 
nia). Maconian, Lydlan. 

maereo, ere, v. tr. and intr. 
(aldn to mieer), To be 8|id or 
monmfal ; to grieve, lament ; to 
bemoan, bcwail. 

maeror, oris, m. {maereo). 
Qrief, lamentation ; mouming, 

maestltia, ae, f. {maesfus). 
Sadncss, sorrow, gricf, dcjcction. 

maefttus, a, um, tulj. (akin to 
mlser). Sad, sorrowful, afflicted. 

JHagi, drum, m. The Magi, 
priosts and wise men in Persia, 
who interpreted dreams, etc. 

mftgis, or m&?e, no pos., snp. 
maxime, adr. {magnua). In a 
higher dcgree, more, rather ; sap. 
ma^ame, in thc highest degree, es- 
peci illy. 

m&gister,^', m. (root mao-, 
whcnc^ magntu). A master, con- 
dactor, chief, head, leader. etc 

m&sristerium, i, n. {mOgiater). 
The ofilce of a mdgitter, director, 
chicf, president, etc. 

m&gistrfttos, ua, m. {mOgister). 
Magisterial ofiice, magistracy ; by 
mcton., magistrate, public fhnc- 

magnanlmos, a, um, acy. 
{magnue, animus), Great-soulcd, 

magnlflcentia, ae, f. {magnf- 
ftcus). Qrandcar, magnificence, 
no1)Icncss, splendor ; verborum, 
pomposity of lan^^uage. 

magnlflcos, a, um, comp. 
majnlficentior, sup. magnXflcen' 
tissimus, a4j. {magnus, fdcio). 
Noble, distingnishcd, high-mind- 
cd, Biunptaous, magnificent, spien- 

magnltudo, inis, f. {magnus). 
Oreatness, size, power. 

magndpere [also written sep- 
aratcly, magno dpSre], adv. 
Very much, grcatly, exceedinjrly. 

magnns, a, um, comp. mdior, 
sup. maximus, ndj. Great, Inrgc, 
tall, broad, fiill, loud; noble, 
grand; as subs., maior, and ma- 
ior ndtu, m. An ancestor ; nuua- 
mtts natu, the oldest. 

maiestas, dtis, f. {magnus). 
Mnjesty, dignity, splendor, excel- 

mftior, us, gcn. oris, acQ. See 

male, comp. pSius, sup. pets^ 
me, adv. {mdlus). 111, badly, un- 



fbrtnnately, wrongly, wickedly; 
when connectcd with an adjcctive 
it freqnently gives it the opposite 

iiid.iS-dictum, t, n. (dico). 
Poul or abusive word, a curse, 

m&ligne, adv. (mdUgnua, ill- 
disposed). Ill-naturedly, invidi- 

m&Ii^Itas, atiSf f. {tndlignua, 
lll-disposed). Ill-will, spite, ma- 

m&iltia, ae, f. {mdlut), Bad 
qnality, wickedness, vice. 

malledius, t, m. (dim. of mal- 
ieus, a hammer). A hammcr- 
shnped slip, a mallet-shoot for 

m&lo, maVe, ma^ui, ▼. irr. {md- 
ffist vdlo). To wish rather; td 

m&lam, t, n. (mdlus)» An evil, 
misfortune, calamity, hurt, detri- 
mcnt, injury. 

m&lam, t, n. An apple. 

malos, t, m. A mast. 

m&las, a, um, comp. /^etor, snp. 
pessimuSf adj. Bad, evil, wicked, 
iiijurious, mischievovs. 

Manclnas, t, m. Liicius Hos- 
tilius Mnncinus, consul with Q. 
Fabius Maxlmus Aemilianus B. 
C. 145. 

manclpo, are, art, atum^ v. tr. 
' {mdnus^ cdpio). To make over 
or deliver up as property ; to sell, 
transfcr, alicnate. 

mand&tnm, t, n. {mando), •' A 
charge, iiyunction, command. 

mando, are, avt, atum, v. tr. 
{mdnusy do). Lit., to put into 
one*8 hand, hence, to commit to 
one*s charge,'confide, intrust; to 
commission, order, cbarge; to 
commit, consign. 

mfine, indccl. n. Moming, 
mom ; as adv., in the moming, 
early rn the moming. 

m&neo, ere, nsi, nsum, ▼. tr. 
and intr. To stay, remain ; to en- 
dure, continuc, abide, await. 

m&nlfestus, a, um, adj. {md- 
nus, root fend-, strike). Palpa- 
ble, clear, apparent, manifest. 

M&nliius, t, m. Marcus Mani- 
lius, consul, B. C. 149, with L. 
Marcius Ccnsorlnns ; commander 
of the Buman unny at thc begin- 
ing of the third Punlc war ; dis- 
tinguioihcd as a jurist and called 
one of the foundors of the ius 

mano, are, avi, atum, v. tr. and 
intr. To flow, run ; to drop, distiL 

Manto, us, f. A prophetess, 
daughtcr of tlie Theban seer Ti- 

m&nns, us, f. A hand ; a troop, 
body of men, band ; might, pow- 
er ; skill, workmanship ; touch ; 
ddre, to yield, submit. 

Marcellns, t, m. Marcns Clan- 
dius Marcellns, five times consnl, 
kill^d in an Rmbnscado by Hon* 
nlbal, B. C. 208. 

Marcns, t, m. A Roman prae- 

Mardi, ort/m, m. A people on 
the highlands of Asia, between 
Media, Susiana, and Persis. 

m&re, t«, n. The sea. 

M&reotis, idis, ndj. (sc. pdlus). 
Lake Marcutis. 

marg[&rita, cte, f. A pearl. 

mar^o, inis, m. and f. Edge, 
brink, border. . 

m&ritns, t, m. {mas, a male). 
A husband. 

marmor, dris, n. Marble. 

marmoreus, a, um, adj. {mar^ 
mor). Of marble, marble. 



' Haitiiu, a, «m» adj. {MarM, 
tfae god of war). Marttal. 

MftsInUsa, ae, m. King of 
Kumidin, grandfather of Jagar- 
tha, a fHcnd of Scipio Africanas 
Minor, and of the Roman people. 

massa, ae, f. A lamp, masB. 

mfiter, tris, f. A mother; 
Jioffna maier, CybSle. 

mfttSria, ae, and mfttSries, ei, 
t{mater), Matter, stufl; mate- 
rial; timber. 

m&temvs, a, um, adj. (mSter), 

mfttrdna, ae, f. {mSter), A 
matron, lady, wife, consort. 

mfttiire,adY. {maturtu^.J&ttTly, 
in time, ipeedUy, soon, premo- 

mftturltas, Sti9, f. (maturut). 
BipencsB, perfcction, maturity. 

mfttftro, are, aci, Stttm, y. tr. 
and intr. {mSturua), To make 
ripe, ripcn ; to grow ripe ; to has- 
ten, accelerate. 

mfttums, a, um, comp. -ior, 
snp. -iMfmtM, less freq. mSturri- 
mu8, acy. Ripe, matore; fit, 
proper, timely. 

mfttatinos, a, um, a^. Of or 
belonging to Uie moming, morn- 

maxlme, adv. See mO^, 

Maxlmas, t, m. I. Qnintas 
Fabins Maxlmns Cunctator. Sce 
note on line 1, page 177. II. Quin- 
tns Fabius MnxTmns Aemilianns, 
the son of Panllas Macedonlcns 
and brotber of Scipio Africanus 
Minor ; consul B. C, 145. 

maxlmns, a, um, a^j. See 


Mazftces, is, m. One of Ba- 
lias^s ^enerals. 

Mazaeus, t, m. A general of 
Barius, who surrendred Babylon 
to Alexander. 

mSdeor, eri, y. dcp. To heal, 

Media, ae, f. A conntry of 
Asia, lying between the Caspian 
Sea and Snsiana. 

mCdlcamen, inie, n. (mftHr- 
eor, to heal). Remcdy, antidotc j 
a poisonous drng, poison. 

mSdlcftmentnm, t, n. {mSdf' 
eor, to heal). A rcmedy, medi- 
dne, medicament. 

mSdlcfttns, a, um, adj. {mic^ 
ear, to heal). Healing, medicinal, 

mSdlcina, ae, f. {mgdtcut), A 
medicine, rcmedy, rcllcf. 

mSdlcns, t, m. {mSdear), A 

mSdi5cri9, e, a4J> (m^ttM). 
Middling, tolerable, ordinnry. 

medltfttio, onis, f. {meditor), 
Meditation, contemplation. 

mSdltor, ari, Stus sum, T. dep. 
To practise, study; to contcm- 
plate, mcditate ; in a pass. signif. 
more frequently in the perf. part.y 
thonght upon, considered, stud- 
ied, weighed. 

mSdinm, t, n. {fnidiue), Mid- 

mSdlna, a, um, a^J. That is 
in the middle, mid, middie, cen* 

MSdon, ontis, m. A Tnscan 

mSdnlla, ae, f. {mSdiw). Mar- 

]|^gdusa, ae, f. Daughter of 
Phorcus, and by Neptune the 
mother of Peffasus. 

me-hercttle, inteij. By Her- 

mel, meUis, n. Honey. 

Meianthns, t, m. A Tuscan 

Meias, ae and Ontis, *m. A rivs- 
er in Tlirace. 



mSlior, U8, gen. oris, comp. of 
bdnus, adj. Better. 

mSlins, comp. of b8nef adr. 

membram, f',n. A limb^mem- 
ber (of the body) ; part, portion. 

mSmlni, taae, v. def. (root 
MEN-, whence also mens), To 
reniember, recoUect. 

memor, Oria [abl. minUfri, gen. 
pliir. mgmdrumly a4j> {memini). 
Mindful of, remembering. 

mSm5rabIlis, e, acy. (mgmd' 
ro). Worthy to be mentioned, 
memorable, remarkable. 

mSmoria, ae, . f. (mimor). 
Memory, recollecdon, remem- 

mSmorlter, adv. {mSmor). 
With a good memory. 

mSm5ro, Sre, avi, atum, v. tr. 
{mimor). To rehite, say, men- 
tion, reconnt. 

Memphis, it and tdi8f f. A 
dty of Middle Egypt, on the left 
bank of the Nile. 

mens, mentie, f. (root men- ; cf. 
mimlni). The intellectnal facul- 
tlefl, the mind; pnrpose, inten- 
tion; disposition, spirit; under- 
Btanding, reason, jndgment. 

mensa, ae, f. A table ; course. 

mensis, it, m. A month. 

mensor, dri^, m. (root mbn- ; 
cf. metior). A measurcr. 

mensura, ae, f. (root men- ; cf. 
metior). A mcasuring, mcasure. 

menta, ae, f. Mint. 

mentio, onis, f. (root men- ; cf. 
mimim). A calling to mind, 

mentior, in, iiua aum, ▼. dep. 
(root MEN- ; cf. mimini). To speak 
flilsely, lie; part. mefntitus, with 
a pass. signif., feigned, fah»e, un- 

mentam, t, n. The chin. 

meo, orv, avi, atum, ▼. intr. 
To go, pass. 

mercennftrins, a, um, adj. 
{merces). Paid, hired, mercenary. 

merces, edia, f. {mireo), Re- 
ward, hire, pay, wages. 

MercJirias, i, m. Mercury, 
son of Jupiter and Maia, the mes- 
sengiT of the gods. 

mSreo, ere, ui, ftum, ▼. tr., and 
mSreor, eri, itua eum, v. dep. 
To eam, gain, get, acquue ; to de- 
serve, merit. 

mergo, ire, rai, raum, v. tr. To 
sink, dip. 

mergas, t, m. A diver. 

mSrldianns, a, um, a^j. (miF- 
ridiea, midday). Soiithem. 

mSrltum, i, n. {mireo), Merit, 
desert, service. 

mSrltus, a, t<m,.part. See mi- 
reor. As adj. Deserving; de- 
served, dne, fit. 

mrops, dpis, m. A king of 
Ethiopia, husband of ClymCne, 
and putative father of Phtvfitlion. 

mSrns, a, um, a^j. Pnre, un- 
mixed. As 8ul)S., mirum, i, n. 
(sc. vinum). Pure, unmixed wine. 

messis, ia, f. {mito, to reap). A 
harvest, crop. 

-met, a pronominal snfflx at- 
taclied to snbstantives, less freq. 
to adjective pronouns. 

meta, ae, f. {metior), A col- 
umn or pillar with a conical top 
for marking a measured space ; a 

MStellas, t, m. I. Lucins 
Caccllius MStelins, consul B. C. 
251, dcfeated Hasdrttbal in Sieily ; 
pontifex maximus 6. C. 243. an 
office which he held for twen- 
ty-two years ; he rescued the 
Palladinm B. C. 241, when tho 



tcmple of Vesta was on flre, and 
having loHt his slght in conse- 
qitence, was rewarded by the pco- 
ple wich a statae on the Capitol, 
and the permiflsion, previously 
granted to no one, of ridlng to the 
Bcnate house in a carriage. Cic. 
de Sen. ix. 90; xvti. 61. II. Quin- 
tu8 Caeelliu8 Mfitellus MslcgdAnY- 
cus. Sce note, liue 22, page 275. 

Methymiiaetta, a, um, ai]j. 

mStior, iri, mmtua 8um, v. 
dep. To measurc, estlmate; to 
travprse, pa8s, complete. 

metnens, nHSf part. Sce mi- 
tuo. As acy. Fearing, regardful. 

mStao, ire, uiy utum, v. tr. and 
intr. {mihui). To fear, be afVaid. 

mStos, M. m. Fear, dread, 

meaa, n, «m, adj. pron. (met). 
My, niine. 

mlGO, ore, mfnui, v. intr. To 
quivcr, tremblc, flash, glcam. 

Mldas, ae, m. Son of Gordius 
and king of Phrygia. 

miles, ttis, m. and f. (m»72e, eo, 
a thousand-waiker). A soldier, 
warrior ; coUectively : soldiers, 

Miletns, t, f. A city of Caria, 
the birthplace of Thales. 

millt&ris, e, a^j. {milea), Sol- 
dier-Iike, mllitary. 

miiitia, ae, f. {miles). Military 
service, warfare, war; gcnitive, 
milUiae, in the field, in war. 

mille, indecl. num. adj. and 
subs., and in the plur. miliay ium, 
n., only subs. with a gen. follow- 
ing. A thousand. 

MIIo, dnt«, m. A famous ath- 
lete of Croton, in Lowcr Italy, 
who, when he was old, seeing the 
trunk of a tree which had been 

partially split open by wood-cut- 
tcrs, attcmpted to rend it further, 
but the wood clused upou bis 
hands and thiis held him fast, in 
which state he was attacked and 
devuured by wolves ; he lived 
in thc sixth ccntury, B. C. 

Mlmas, antiay m. A promon- 
tory in lunia, opposite the Isle of 

mlnae, arum, f. pl. {mineo, to 
jut). Thrents. 

mlnax, cIcm, acy. {minae). 

Mlnerva, ae^ f. The danghter 
of Jupitcr, I)orn out of his head 
in complcte armor ; the goddess 
of wisdom, of the arts and sci- 
cnces, of poetry, and of spinning 
and weaving. 

mlnlme, sup. of ^MKrum, adv. 
By nu means, thc least. 

mlnlmas, a, um, sup. of par* 
VU8, adj. The least; minimtM nd- 
tu, the youngest. 

mlnister, tri. m.{m{nus). A ser- 
vant, attendant, helper, minister. 

mlniRterium, i, n. {minister), 
Offlce, service, aid ; ministry, ad- 

mlnistro, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
and intr. {mXnister). To serve, 
haiid, supply, furnish. 

mlnltor, dri, atus sum, v. dep. 
(frcq. of mifior, to threuten). To 
threaten, menace. 

mlnor, us, gcn. oris, comp. of 
parvus, acy. Less, smaller; mf- 
nor natu, younger. 

Minos, ois, m. A king and 
lawgivcr of Crete, and after his 
dcath one of the judges in the 
infernal reglons. 

mluno, ere, ui, utum, v. tr. and 
intr. {minus). To lessen, impaur, 



mlims, comp. of pdrum, adv. 


mlnatlis, a, um, part. See mi- 
mw. As acij. Little, STnall, mi- 
nute; petty, paltry, insi^iticant. 

mlrabiiis, e, adj. {miror). Ex- 
traordinary, wondertul, marvel- 
lons, 8tr<inge, singular. 

miraclilam, t, n. {miror). A 
wonder, marvel. 

mirator, oria, m. {miror). An 

mirlficus, a, um, a4j. {mirtts, 
fdcio), Wonderful, marvellous, 
admirable, singular, strange. 

miror, ari, aius »wn, v. dep. 
To admire, wonder at, marvel at, 
be astonished. 

mirns, a, um, adj. Wonderful, 
extraordinary, strange, 8ui*pris- 

misceo, ere, cui, miatum or 
mixtum, v. tr. To mix, minglo, 
intcrmingle, blend, unite ; to mix, 

mlser, Bra, grum, comp. -tor, 
sup. miserrtmus, adj. Wretched, 
miserablc, pitiable. 

mls6rabl]is, e, adj. {mis8ror). 
Pitiable, miserable, wretched, de- 
plorable, sad, lamentable. 

mlsSreor, eri, itus aum, v. dep. 
(mtser). To have pity, pity, com- 

mlsSrlcordia, a«, f. {mU9ri- 
cors, compassionate). Pity, com- 

mlsSror, ort, atus sum, v. dep. 
(mtser). To lament, bewnil, de- 
plore ; to pity, commiserate. 

mitlgo, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
{mitis, Ago). To make mild ; Ui 
soften, tame, appease. 

mltis, e, adj. Mild, soft, gen- 
tle, mellow, mcrciful. 

mitto, ire, misit missum, v. tr. 
{meo), To cause to go ; to send, 

tbrow, hurl, cast, dispatch ; to let 
go, let luose. release, dismiss ; to 
pnt or give forih, scnd out, emit; 
to pass over, omit, ccase. 

mddSramen, inis, n. {mddi- 
ror). A means of managing or 
goveming; a rudder; guidance, 
direction, command* 

mddSrate, ndv. {mdderdtus). 
With moderation, modcr.itcly. 

modSratio, onis, f. {mOdiror). 
A restraining, limiting ; a moder- 
ate exercise or nse. 

mod6ratus, a, um, part See 
mddiror. As acjj. Rcstraincd, 
controlled, modcrate, well-regu- 

mddSror, ari, atus sum, v. dep. . 
{mddus). To sct a measure, set 
bounds; to manage, regulute, 

modestns, a, um, adj. (md- 
dus). Moderate, kccping within 
due bounds ; unassumiiig ; mild, 
gcntle ; choste, dccent, modest. 

mddlce, adv. {mfidicus). With 
proper measnre or restndnt, mod- 
erately, modestly. 

mddlcns, a, um, a4j. {mddus). 
Observing a proper measure or 
limit, moderate, temperate, mod- 
est; mlddling, ordinary, scanty. 

modins, t, m. (prob. same root 
ns metior). A Roman measurc, a 

m5do, adv. {mddus). Only, 
bnt ; now, just now, a little while 
ago, lately; modo — modo, now — 
now, at one timc — at anorher 
timc ; lum modo — sed, not only — 
but also ; for si modo, if on!y, 
providcd that. 

mddns, t, m. (same root as me- 
tior). A measure, manner, way, 
fashion ; bonnd, limit, aim. 

moenia, ium, n. {munio). For- 
tified walls, town. 


mSI&ris, i», m. (mdla, a mill). 
A mili-stone, any large stone. 

moles, i», f. A shapelcss, huge» 
hoavy mojis; a dam, pier, mclc, 
foundation ; greatness, welght, 
might, stvength, heap ; a burden, 
difflcttlty, lobor, tronblc. 

mdleste, udv. {nUOeattu). With 
troable or difflcnlty, in a trouble- 
Bome manner; ferrs, to take it 
ill ; to be annoycd. 

m51estia, a«, f. {mdlettu»), 
Trouble, annoyance, vexation, 

mdlestiis, a, um, a4j. (mdlea). 
Troublesome, irksome, disagree- 
able, grieTouB, annoying; diffl- 

molior, fn, Utu wm, v. dep. 
{mole»). Toattcmpt or perform 
somcthing difflcult; to struggle, 
makc one'8 way; to construct, 
make ; to set in motion, urge. 

moIUo, ire, ivi (u)f i^wn, t. tr. 
{molli»). To miike soft ; to sof- 
ten, mitigate ; to tame, check. 

mollis, 0, adj. (mdveo). Easily 
movable, soft, mild, gcntle, pliant, 
dclicate, graoefui, tender; change- 
able, fickle ; unmanly. 

molllter, adv. {moUia). Calm- 
ly, patiently, with resignation, re- 

mdneo, «r^, m, ftom, v. tr. To 
remind, admonish, wam, advise. 

mdnlmentilm, t, n. (maneo). 
A memorial, monument. 

mdnltio, dm>, f. (mOneo). Ad- 
vice, admonitioor 

mdnltom, t, n. {m^lneo). Ad- 
monition, waming, advicc. 

mSnltas, im, m. {mdneo). Ad- 
monition, warning. 

mons, monti», m. A moun- 

monstro, dre, dvi, atum, v. tr. 

(likc monatrum, from mifneo). To 
show, point out. 

monstrnm, t, n. {mOneo), A 
monster; prodigy, marvel, omen, 

montanns, a, um, ad^. {man»). 
Pcrtaining to a mountain, moun- 
taln, monntainous. 

montndsus, a, um, a4J.(moiu). 

mdnlimentnm, t, n. {mifneo), 
A memorial, monument. 

mora, ae, f. Delay, hinderanoe. 

mor&tus, a, um, ad^, {mo»). 

morbus, i, m. Sickness, dis- 
ease, malady. 

mordeo, ere, mdmordi, moT' 
»um, V. tr. To bite, eat. 

morlbundus, a, um, adj. {md- 
rior). Dying. . 

morior, t, rarely trt, mortuut 
sum, V. dep. (stem mok-, whence 
mor»), To die. 

mdror, dri, dtu» »um, v. dep. 
{mdra). To delay, hinder, de- 
tain ; to tarry, stay, linger. 

mdrosltas, dti», f. {mdro»u»), 
Peevishness, fretfulness, morose- 

morosus, a, um, adj. {mo»), 
Wayward, pecvish, frciful, mo- 

mors, morti», f. (stem mob-, 
whence also mdrior). Death. 

morsus, u», m. {mordeo). A 
bite, sting ; avium, x>ccking. 

mort&lis, e, ac|j. {mors). Sub- 
ject to dcath, mortal. As subs. 
A man, a mortal. 

mortalltas, dti», f. {mortdU»). 
Liability to death, mortality. 

mortuns, a, um, part. See 
mdrior. As ac^j. Dead, deceased, 
withercd, decayed. As subs. The 
dead, the departed. 



mSnim, t\ n. A mnlberry; a 

mdrus, t, f. A malberry-tree. 

mos, mari», m. Manner, way, 
CQStoni, asage, character. 

mdtas, tis, m. {maveo), A mo- 
tion, muTement, excitement, emo- 
tion, passion, impnise. 

m5veo, «re, movi, motum^ y. 
tr. To move, stir, set in motion ; 
to remove, drive out, expel; to 
excite, occasion ; to begin, ander- 
talse ; to affect, toach. 

mox, adv. Soon, directly. 

Mucias, t, m. I. Qaintas Mu- 
cins Scaevdla, the Aagur, son-in- 
lawof Caias Laelias Sftpicns ; con- 
Bul B. C. 117 with Lucias Cacclii- 
ns MStellus ; distingnished for ln'8 
knowledge of the law. II. Quin- 
tus Mucius l?caevQIa, the Puntifex, 
so called to distinguish him trom 
the Angur jufit mentioned ; con- 
sal B. C. 95, with L. Llctnins 
Crassns, thc orator ; having been 
proscribed by tbe Marian party, 
hc was assassinated in the temple 
of Vesta, whcre he had fled for 
refuge, B. C. 82 ; he was the first 
Boraan, wtio treatcd scientificalty 
the /t» Civile, 

mficro, onis, m. A sharp point 
or edge ; a sword. 

mfigritos, tUf m. {mugio, to bel- 
low). A bellowing, lowing. 

mulceo, ere, «t, mm, rarcly 
etum, y. tr. To stroke, toach or 
move lightly, soothe, appease ; to 
charm, delight. 

Mulclber,- ^rM and iri, m. 
{mulceo), A sumame of Vulcan ; 
by fneton., fire. 

mnlco, are, am, Stumt v. tr. 
(prob. another form of muUo, to 
puniBh). To punish severely ; to 
bmise, mangle. 

mfilier, Irts, f. A woman, ma- 


mfiliercfila, ae, f. (dim. of mO- 
Uer). A little woman. 

Mallinas, t, m. Alexander*8 
private secretary. 

mnltindns, a, «m, a^j. (mti^ 
tusy Jindo). Many-cleft. 

mnltlplex, icia, adj. {multua, 
pkcOf to fold). Manifold, varioutf ; 
inconstant, changcablc, fickle; 
sly, cunning. 

mnltltndo, fnt«, f. {muVwt), A 
great number, crowd, multitude, 

mnlto, adv. {muUua), By far, 
by mueh, mnch. 

mnltnm, adv. {muitua), Much, 
greatly, very. 

mnltns, a, uim, comp. phu, n., 
sup. plunntua, adj. In sing., 
mnch, great ; in plur., many. 

Mnmmins, t, m. Sp. Mum- 
mius. See note to line 15, page 

mnndns, t, m. The world, 
univerHc, heaven. 

mnnimen, fm>, n. (mtiftto). 
Defence, fortification, rampart. 

mnnimentnm, t, n. (miinto). 
A fortlfication. 

mfinio, ire, irt (tt), Uum, v, tr. 
and intr. (akin to moenia), To 
fortity, defend, protect, shcltcr. 

mfinltio, onis, f. {munio), A 
furtification, wali. 

mfinus, iriSf n. Offlce, servioe, 
fhnction, duty, work, fovor, pres- 
ent, gift. 

mnrex, tcis, m. The purple- 
fish; purple. 

mnrmnr, itri», n. A marmnr, 
hum, rumbling, roar. 

mnrmfiro, are, Svi, Stum, y. 
intr. {murmur), To marmur, 



milras, t, m. A walL 

mnsens, i, m. Moss. 

mat&bQiti, 0, a^). (muto). 

mnto, are, avi, alum, r. tr. and 
inti*. (cuDtr. from mdvUo, flrom 
mdveo). TocbanKe, alter, trans- 
form ; to exchange. 

matas, a, um, a4). Mnte, damb, 
spcecliless ; with silenHa, deep. 

mntnas, a, um, a^j. {muto), Re- 
eiprocal, mntnal. 

JHf c&le, 68, f. A promontory 
and city of lonia, opposite the 
Lilo of Samos. 

JHygddnins, a, %m, a4j. {Mjfg- 
dOnia, a country in Phiygia). 
Mygdonian, Phryglan. 

Alyrmlddnes, um, m. The 
Myrmldons, a mythical people on 
the island of Aegina, who are said 
to have emigratcd in later times 
to Phthiutis, a district of Thes 


nactns, a, um, part. See nan- 

nae, adv. Truly, assnredly. 

Naevins, t, m. Cn. Naevins, 
a Roman dramatic and epic poet. 

Naias, ddia, and Nais, tdia, f. 
A water-nymph, naiad, nymph. 

nam, conj. For. 

nam-qne, conj. For indeed, 
for truly, for. 

nanciscor, i, nactus aum, y. 
dcp. To get, obtain, acqnire, re- 
ceive ; to meet with, stumblc on, 
find ; to reach. 

naris, ts, f. A nostril ; usual- 
ly in plur., nares, ium, Nostriis, 

narratns, us, m. (narro), A 
narration, narrative. 

narro, Sre, avi, atum, t. tr. 
(g-ndrus, known). To make 
known; to t-ell, relate, narrate; 
to ^ay, speak. 

nascor, t, natua aum, y. dep. 
(root ONA-, which is only another 
form of OEN- ; cf gigno). To be 
bom ; to arise, spring forth, pro- 

Nftsica, ae, m. Publius Cor- 
nelius Scipio Nasica. See note to 
line 8, pnge, 286. 

n&ta, ae, f. {n€ucor). A daugh- 

nfttftlis, e, adj. {naacor). Per- 
tnining to birth, natal. As subs., 
natalis, ia, m. (sc diea). A birth- 
day; hence poetic in the plnr., 
years of one's life. 

n&t&tio, onis, f. (no). Swim- 

natio, onia, f. (nctacor). A race 
of mcn, nation, stock. 

n&to, are, avi, atum, y. intr. 
(fl^q. of no). To swim. 

n&tiira, ae, f. (naacor). Natnre, 
birth ; disposition, character; nnt- 
nral constitution or propensity, 

nfttiiralis, 0, ac^. (natara). 

n&tns, ua [only in abl. natu], 
m. (naaeor). Birth, nge, years, 
time of life ; mdior ndtu, older ; 
maximua ndtu, oldest; grandia 
ndtu, old, agcd. 

natns, t, m. (naacor). A son ; 
in plur., ndti, orum, m. Children. 

natns, a, um, part. See nascor, 
As a^j. fiom, made, d^stined, 
formcd, or constituted by nature. 

naufr&gns, a, um, ac^. (ndciap 
frango). Shipwrecked; causing 

nanta, ae, m. (contr. from na- 
vUa, ndvia). A sailor. 



navale, is, n. {fuivis). A dock- 
yard, port, haven. 

navalis, e, adj. {navia), Na- 

navlgatio, o»»a, f. {navfffo), A 
sailinK, voyage. 

navlgium, t, n. {ndvtgo), A 
vessel, ship. 

navlgo, dre, dvit dtumj v. tr. 
and intr, {ndvis, dgo). To sail, 

navis, is [acc. -em or -m], f. 
A vessel, ship. 

navlta, a«, m. {ndvis). A sailor. 

NaxoMJ t, f. An island in the 
Aegean Sea, one of the Cyclades. 

n6, intcrrog. particle appended 
to a word in a^l^ing a questioii. 
In direct interrogations, it has no 
representative in English; in in- 
direct interrogations it is equiva- 
lent to our * whether.* 

ne, co^j. That not, lest. 

ne, adv. Not; ne-guidemf not 
even; not — eitlier, (cf. page 221, 
line 16). 

Nearchus, t, m. A Pythago- 
rean philosophcr, friend of Cato 

nSbiUa, ae^ f. (akin to niibes). 
A fog, mist, vapor, cloud. 

nec, or nSque, conj. Neither, 
nor; and not, not; nec — nec, nei- 
ther — nor. 

nScessarins, a, um, a6j. {ni- 
cesse). Inevitable, necessary ; 
connected by blpod, friendship, 
etc., related. As subs. Relatlon, 
relative, kinsman, friend. 

n6cesse, indccl. a,6j. Neces- 
sary, unavoidable. 

ngcessltas, dtis, f. {nicesae). 
Necessity, force, constraint; rela- 
tionship, connection, friendship. 

nScessItndo, tnist f. {nicesse). 
Inevitablcness, need, want; inti- 

macy, social connection, close fe- 

nSco, dre, art, dtum, v. tr. 
(kindr. with nex). To kill, slay. 

nectar, dm, n. Nectar, the 
drink of the gods. 

ng-fandns, a, um, adj. {fdri). 
Heinous, impious. 

nSf arius, a, um, a4j. {nifas), 
Heinous, impious, abominable. 

n6-fas, indecl. n. That which 
is coutrary to divine law, a sin, 
crime, wrong; a wicked.dced. 

neglegens, ntis, part. See neg- 
l8go. As adj. Heedless, carcle^s, 
indifferent, negligent, neglcctfiil. 

neglSgentia, ae, f. {negldgo). 
Carclessness, rcmissness. 

negl6?0, SrCf lexi, lectum, v. 
tr. {nec, iSgo). Not to heed,* neg- 
lect, slight, despise, disrcgard. 

nSgo, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. and 
intr. {ne, dio). To say no ; to de- 
ny, refuse. 

n6gdtium,' t, n. {nec, otium). 
Want of leisure; business, cm- 
ployment, occupation; difflculty, 
pains, trouble." 

Nemeaeus, a, um, sidj. (.Vg- 
mea, a city in Argolis, near which 
Herctiles slew the Nemean lion). 

nSmo, rm», m. and f. (n«, Atf- 
mo). No man, nobody, no one. 

nSmus, dri», n. A grove, 


Neoptoiemas, t, m. A son of 


nSpos, otis, m. A grandson; 
nephew; descendant. 

Neptnnus, t, m. Neptune, the 
god of the sea, brother of Jupi- 
ter and husbaud of Amphitrite. 

ne-qnaqaaiu, axiy. {quisquam), 
By no means, not at all. 

ngqae, or nec, adv. and coiy. 



Ncithcr, nor; and not, not; fM- 
qtie — neque, ncitbcr — nor. 

n6-qaeo, ire, iri (ii), itum, T. 
intr. Not to be able ; to bc un- 

nequicqaam, or neqaiqoam, 
adv. In yain, to no purpobc. 

NereiSy tdig, f. A daughter of 
Nercus, a Ncreid. 

Nerens, ei und eo«, m. A Bca- 
god, tlie 6on of Occ&nus and Te- 
tbys, husband of Doris, and fa- 
ther of tho Nereids. 

nenrosns, a, «m, a^j. {iwnma). 
Sincwy» Btrong. 

nervoft, t, m. A sinew, tendon, 
nervc; btring; bymcton., a bow. 

ne-scio, ire, ici (ti), itumf y. 
tr. Not to know, be ignonint of. 

u^sciaa, a, um, su\^, {neacio), 
Ignorant, nnaware. 

Nestor, Oris, m. Son of Ne- 
leus, king of Pylas during the 
Trojan war, funous among the 
heroes before Troy for his wis- 
dom and eloquence. 

nea, or neve, coi\). And not, 

neater, tra, trum, a4j. (ne, 
ater), Neither the one nor the 
other, neither. 

neatlqaam, adv. By no 
means, in no wise. 

neve, or nen, coi\}. And not, 

nex, nici», f. (akin to ngco), 
Death, destruction. 

nexas, ua, m. {necto, to bind). 
An interlacing, intertwining, grap- 

ni, conj. If not, nnless. 

Nicarchldes, ie, m. One of 
Alexander*s leaders. 

nidas, t, m. A nest. 

nlger, ffra, grum, acy. Black, 
sable, dark. 

nlgresco, 9re, grtd, v. inoep. 
{nlger), To bccome black. 

nlhil, contr. nil, indccl. n., or 
nlhllam, t,n. (»i«,A{/t<m,atrifle). 
Nothing, nonght. 

Nilus, t, m. The Nile, the 
principal rivcr of Africa. 

nimbns, t, m. A rain-storm; 
a black rain-cloud. 

nimlram, adv. (nt, i. e. ne, ml- 
rus), Without doubt, ccruinly, 
surely, to be sure. 

nlmis, adv. Too much, over 
mucb, excessively, too. 

nlmias, a, um, a<^. {nimia). 
ExcessiTe, too grcat, too much, 
beyond mcasure. 

Nlnns, t, m. A king of As* 
syria, husband of Scmirumis. 

Niobe, es, f. Thc daughter of 
Tunt&lus, and wife of Aniphion, 
king of Thcbes. 

nlsi, coig. (m, i. e. ne, 8t), If 
not, nniess, except. 

nisas, tu, m. {nitor), An at- 
tempt, exertion, effort. 

nlteo, ere, tui, v. intr. To glit- 
ter, shine, glisten; to floorisb, 

nltldas, a, um, a^. {tOteo), 
Shining, glittering, bright. 

nitor, t, nisua or nixtta eum^ 
V. dep. To lean or rest upon ; to 
strive, struggle, endeavor; to 
climb np. 

nltor, oris, m. {nfteo), Bright- 
ness, splendor ; neutness, clegance, 
beauty, brilliancy. 

nlveas, a, um, ac|j.(ma;). Snow* 
white, snowy. 

nix, nivis, f. Snow. 

nixus, a, um, part. See nitor, 

no, are, dvi, v. intr. To swim. 

nobllis, e, adj, {nosco). "Well 
known, celebrated, fkmous ; of a 
noble kind, of high descent, of 



noble birth ; noble, excellent, su- 

nobilltas, atis, f,{nobilis). Re- 
pute, celcbrity, nobility. 
• ndblllto, &re, aoi^ atutn, v. tr. 
(nobtUs)» To make kuown ; to 
render famoas. 

ndcen», ntis, part. See ndceo. 
Asady. Huitful, injurioas, cui- 
paiile, criminal. 

ndceo, ere, cut, citum, r. intr. 
To harm, hurt, injure. 

noctu, only in the abl. as adv. 
(nox). By night. 

noctnrnas, a, um, a.6j, (nox). 
Of night, nightly, nocturnal. 

nodns, t, m. A knot, bond. 

noenam, adv. (contr. from n«, 
oenum, an old form of untcm). 

nolo, noUet **dlui, T. irr. (n<t, 
vdlo). To wish not ; to be unwill- 
ing ; in the imperative, nolif or 
nolUe, with an infinitive following, 
is to be ti^anslated by the suu- 
ple negative. 

nomen, (m», n., {no8co). A 
name; renown, reputation; meo 
nomine, on my account. 

nomfno, aref dvi, atumy y. tr. 
{nomen). To cali by name, name. 

non, adv. (contr. ftrom noenumf 
i. e. n«, oenumt unum). Not. 

nonageslmns, a, «m, ord. 
num. acy. {nona(/inta). The nine- 

nonaginta, indecl. num. a4j. 

Nonae, drum^ f. pl. {noivuat 
ninth). The Nones. 

non-dnm, adv. Not yet. 

non-ne [in qucstions which 
im|)ly an affirmative answer], adv. 

non-nallas, a, ttm, a^j. Some, 


non-namqaam, Adv. Some- 
noram, for novgram. See noa- 


norma, a«, f. Rule, pattem, 

nosco, ^e^ novi, notum, v. tr. 
To get a knowledge of, leam to 
know, recognize; iu the perf. 
tenses : to know. 

nos-met, for noa, with the suf- 
fix -met. 

noster, tra, trum, adj. pron. 
{noa). Our, our own, ours. 

nota, a«, f. {nosco). A mark, 
sign, token ; notae, signs of iet- 
ters, characters. 

notltia, ae, f. {ndtua). Celebri- 
ty, note; acquaintance, knowi- 
edge, notion. 

noto, dre, dci, dtum, v. tr. (n*- 
to). To mark, distinguish by a 
mark ; to note, observe ; to mark 
or brand witli a censare {nOta) ; 
to reprimand. 

notas, a, um, part See noaco. 
Ar acy. Known, nsual, custom- 
ary; notorious. 

notns, t, m. The south wind. 

ndverca, ae, f. (prob. firom nO- 
vua), A step-mother. 

n5vltas, dtia, f. {ndvua), New- 
ness, novelty, strangeness. 

ndvo, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. (nd- 
vua). To make new, renew, alter, 

novns, a, um, comp. wanting, 
sup. ndmsafmus, ac^. New, re- 
cent, young, fresh, strange, novel, 
unusual ; ndvisaimua, latest, lust. 

nox, noctia, f. Nlght, nlght- 

nnbes, ia, f. A cload. 

nublfer, gra, grum, adS. fitfitet* 
firo), Clond-capped. 

nabHam, t, n. {nubea), Clondy 



weatlier, a dondy sky ; In plnr., 
^ubtla, 5rumt n. The clouds. 

Dttbllas, a, um, a^}. {niibes), 
Cloudy; troubled, gloomy, sad, 

nubo, irCf psit ptnm, v. Intr. 
(root NUB- ; cf. niibes). To covcr, 
veil ; hence, (of a woman), from 
the custom of veiling a bride 
when conducted to the bride- 
groora ; to )je married to. 

nudo, are, dvi, atum, v. tr. 
{nudut), To make bare ; to leave 
nncovered or exposed. 

nados, a, um, adj. Naked, bare, 
nnclottied, uncovered, exposed. 

nugator, oria, m. {nU^or, to 
jest). A jeBter, trifler. 

nnllas, a, um, gen. nulliua, dat. 
nulli, adj. {ne, ullus), Not any, 
none, no, noi)ody. 

nam, interrog. adv. [implying 
the expectation of a negative an- 
Bwer]. Whether. 

namen, inis, n. {nuo, to nod). 
The divine will or power of the 
gods; deity, divine mtgesty, a 
divinity, god, goddess. 

nttmSro, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
{nHn^irus), To count, reckon, 
nnmbcr ; to enumerate, mention ; 
to estcem, consider. 

nlimSras, t, m. A number ; a 
crowd, collection, troop, band; 
rank, place, position ; an order, 

num-ne, interrog. adv. Wheth- 
cr or not. 

nnmqaam, adv. {ne, unquam), 
At no time, never. 

nunc, adv. {=ndvum-ce, nd- 
vus). Now, at this time. 

nuntia, ae, f. {ntmtius). A 

nuntio, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
{nuntiua). To bring news, an- 

nonnce, report, declare. make 
known, inforra. 

nuntius, t, m. (contr. from nd- 
vi-ventius, vdnio ; hence, newly 
come or arrived). A messenger. 

nnper, adv. {ndvum-per, from 
ndvus), Newly, lately, recently. 

nupta, ae, f. {niibo). A bride. 

nuptiae, drum, f, {nubo), A 
marriage, nuptials, wedding. 

nliras, us, f. A daughter-in- 
law ; a young woman. 

nusquam, adv. {ne, usguam, 
anywhere). Nowhere, in no place, 
on no occasion. 

nuto, dre, dvi, dtum, v. intr. 
root NU- ; cf. adnuo). To nod. 

nJitrio, ire, ivi {ii), itum, v. tr. 
To nourish. 

ntitrix, icis, f. {niitrio), A 

n jitns, us, m. (root nu- ; cf. ad- 
nuo), A nod, beck; will, com- 
mand, pleasure. 

nux, nHcia, f. A nnt 

nympha, ae, and -phe, iss, f. 
A nymph. 


O, inteij. O! oh! 

ob, prep. with acc. On acconnt 
of, for. In composition: to, to- 
wards, before, in the way of, 
against, down, over. 

ob-duco, Sre, xi, ctum, v. tr. 
To lead against ; to draw out ; to 
spread over ; to overcast, envelop. 

ob-eo, ire, ivi («)» it^^y ▼• irr- 
To go or come to, go to meet, go 
against ; to perform, execute ; to 

db-erro, are, dvi, dtum, v. intr. 
To wander about ; to hover. 

ob-Icio [ jlcio], ere, ieci, ieC" 
tum, V. tr. {iado), To tlirow to 



or against ; to cast in the way ; 
to bring npon or against ; to pre- 
vent, expose, oppose. 

obinrgatio, onia, f. {pbiurgo), 
Reproof, chiding. 

ob-ior^o, are, ar4, atum, v. tr. 
To chide, rebuke, reprove, blame. 

oblectamentam, t, n. {pblec' 
to). A delight, ploasure, amuse- 

oblectatio, dniSf f. (oblecto), 
A delisrhting, dclight. 

oblatus, a, um, part. See qf' 

ob-lecto, oTtf, avi, atum, v. tr. 
(lactOt freq. of lacio, to lure). To 
delight, please, divert, entertain, 

ob-llgo, aref avif atum, v. tr. 
To oblige, put under an obliga- 

ob-llno, Hre, levi, Utum, v. tr. 
{Uno, to besmear). To bedaub, 

obliquas, a, um, ac^. Slant- 
ing, awry, obliqne, indirect. 

oblltos, a, vm, part. See 06- 

oblltus, a, um, part. See o&- 

oblividsus, a, um, a^j. (o5/f- 
wo, forgctfulness). Forgetful. 

obllviscor, i, obUtus »um, v. 
dep. To forget. 

ob-lnctor, ari, atua aum, v. 
dcp. To struggle against. 

ob-mutesco, &re, ttei, v. incep. 
{mutus), To become dumb, lose 
one*s spcech ; to become silent. 

ob-drior, fn, ortua aum, v. dep. 
To arise, appear or 'spring up be- 
fore ; to burst or gush forth. 

ob-rSpo, Sre, pai, ptum, v. intr. 
{r8pOy to creep). To creep on, ttike 
by snrprise, steal upon. 

ob-ruo, Sre, rui, rHium, v. tr. 

To fall upon, cover, overwhelm ; 
to hide in the ground, bury. 

obscuro, dre, avi, atum, v. tr. 
{obst^nis). To darken, obscnre, 
render dark ; to veil. 

obsciirus, a, um, ac|j. Dark, 
dusky, indistinct, unintelligible ; 

obsgquium, t, n. {obsgquor), 
Obsequiousness, compIdis:incc. 

ob-s6qaor, i, cutu» sum, v. 
dep. To accommodatc one*s self 
to tho will of anothcr; to comply 
with, gratify, yield to, indulge in. 

ob-s6ro, Sre, sevr, situm, v. tr. 
To sow or plant ; to covcr, fill. 

ob-servo, are, dvi, dtum, v. tr, 
To watch, note, hced, observe. 

obses, fdis, m. and f {obsideo). 
A hostage, sceurity, surety. 

ob-sldeo, erct sediy sessum, v. 
tr. To sit down before; to be^ 
sicge, blockade. 

obsldio, onis, f. {obaideo). A 
siege, blockade. 

. ob-sisto, ire, atui, stftum, v. 
intr. To oppose, resist, withstand. 

ob^tus, a, um, part. See 06- 

obstlnatus, a, um, &6j, {obstt-* 
no, to be resolved on). Fixed, re- 

ob-sto, dre, stiti, gtdturus, ▼. 
intr. To stand before dr against, 
withstand, hinder, oppose. 

ob-str$po, Sre,.ui, itnm, v. tr. 
and intr. {stripo, to roar). To 
make a noise at ; to drown with 
clamor; to rage; to interrupt, 

obstrudo, Sre, ai, aum, v. tr. 
{ob, trudo, to thrust). To hide, 

ob-struo, 8re, xi, ctum, v. tr. 
To pilo before or against; to stop 
or block up. 



obstrflsas, a, um, part. See 

ob-8tfipesco, iref ptd^ y. incep. 
{itilpeo). To become scnseleBs ; 
to be astonisbcd, amazed. 

ob-sardesco, ire, dvi, y. in- 
cep. (8urdti»f deaf ). To become 
deaf; to be deof 

ob-tSro, ire^ trivi, tritumf y. tr. 
To disparagc, trample on. 

ob-tosaSy Of um, a^j. (tundOf 
to beat). Blunt, dull, obtuse. 

ob-yerto, #r«, /», sum, v. ir. To 
torn towards or away, tum round. 

obyiam, adv. {obvitta)- In the 
way, towards, to meet ; ire obvt- 
am, to go to meet. 

ob-vias, a, um, adj, (rta). In 
the way, so as to mect, meeting ; 
obviua ire, to go to meet, to meet. 

occaeco, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
(db, eaeeo, to make blind). To 
hide, conceal. 

occftsQS, u», m. (pecido). A 
..going down, setting ; the qnarter 
in which the san sets, the wcst. 

occatio, onis, f. {occo, to har- 
row). A harrowing. 

ocGldo, ire, ctdi, casum, v. in- 
tr. (db, cOdo). To fkll down, fall ; 
to go down, set ; to fall into dis- 
nse ; to perish, die ; to be ruined, 
lost, undone. 

occido, ire, cidi, cisum, v. tr. 
{Ob, caedo). To kill, slay. 

occQlo, gre, ciUui, cuUum, v. tr. 
To covcr, hide, conceal. 

occalto, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
(freq. of occUlo). To hide, con- 

occaltos, a, um, part. See oc- 
cHh. As a4j. Hidden, concealed, 

occambo, gre, cHbui, cHbttum, 
V. intr. ((56, cabo). To fall dying; 
to die ; mortem, to siuk in death. 

occfipo, are, avi, Stum, r. tr. 
{db, cdpio). To seize npon, oo- 
cupy, take possession of ; to anti- 
cipate, take up, undcrttike first ; 
to fill with ; to fail upon, attuck, 
scize, inviide. 

occorro, &re, ctari, rarely cU- 
curri, curmm, v. intr. (d6, curro), 
To run, h^isten or go towards to 
mcct; to go against, rush upun, 
attack ; to meet or fall in with ; 
to present itsclf, appear, occur ; to 
oppose, counteract. 

ocior, ius, gen. drie, snp. ocia- 
aXmus, a4j. Swifler, fleeter. 

octingeoteslmas, a, um, ord. 
num. adj. {octingenti). The eight 

octingenti, ae, a, nnm. ac^. 
{octo, centum). Eight hundred. 

octo, indecl. num. acij. Eight. 

octogeslmus, a, um, ord. 
num. a4j. {octdginta), The eighti- 

octoginta, indecl. num. acy. 
{octo). Eighty. 

ocfilos, i, m. The eye. 

5di, odisse, v. def. To hate. 

ddiosas, a, um, adj. {ddium). 
Hateful, odious, vexatious, uu- 
pleasant, annoying. 

odiam, i, n. (od-, root of odi). 
Hatred, ill-will, enmity, aversion ; 
importunity, insolence, disgust. 

5dor, oris, m. A smell, odor ; 
esp. in plur., perfbme, perfumery, 
fragrance, spices ; a disagreeable 
smell, stench. 

ddorattts, a, um, part. See 
ddoro. As adj. Fragrant 

5doro, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
{ddor). To give a smell or fr». 

Oeftgrias, a, um, acy. Oea- 
grian, Thracian. 

Oec5n5mXcns, t, m. The ti- 



tle of one of Xen6phon*s works, 
relating to domestic economy. 

OedlpnSy ddis and t, m. A 
king of Tiiebes, son of Laius and 
locasta; Oedipus Cdloueus, ttie 
title of a tragedy of Sopliocles. 

Oetaens» a, um, adj. {Oete). 
Of or belonging to Oeta. 

Oete, e8, f. The mountain 
range between Thessaiy and Ma- 
cedonia, now Kumayta. 

offendo, A^e, diy sum, t. tr. and 
intr, {db and root pbnd-, strike). 
To strike or dash against ; to dis- 
please, shock, offend. 

offensio, dm«, f. {pffendo). Of- 
fence, aversion, dislike, displeos- 
ure, vexation. 

offSro, ferrey obtuli, oblaium, 
y. irr. {db, firo), To bring for- 
ward, offer, present, exhibit; to 
adduce, proffer; to cause, occa- 

offlciose, adv. {officiosus, 
obliging). Courteously, oblig- 

offlcinm, t, n. (contr. flrom 
dpiftcium, dpuSf fOcio). A ser- 
yice, kindness, favor, duty ; busi- 
ness, offlce, employment. 

51e&rins, a, um, i\6j, {dleum). 
Pertaining to oil, oil-. 

OiSnins, a, um, ac^. {OlinoSy 
a town in Achaia). Olenian. 

OlSnos, t, m. Tbe husband of 
Lethaea, who was changed with 
her into a stone. 

51eo, eref dlui, v. tr. and intr. 
To emit a smell ; to smell. 

51enm, t, n. Oil, olivc oil. 

olim, adv. {ollus, the old form 
of ille). J?'ormerIy, now for some 
time, now for a long time. 

dlivetum, t, n. {dliva^ the ol- 
ive). A place planted with olives, 
an olive yard. 

I olns, gris^ n. Cabbage. 
I Olympia, drum, n. The Olym- 
plc gamcs. 

Olympia, ae, f. A sacred re- 
gion in Elis. 

Olympias, adis, f. The daugh- 
ter of Neoptul(^iuus, kin^ of Epi- 
rus, mother of Alcxander the 

Olympins, a, um, adj. Per- 
taining tu Oiympia, a sacred re- 
gion in Elis. 

Olympns, t, m. A monntain 
on the boundary of Macedonia 
andThessaly, of great height, and 
consequently regarded as the 
abode of the gods. 

omen, fnis, n. A foreboding, 
prugnostic, sign, token, omen. 

omitto, ire, misif missum, v. 
tr. ((56, mitto). To let go, omit, 
lay aside, neglect ; to pass over, 
say nothing of ; to cease, leave 

omnino, adv. {omnis). Alto- 
gether, wholly, entirely, utterly, 
absolutely, at all, in general ; by 
all means, certainly. 

omnlpotens, ntis, adj. {omnis, 
pdtens). Ail-powerful, almighty. 

omnis, e, aiy. AIl, evcry, the 

5n6ro, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
{dnus). To load, burden ; to sup- 
ply, fumish. 

5nns, IW», n. A load, burden ; 
a charge, obligation. 

5nnstns, a, um, a^j. {dnus). 
Loaded, laden, burdened. 

5pacns, a, um, a^j. Shady, 
dark, obscure. 

5pSra, ae, f. {dpus). Pains, ex- 
ertion, work, labur, service, aid. 

5p$rio, ire, dpSitu, Opertum, v. 
tr. (perh. 6b, pdrio), To cover, 
shut, hide. 


0PER0SU8 — 0RBU8 

5pSr5sa8, a, wn, a^j. {dpgra), 
Painstaking, active ; tronbleBome, 
laborioas, hard, difflcult. 

dpertus, a, um, purt. See apg- 

Opheltes, ae, m. A Tascan 

dplfex, frt>, m, {dpvs, fOcio), 
A maker, framer, artirian. 

5pinio, oniSf f. {dpinor). Opin- 
ion, belief, supposition, coi\)ec- 
ture; a good opinion, expecta- 
tion, iiope. 

5pinor, dri, Sttu »um, v. dep. 
To beof opinion, sappose, believe, 

5portet, ere, uU, ▼• impers. 
(dput, nced). It lieliooyes, in meet 
or fit, is necessary, usefol, proper. 

oppldanng, a, um, a^j. {oppx- 
dum), Of a town. As subs., op- 
ptddnit ortimf m. Townsmen. 

opplduni, if n. A town, wall- 
ed town. 

oppdno, ire, pdsui, pdsitum, y. 
tr. (<j6, pono), To put or place 
against, before or opposite ; to op- 
pose, press against. 

opportonltas, dtiSf f. (oppor- 
tunua). Fitness, convenience ; an 

opportnnns, a, «m, adj, (db, 
portuSf lit., at or bcfore a port). 
Fit, convenient, suitable, season- 
able; advjntageous, serviceable. 

Opprlmo, ire, pressij pressum, 
V. tr. {dbf prgmo). To press down, 
press against ; to supprcss, check, 
qnell; to overcome, put down, 
suppress, destroy, overthrow, 
prustrate, siibduc; to fall npon, 
surprise, seizc, caich ; to wear out, 
weaken, exhaust; to terminate 

ops, Opi» [nom. sing. does not 
occur, aud dat. very seldom], f. | 

Power, might, strength, ability-; 
help, aid, sapport; in plnr., re- 
sources, power, wealth, means. 

optabllis, tf, a4j. {opto), To 
be wished for, desirahle. 

optlme, adv. Sce bHne, 

optlmns, a, um, adj. See bd- 

opto, dre, dvif dtum, v. tr. To 
choose, selecty wish for, desire. 

5pttlens, ntis, and 5piUentn8, 
A, um, adj, {ops). Rich, wealthy, 
opulent ; flne, spiendid. 

5pfilentia, ae, f. (dpitiens), 
Riches, wealth, opulence. 

5pa8, griSf n. Work, labor; 
workmanship, skill, desifrn; a 
work, piece of workmanship; a 
deed, effect; pains, labor, difficul- 
ty; magno opere, or magnopSre, 
very much, greatly, exceedingly. 

5pa8, indecl. n. [often equiva- 
lent to an a^.]. Need, necessity ; 
useful, serviceable, beneficial. 

dra, ae, f. {os), Edgc, border, 
coast; a region, clime, eountiy; 
thc world, earth, life, light. 

dractilnm, t, n. {bro), A di- 
vine announccment, an oracle; 
prophecy ; an answer, response. 

oratio, onis, f. {oro). A speak- 
ing, speech, languagc ; an oration, 
harangne ; eloquence, expression. 

orator, oris, m. {oro). An or»- 
tor, spcakcr ; ambassador, envoy. 

orbis, is, m. A ring, circle, 
disk ; the globe, world, earth ; re- 
gion, country ; a wheel. 

orbltas, dHs, t {orbua), Dep- 
rivation, w^idowhood. 

orbo, dre, dci, dtum, v. tr. (or' 
bus). To bereave of parcnts, chil- 
drcn, etc. ; to make fatherless, 
mothcrless, childlcss ; to deprive, 
bcreave of. 

orbns, a, um, adj. Bereaved* 



bercft, childless, fatherless, desti- 
tute of, devoid of. 

ordior, irt, orsus sum^ y. dep. 
To spin or weave ; to begin, com- 

ordo, fnw, m. (drior). Row, 
order, train, course, arrongement, 

Orestes, ae and »>, m. The 
son of Agamemnon and Clytem- 

orgia, orutn, n. The orgies of 
Bacchas, orgies. 

oriens, entit, part. See drior. 
As a4j. Rising ; as subs., (sc. aol). 
The qnarter where the sim rises, 
the east. 

origo, ini», f. (drior), A be- 
ginTiing, source, descent, birth, 
ori^in ; in plor., Originea, um, f. 
The title of aa historical work by 

Orion, 6n,ia and dnia, m. The 
storm-bringing consteliatlon, Ori- 

drior, iri, ortus sum [fut. act. 
part. dritUrus], v. dep. To rise, 
become visible, appear ; to spring, 
descend, be bom ; to begin, take 
its beginning, proceed. 

ornSmentam, t, n. (omo). 
Ornament, accoutremeht, eqnip- 

ornfttus, a, um, part. See omo, 
As adj. Fitted out, adomed, em- 
bellished, handsome, omate. 

orn&tus, U8, m. (omo). Splen- 
did dress, attire, apparel. 

orno, are, dvi, atum, v. tr. To 
deck, adom, equip. 

oro, are, avi, atum, v. tr. {os, 
oris). To plead as an orator ; to 
beg, pray, beseech. 

Orontes, ae, and ia, m. The 
principal river of Syria. 

Orpheus, ei and eos, m. The 
fiunoas mythic singer o^ Thr»pe^ 

son of Oeagras and Calli5pe, and 
husband of Eurydtce. 

Orpheus, a, um, adj. {Or- 
pheus). Orphic. 

Orphne, es, f. A nymph of 
the lower world, wife of Achfiron, 
and mother of Ascal&phus. 

orsus, a, Uin, part. Sec ordior. 

ortns, a, um, part. See drior. 

ortus, u^, m. {6rior). A rising, 
esp. of tiie heavcnly bodies ; bc- 
ginning, rise, origin, birth. 

Ortygia, ae, and Ortirgie, es, 
f. An island near Syracuse, and 
which forms a part of it. 

os, ons, n. The mouth, fhce, 
countenance ; head, source. 

os, ossis, n. A bone. 

osciilnm, i, n. (dim. of ds). A 
little or pretty mouth ; a kiss. 

Ossa, ae, m. A high mountain 
in Thessaly, opposite Ol.^mpus. 

ostendo, l^re, di, sum and tum, 
V. tr. {db, tendo). To stretch out; 
to show,- exhibit, display, disclose, 
manifest, dcclare, say; to allege, 

ostent&tio, onis, f. (ostento, a 
freq. of ostendo). Display, show, 

ostium, i, n. {os). The mouth 
of a river. 

osiirus, a, um, part. Sce odi. 

Othrys, yos, m. A mountain 
in Thessaly. 

otiosus, a, um, a4j. {otium). 
At leisure, unoccupied, free, idle, 
unemployed, &ee Arom care or 

otinm, t, n. Leisure, vacant 
time, inactivity ; a quiet life. 

dvis, is, f. A sheep. 

ovum, t, n. An egg. 

Oxus -os, t, m. A river rising in 
the Paropamlsus (Hindu-Kush)» 
and emptying into the Caspian 
Sea. ,-. 



«V n 

}m,.u um. a»Ct 
«fr^t* *>" x\>r t tu I »vii:ut . UuL 

Jt.^» •i.i4«ii'>. v*»-ir», ii!!iu*Ji«'jfe- 

ftufar ^««^^. 7"^ *l'*'^*.*. Atf »* n. 

M. 'r, «^«Jv^/^. 'A V'*J» ♦> ..,» ,-. jr >^w»j»n 
U.* Aav.'.**'aujv ^r.vjtf aiit»'^ "^ rt>4T 

u^m^ m^>tuk*^f ^^sod^ kti u^ 

i^ mt4 fim f*0fK *,h%'f wUtcfifi»i t4m^ 
4^j, to tn^ fiff uu kJ^WJi^; Uf 
U0ttii Ut U*Mf U*iU$m, ftmm ttp. 

mts4i4ffmf $rf(, tvlt Uum, r, tr, [z 
*itAUi, fffrm t4 arif4itmf\. To jmiiO' 
ut^m i Ut t^iftrii Uf s*intmt$*f, 

WAu% mr iftmitig Ut ', uu Uuarttm, 

. meeido, Sr^, tdi, r« hitr, (ad, 
eado), To tMU Ufi to hnppiftt, 

««^iEsC mOmm, T. te, * 

«H -w yvc n niouuL ^ To cuise 
li «jifiift . si «nmniiiL ; n Iffai^ 
a>w^jw>, «^ oRPw, ijiri—, T. tr. 

'ikC. t-tsptt^ Ititmt ■.'XVTeearei 

jrJcwSaL. ». m. loc. q62dj. A 
tv-»-u»ir ly «• leas- jl ialaoe, a 

SdcsflMttA, mun, i. iiwianiAo}. 
A T^iur irswiSmiiir K ittiile. 

r. nitr. :»tf. estf*»*. Ti- iinr oue*s 
wvS tiKmr vt iK^at i imlmJKEmi to 

/•».•«.* JU»r Ift. 

lut^iJte i ^ «, w, ^ (o^, 

'«rv ^ Py%n»; J^ -«l&ti CIR. C3KJKX, 

iSAiCli»;'^ «{ii.^rinttf'., mxainae. 
a<««*0« «^« «'«. SCmm. t. tr. 

W^^^-fiBWMC^ l9 <^iJ3 ttliS: K» «C- 

arx»3a*«t, rridict:, JKrK^gm. 

SMV* <TM# «n^ <XiH|fc. flUlMM* 
rry4 A«>« vtKBttAMS^ASWp CCC). 


titflr, ivjagSily« 

Ik^rMjw» «e», £ C^oBriw). 
^riMse. tiittnwea^ hanfasesB; 
tSffffr^ t^jmtMM^ sereri^ ; »- 
rotr, pnii, sngBisli. 

fteertas, «, »«, «41- (*«^)- 
B;tt«T, biir^b, soor ; p(wgh« lepol- 
fc jy*', ttufrt^ ; seTere, grieT<As. 

fteentoas, o» km» «41- ^ 

Ae&iiaee, oe, m. A Htct of 
IndiSy tbe efaief tribotaiy oftlie 

AebAia, <s«, t, Tbe pnmoee 
of Acbeifty ia tlie nortbcm part of 



P., abbreviation for Publios. 

p&bainm, t, n. (pa-, or pas-, 
root of pateo), Food, nooristi- 
mcnt, snstenance. 

Pachfnos, t, f. The Boatti- 
eastern promontory of Sicily. 

p&ciscor, i, pactus «um,T. dep. 
<r()iit PAC-, or PAO-, fix). To fix, 
Bcttlc; to mke a bargain or 
agreement, covenant, agree npon. 

Pactoloa, », m. A river in 

peictnm, h n. { pOtiseor). An 
agreemcnt, covenant, compact ; 
manner, way. 

pactns, a, um, part See pO' 

Pftclfyias, », m. Marcns Pa- 
ctivias, a celebrated Roman poet, 
a native of Brnndisium, nephew 
of Ennius and contemporary with 
Scipio AfHcanus. 

P&das, », m. A river in Up- 
per It^ly, now the Po. 

paedagdgus, », m. A govwn- 
or, pedagogue. 

paene, adv. Nearly, almost, 
well nigh, all but. 

paenttentia, ae, f. {paenUeo). 
Rcpentance, penitence. 

paentteo, ere, ui, v. tr. and in- 
tr. To cause to repent; tofeel 
sorryj repent; more freq. as v. 
impers., paenUet, it repents me, 
i. e. I repent, am sorry. 

pftlaestra, ae, f. A place for 
practising gymnastic exercises, 

p&iatnm, »', n. The palate. 

Palici, drum, m. Twin sons 
of Jupiter and the nymph Thalia, 
worshipped at Palica in Sicily, 
where there were a temple and 
two lakes sacred to them a9 en- 

fbrcers of oaths, promoters of fer- 
tility, and as sea-gods. 

Palias, adia, f. A Greek name 
for Minerva. 

palleo, ere, ui, v. intr. To l)e or 
look pale ; to be or look yellow. 

pallldas, a, utn, adj. {patteo}. 
Pale, white. 

pallor, oris, m. (paHeo). Pale- 
ness, wanness. 

palma, ae, f. The palm of the 
hand ; the palm-branch, or palm- 
wreath, as a token of victory, 
palm; prize, victory ; the froit of 
an Egyptian tree, the date. 

pftlas, Qdis, f. (pcrh. from the 
same root as pando, pdlamf pdteo, 
etc., and meant orig., * that which 
spreads out '). A marsh, swamp, 

p&laster, trie, e, adj. {p&lus). 
Fenny, mnrshy, swampy. 

pamplnens, a, um, ac^. (pam- 
ptnue). Full or consisting of ten- 
drils or vine leaves ; Ao^to, wrap- 
ped around with vine leaves. 

pamplnas, »', m. A vine leaf, 
the foliage of a vine. 

Panftthenalcas, »', m. An 
oration of Isocr&tes, pronounced 
at the Panathenaea, a popularfes- 
tival of the Athenians. 

pando, Sre, pandi, panaum and 
paseum, v. tr. (root pad-, whence 
pdlam, pdteo, etc.). To spread 
out, extend; to unfuld, publish, 
make known, rel&te, explain ; pas- 
sie capiUis, with dishevelled hair. 

panda», a, um, a^. Bent, 
crooked, curved. 

P&uope, es, f. A town in the 
south of Phocis, on the Cephisus. 

panthera, ae, f. A panther. 

Pfiplrias, «, m. Caius Pftpi- 
rius Carbo, a partisan of Tiberins 



Papnsy t, m. Quintas Aemll- 
ins Papus. See AemiUtu. 

par, pdris, acjj. Eqnal, alike, 
the suTne ; meet^ proper, right. 
As snbs. n. A pair.* 

pfirabllis, e, adj. (paro). Of 
easy attainmcnt. 

pfirfisitUS, i, m. (irapdatTos, lit., 
one who eats wich another). A 
parasite, spongcr, toad-eater. 

p&ratos, U8, m. {pdro). A pre- 
parinif, fitting out, preparation, 

Parcae, arum, f. (from the 
root PAR-, whcnce pars, jmrtior, 
etc). The Fates, whose Greek 
names were Clotho, LachSsis, and 

parco, 9re, pgperci, less freq. 
parsi, parcitum and parsum, v. 
intr. {parcu»), To spare, use 
sparingly ; to forbear. 

parcas, a, um, ac^. Sparing, 
frugal, thrifty. 

pard&lis, ia, f. A female pan- 

pfirens, ntis, m. andf. {pdrio), 
A parcnt, progenitor, anccstor. 

p&rento, dre, dvi, dtum, y. tr. 
{pdrens), To offcr a solemn sac- 
riflce in honor of deceascd par- 
ents, relativcs, or other bcloved 
persons; to revenge a person'8 
death by that of anothcr ; to make 
therewith an ofiferingtohismanes. 

pareo, ere, ui, itum, v. intr. 
To come forth, appear ; to obey, 
submit to, comply with. 

pfiries, Sti», m. The wall of a 

pfirllis, e, adj. {pdr), Equal, 

pfirio, ire, pgpSri, partum and 
pdrttum, V. tr. To bring forth, 
bear ; to bring about, procure, ac- 
quire, devise. 

p&rlter, adv. (pdr), In like 
mnnner, at the same time, eqnal- 
ly ; pariier ac, equally as. 

ParmSnio, onis, m. One of 
AIcxander'8 generals. 

Parnasius, a, um, adj. {Par» 
ndaus). Pamasbian. 

Parnasus, i, m. A high moun- 
tain in Phocis, with two peaks, 
sacred to ApoIIo and thc Muses, 
II t whose foot were tlic city of 
Delplii and the Castalian spring. 

pfiro, are, dvi, dtum, v. tr. To 
prepare, get ready; to procure, 
get, acquire ; to contrive, design, 
bring to pass ; to intend, deter- 

P&ros, i, f. An ishind in the 
Aegcan Sca, one of the Cyclftdes, 
famcd for its white marble. 

parrlcidium, t, n. {parrMda, 
a parricide). Parricide. 

pars, tis, f. A part, share, por- 
tion; a side, party, faction; a 
part, act, character (on the stage) ; 
function, offlce, dnty; a place, 

Parthi, orum, m, The Par- 
thians, a Scythian people, situa- 
ted at the north-east of the passes 
of the Casplan. 

partim, adv. (prob. acc. of 
pars). Partly, in part. 

partior, iri, itua aum, v. dep. 
{para), To divide, distribute, 

partttrio, ire, ivi (ii), v. desid. 
(pdrio), To desire to bring forth, 
be in labor ; to be anzious or con- 

partus, a, um, part. See pa" 

partus, U8, m. ( pdrio). A bear- 
inir, bringing forth; ofFspring, 
birth ; partu edere, to give birth 



pirani, comp. mfniM, snp. mr- 
nrm«, ady. Little, too little, not 

pftram-per, ady. A little whlle, 
for a short time. 

parYillas, a, umf Rdj. (dlm. of 
parvtu), Very small, little, pet- 
ty, slight; a parvUlOf fromachild. 

par^as, a, «m, comp. minorf 
snp. mtntmua, adj. Small, little, 
weak, feeble, slight, insignificant. 

pasco, ire, pavif pastum, v. tr. 
and intr. (root fa-, whence also 
pabalum,). To drive to pastore ; 
to feed, noorish, support; in 
p€u»., to feast, Batisfy one'8 self. 

passim, adv. {pando). Here 
and there, promiscnously, in ev- 
ery direction, indiscriminately, at 

passos, a, ttm, part. See 1). 
paiior. 2). pando. As adij. Out- 
spread, extended ; capilli, dishev- 

passos, UBf m. {pando). A 
Btep, pace. 

pastor, oria, m. (patco). A 

pastas, U8f m. {pasco). Pas- 
tare, fodder, food. 

pfit6fficio, ire,f€ci, factumf 
pass., patSfio, iri,factua sum, 
V. tr. {pateOf fado). To set or 
throw open ; to open ; to disclose, 
expose, bring to light. 

pateo, ere, ui, v. intr. To lie 
open, be open ; to stretch ont, ex- 
tend ; to be visible, clear, evident, 
manlfest ; to be exposed. 

pfiter, tris, m. A father, sire. 

patSra, ae, f. {pOteo). A liba- 
tion saucer or bowl. 

pfiternas, a, um, &dj. {pa- 
ter). Fatherly, patemal. 

pfitesco, ire, patuiy v. incep. 
{poteo). Tq be wanifest, evideut. 

p&tiens, entis, part See pO- 
tior. As ac^. Able to bear or 
endure, patient, submissive, sup- 

pfitienter, adv. {pOtiens). Pa- 
tiently, calmly, with submission. 

pfitientia, a«, f. {potiem). The 
quality of bearing, suflfering, en- 
during, patience, forbearance ; in- 

pfitior, t, paasus «um, v. dep. 
To boar, suffer, endure, tolerate ; 
to allow, permit, let. 

pfitria, ae, f. {patriua ; sc. ter- 
ra). The land of one's fathers, 
one'8 native country, father- 

patrias, a, um, adj. (pater). 
Of or belonging to a father, fa- 
therly, patemal ; handed down 
from one's ancestors, native, he- 
reditary, old, established. 

pfitronas, t, m. {poter). A 
protector, defender, patron; an 
advocate, pleader. 

p&traelis, e, adj. {patrtma). 
Descended from a father^s bro- 

pfitraas, t, m. {pater), A fa- 
ther'8 brother, patemal uncle. 

pfitfilas, a, um, a(^. {pOteo). 
Open, spread out, broad, wide, 

paacas, a, um [usnally in the 
plur.], a^j. Few. As subs., pati* 
ci, orum, m. A few, few. 

paaliatim, adv. (pauUum), 
By degrees, gradually. 

paallisper, adv. {pauUua). Por 
a short time, for a little while. 

paallo, adv. {pauUw). By a 
little, a iittle. 

paalltilam, adv. (dim. otpauU 
lum), A little way or time. ^ 

paollam, adv. {jpa/uUuM), Jl 
Uttle, somewhat. 



paullns, a, um, adj. Little. 
As subs., pauUumt i, n. A little. 

Paiillas, if m. A Boman sur- 
name of the Aemilian family. I. 
Lucius Aemilius Paullus, consul 
for the sccond time with C. Te- 
rentius Varro, through whose ad- 
yice abattle was fought against 
Hannlbal, near Cannae, B. C. 216, 
in which he lost his life. IL Lu- 
cius Aemllius PauUus Maeedonl- 
cus, so called as the conqueror of 
the last Maccdonian king Perseus 
at Pydna, B. C. 168, the son of the 
foregoing, and the adoptive father 
of the younger Scipio. In the 
plur., PaulU, drum, m. Men like 

paaper, Sria, ndj. Poor, indi- 
gent, needy. 

panpertas, dtis, f. {pauper), 
Poverty, indigence. 

paveo, ere, pavi, y. tr. and in- 
tr. To be struck with great fear 
or terror ; to be much afraid. 

pavldas, a, um, adj. {pdveo). 
Fearful, terrified, alarmed, anx- 
ious, disturbed. 

paTor, oria, m. {pdveo). Fear, 
dread, alarm, terror, anxiety. 

pax, pacis, f. (root PAC-, whence 
pdciacor). Peace, fkvor, assist- 

peccatam, i, n. (peceo). A 
fault, error, transgression, sin. 

pecco, dre, dvi, dium, v. tr. 
and intr. To miss, mistake, go 
wrong, err ; to offend, sin, commit 
a fault. 

pecto, Sre, pexi, pexum and 
pectttum, V. tr. To comb. 

pectas, dris, n. The breast; 
heart, feelings, disposition ; cour- 
age, bravery ; the soul, spirit, un- 

pficuoia, ae, f. (pgous, dris). 
Property, ricbes, wealth ; money. 

pScas, dris^, n. A herd, flock, 

' pScas, Udis, f. A beast, an ani- 

pSdes, ttis, m. {pes, eo). One 
that goes on foot, a footman.foot- 

pSdester, tris, tre, a4j. {pSdes). 
On foot; on land, by land. As 
subs., pSdestres^ ium, m. (sc. mi^- 
tes). Foot-soldiers. 

Pegasos, i, m. The winged 
horse of tlie Muses, who sprang 
from the blood of Medusa, when 
she was slain, and with a blow of 
his hoof caused the fountain of 
the Muses (Hippocrene) to spring 
from Mount Hellcon. 

peior, 1«, gen. oris, See m<l- 

peig.gas, i, n. The sea. 

Peiias, ae, m. A king of Thes- 
saly, uncle of Jason, cut to pieces 
and boiled in a caldron by his 
daughters at the artful instigation 
of Medea, who had promised 
them to restore him again to 

Pelion, t, n. A high monn- 
tain in Thcssaly, south of Mount 

pellex, tcis, t. A concubine, 

pellis, is, f. Sldn, hide. 

pello, Sre, pSpitU, pulsum, v. tr. 
To beat, strike, push ; to drive, 
thrust out or away, expel, ban- 
ish ; to touch, move, affect. 

PSlopeias, a, um, acy. Per- 
taining to Pelops, or Phrygiaas 
the native country of Pclops. 

PSloros, i, m. A promontory 
on the north-eastern extremity of 

Pelasiam, i, n. AnEgyptian 
city at the eastem moath of the 



pSnftrias, a, f«m, a^j. {pgnus, 
provisions). Of or for provisions. 

pSnates, lum, m. (root pbx-, 
whcnco pinttus, pgnitro, etc, ex- 
pressing the idea of entering, in- 
terior ; hence as deities of the in- 
tcrior of tho housc). The Pcnates, 
old Latin gaardian deities of a 
houschold; lience, by meton., a 
dwcUlng, house, abodo. 

pcndeo, ere^ pgpemUt v. intr. 
To hang, hang down, be suspend- 
ed; to float, hover; to rest, de- 
pend upon. 

pendo, iret pgpetidi, pensumf 
T. tr. and intr. To cause to hang 
down ; to weigh ; to pay, suffer, 
nndcr^o a penalty. 

pSndtrftlia, »tim, n. (pinitro), 
Thc inner part, an intcrior room, 
a sanctuary, esp. that of the Pe- 
natcs, a chapel. 

pSnfitro, are, avi, atumf v. tr. 
and intr. (root pen- ; cf. pinatea), 
To penetrute, malve one's way in- 
to or through. 

Penens, -os, »', m. A principal 
river of Thessaly, which rises in 
Mount Pindus, flows through the 
valley of Tempe, and falls iuto 
the Oulf of Therma. 

pSnltns, adv. (root pen-; cf. 
pinates). Far within, wholly, 

penna, ae, f. (root pet- ; cf. 
Hroiiai, to fly). A feather, wing, 

pensllis, e, adj. {pendeo). 

penuria, a«, f. Want, need, 

p6r, prep. with acc Through, 
by, for, during, by means of ; per 
in comp. signifies, through, over ; 
thoroughly, exceedingly ; greatly, 
veiy ; and sometimes the idea of 

destruction; cf. perdere^ perire^ 

pSr-ftcerbns, a, um, a4j. Yery 
harsh to tho taste, very sour. 

pSr-actio, dnie, f. {pirdgo). A 
finishin^, complction. 

pSr-ft^o, ire, egi, actum, v. tr. 
To do thoroughly or completely ; 
to finish, complete ; to pass, live 
throngh, spcnd. 

pSr-l^ro, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
{Ager). To wandcr or travel 
throngh, pass through, travcrse. 

per-cello, ire, etdl, culsum. v. 
tr. (root CEL-, raisc). To beat 
down, throw down; to impel 
greatly ; to strikc, smite. 

per-censeo, ere, ui, v. tr. To 
go through or over, wander 

per-clpio, ire, cepi, eeptum, v. 
tr. (cdpio). To take entire pos- 
session of ; to catch, seize ; to get, 
obtain, rcoeive, assume ; to per- 
ccive, feel ; to leam, comprehend, 

per-contor, ari, atut sttm, v. 
dep. {cunctor). To ask particu- 
larly, inquire, question, investi- 

per-cnrro, ire, cHcurri and 
cim-i, curaum, v. tr. and intr. 
To run through, pass throngh. 

per-cfitio, ire, cussi, cuesum, 
V. tr. {guatio). To strike tlirough; 
to smite, slay. 

Perdiccas, ae, m. One of the 
most distinguished of Alexan- 
der*s gencrals, and, after his 
death, regent. 

perdltns, a, um, part. See 
perdo. As tidj. Lost, mined, aban- 
doned, hopeless. 

perdiz, icis, m. and f. A par- 

per-do, ire, dfdi, dUum, v. tr. 



To dcstroy, ruin; to sqtiander, 
dissipate, lose. 

per-domo, are, ut, f^um, v. tr. 
To tanie thoroughly, complctely 
snbdue, sahjug^ite. 

per-duco» ire, xt, ctumy v. tr. 
To lead or bring throagh or over, 
conduet ; to prolong, continue ; to 
persuade, induce. 

pSrSgrinAtio, onis, f. {piri^ 
ffvinor, to travel about). A traV^ 
elling ahout, pere.irrination. 

pSrSgrlnas, a, u//),adj. (^pgrS- 
ger, on a joumey or abroad). 
Stran.?e, foreign. 

pSremptus, a, um, part. See 

per-ennifl, e, adj. (annus). 
Perennial ; ever flowing. 

pSr-eo, fre, ici (u*), itum, v. irr. 
To pass away, vanish, disappear; 
to be desiroyed, perish, die ; to be 
lost, ruined, undone. 

pSr-erro, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
To wander, ramble, or roam 
through or over. 

perfectas, a, um, part. See 
perficio, As a4j. Finished, ex- 
cellent, complete, perfect. 

per-flcio, *re, feci, fectum, v. 
tr. {fHdo). To do thoronghly, fln- 
ish, complete. 

per-f odio, *r«, fodi, fossum, 
V. tr. To dig through. 

per-fringo, 6re,fregi,fractum, 
V. tr. {frango). To break through ; 
to stiattcr. 

per-fundo, Sre, fudi, fusum, 
V. tr. To l)esprinkle, wet, mois- 
ten, drench. 

per-fungor, i, functua aum, v. 
dep. To fulfil, perform, discharge ; 
to go throngh, undergo, endure. 

pergo, ire, perrexi, perrectum, 
V. tr. and intr. (p8r, rSgo), To go 
straight throogh, go on, proceed. 

per-grfttns, a, um, acU. Very 
pleasinir, very acceptable. 

Pergus, t, m. A lake in Sicily, 
near tiie city Henna. 

pSriclItor, dri, atus sum, v. dep. 
{pS^rictZlum). To try, prove, put 
to the te{>t ; to expose one's self 
to danger. 

pSriciilam, contr. perlclam, 
t, n. (root F£Ki-, whence peritua), 
Trial, attenipt, peril, dan^^er. 

pSr-Imo, gre, emi, emptum, v> 
tr. {8mo, in thc orig. sensc, to 
take). To destroy, kill. 

pSrltus. a, um, ac^. (root pbri-, 
try ; cf. pirtcUlum, expirior). Ex- 
perienced. having a kuowledge of, 
acquainted with. 

per-16go, Sre, legi, lectum, v. 
tr. To read throngh. 

per-m&neo, ere, manai, man» 
8um, V. intr. To continue, en- 
dure, abide ; to perMist. 

per-matiiresco, Sre, maturui, 
V. incep. (maturua). To ripen ful- 
ly, become quite ripe. 

per-mitto, ire, misi, missum, 
V. tr. To let through ; to allow, 
snffer, permit, sarrender, intrnst. 

per-malceo, ere, si, sum and 
ctum, V. tr. To rub gently; to 
cliarm, delight; to soothe, ap- 

per-multas, a, um, acy. Very 
mnch, very many. 

pemlcies, «, f. ( pemgco, to 
kill outright). Destruction, ruin, 
disaster, calamity. 

pernlciosus, a, um, n(^. {pev' 
nicies). Destructive, ruinous, per- 
nicious, balcful. 

pSrdsoM, a, um, part. {pgrodi, 
to detest). Hating, greatly detest- 

per-paucos, a, um, tu^, Very 
little, very few. 


per-pendo, ire, pendi, permtm, 
V. tr. To weigh carefully ; to con- 
sider, estecm. 

per-p€tior, t, pestiu «wm, v. 
dep. {pdtior), To bear steadfost- 
ly, endurc, suffer. 

per-pStuos, a, um, adj. (pgto), 
Constant, uninterrupted, perpet- 
aal, unbrokcn, continuous. 

per-quiro, Sre, quUim, quisi- 
iumy V. tr. {quaero). To search 
diliiiently for. 

Persae, arum, m. The Per- 
sians, originaliy the inhabitants of 
the country Pcrsis, afterwards of 
the great liingdom of Persia. 

per-saepe, adv. Very often. 

Pers&sr&dae, arumt f. Thc 
old capital of Persis. 

per-ti&luto, are, avi, atum, v. 
tr. To siilutc one ufter anothcr. 

PersSphdne. e«, f. Tho Greek 
name of Proserplna. 

Persepdlis, i«. f. The capitil 
of Persia, north of the Araxes. 

per-sSqnor, f, cutus sum, v. 
dep. To follow, pnrsue ; to pros- 
ecute, avenge ; to perform, accom- 
plish ; to treat of, describe, dis- 
cuss; reliquiae, to consummate 
the unfinished exploits. 

Perseas, e» and eost m. Son 
of Jupiter and Danfte, daughter 
of the Argive king Acrlsius. 

persSvero, dre, aoi, cUum, v. 
tr. and intr. {persererus, very 
Btrict). To continue steadfastly, 
persiiJt, persevere. 

Persicas, a, um, adj. {Perea^). 

Persis, tdis, f. The parent- 
provinco of the Persian kinsjUom, 
lying between Caramania, Media, 
Susiana, and thc Persian Gulf, 
now Fars or Farsistdn. 

per-soivo, ire, solvi, sdUUum, 

V. tr. To unloose, solve, explatn ; 
to pay, give, show, render. 

perNdna, a«, f. {persOtw). Fer- 
sonage, character, part. 

per-sono, are, ui, itiim, v. tr. 
and intr. To sound througb ; to 
fill with sonnd, make resound. 

per-splcio, 6re, spexi, spectum, 
V. tr. {spScio, to look). To look 
or sce throngh ; to examine, in- 
spect, perceive, observe. 

persplcuns, a, um, adj. {per^ 
spicio). Transparent, clear, mani- 
fest, evidcnt. 

per-sto, are, stiHt stdtum, v. 
intr. To reniain steadfast; to 
hold out, persist. 

per-stringo, ire, nxi, ictum, 
V. tr. To hold fast or tight ; to 
draw up, contract; to touch upon 
sllfrhtly, narratc liriefly. 

per-stiidi5iia8, a, um, adj. 
Vcry desirous, very iond of. 

per-suadeo, ere, si, sum, v. 
tr. To persuade, convince, pre- 
vail upon. 

per-terreo, ere, ui, itum, v. tr. 
To frighten thoroughly, alann 

pertlnacia, ae, f. {pertinax, 
that holds fast). Persevemnce, 
constancy, obstlnacy. 

per-tlneo, ere, ui, tentum, t. 
intr. {teneo). To hold through; 
to reach, extend ; to relate to, con- 

pSr-titliis, e, ac^j. Very use- 

per-vSho, ire, vexi, vectum, v. 
tr. To bear tbrough ; to carry, 
bring, convey ; in pass., to ride, 
drivc, sail, etc. 

per-v6nio, ire, rem, ventum, t. 
intr. To come through to, arrive 
at, reach. 

perverse, adv. {perversut, 



wronj?). "Wrongly, badly, ill, per- 

perversltas, a^w, f. (perver- 
8tta, wrong). Frowardness, per- 

per-vius, «, «m, adj. (via). Af- 
fording a passage, passabie, per- 

pes,pSdis,m, Thefoot; afoot 
as a meo^are. 

pestlfer, Sra, Srum, adj. {pes- 
tis, firo), Pestilentlal, destruc- 
tive, pernicious. 

pestis, is, f. Plagne, pesti- 
lence, destruction, ruin. 

pSto,- ire, ivi (ii), itum, v. tr. 
To seek, go to, ask, requcst ; to 
aim at, tbrust at, attack; to di- 
rect one^s course to, make for ; to 
go after, fetch. 

pStra, ae^ f. A rock, cra<?. 

pStJUantia, ae, f. (pJitiUans, 
pert). Impudence, wantonness, 

Phaedlmiis, t, m. A son of 

PhaSthon, ontis, m. A son of 
Sol and the ocean nymph Clym- 

ph&lanz, angis, f. A host 
drawn up in close order, a pha- 

ph&rStra, ae, f. A quiver. 

Phasis, is and idos, m. A river 
in Colchis, a country bordering 
on.the Euxine. 

Pheg:iacas, a, um, adj (Phe- 
gia, a city in Arciidia). Phegiac. 

Phllemon, Cnis, m. A pious 
rustic, the husband of Baucis. 

Phliippas, i, m. I. A king of 
Macedonia, father of Alexander 
the Oreat ; assassinated 6. C. 336. 
II. An. Acamanian, Alcxander's 
physician. III. Quintus Marcins 
Philippus, consal for the Beoond 

time with Cn. Servilius Caepio, 
B. C. 169. 

phllosdphia, ae, f. Philoso- 

phllosophas, i, m. A phitoso- 

Philotas, ae, m. A son of 

Phllas, i, m. Lucius Furins 
Phthis. See Furius. 

PhlSgethontis, idis, ac^. Be- 
lonJ?ing to PhlegSthon, a river in 
the lower world which ran with 
fire instead of water, Phlegethon- 

PhlSgon, ontis, m. One of 
the steeds of the Sun. 

phdca, tie, f. A seal, sea-calf. 

Phocis, tdis, f. The country 
between Boeotia and Aetolia. 

Phoebe, es, f. The moon-god- 
dess, sistcr of Phoelius. 

Phoebeins, a, um, adj. (Pho&' 
biu), Phoebean. 

Phoebens, a, um, adj. (Pko&- 
bus), Phoebeun. 

Phoebns, t, m. Apollo. 

Phoenlces, um, m. The Phe* 
nicians, inhabitants of Phoenicia, 
a conntry of Syria. 

Phdrcldes, tm, f. The daqgh- 
ters of Phorcns. 

Phdrcfnis, idos, f. The 
daughter of Phorcus, i. e., Me- 

Phradates, is, m. A satrap 
of Media. 

Phrf ges, t^m, m. ThePhrygi- 

Phr^gia, ae, f. The country 
of Phrygia in Asia Minor, divided 
into Great and Little Phrygia. 

Phrf gins, a, um, 2jd^, Phry- 

Plcens, ntis, a4j. Of or be- 
longing to Picennm, a district 



In the eafltern pnrt of Italy, Pi- 

plceos, a, um, adj. {pix, pitch). 

ple» adv. {pitu). Datifallj, re- 
ligiously, affectionately. 

piStas, o^t», f. {pius), Dntifal 
conduct, piety, affection, love, 
loyulty, patriotism, gratitade, jus- 

pUrer^^a, grum, ac^. {ptget). 
Reliictant, sluggish, indolent, in- 

plget, iTB, mt, and ptgitum eat, 
T. impers. It irks, troubles, dis- 
gusts one ; I (thou, he, etc.), dis- 
like, loathe, etc. 

pignas, Oria, n. (root pao-; cf. 
pdciseor). A pledge, token, as- 
surancei proof. 

pl^e, adv. {ptger), Slowly, 

pila, ae, f. A pillar. pile. 

pllai ae, f. A hall, playing- 

PindQS, t\ m. A monntain in 
Thessaly, on thebordersof Mace- 
donia and Epiros. 

pingo, 9re, nxiy ietum, ▼. tr. To 
paint, oolor, adom, embellish. 

pingnis, e, adj. Fat; dull, 
gross, stupid ; pingui Minervd, 
with plain mother wit. 

pinna, ae, f. (another form of 
penna). A feather. 

pinns, ua and i, f. A pine tree ; 
by meton., any thing made of pine, 
a ship ; a torch. 

Pirenis, idis, adj. Of or per- 
taining to Pirene, a fonntain in 
the citadel of Corinth, sacred to 
the Mases, Pirenian. 

Pisa, ae, f. A city of Elis, in 
thc Peloponnesus. 

Pisaens, a, um, adj. (Pfsa). 
Of or belonging to Pisa, Pisaean. 

piscis, «>, hi. A fish. 

Pisistr&tns, i, m. Pisistr&tns, 
a tyrant oi' Athens. 

Pitthens, ei, m. King of Troe- 
aen, son of Pelops, anrl iiither of 
Aethra, the mothcr of Thescus. 

pios, a, t/m, adj. Pious, devout, 
conscientious ; dutiful, afffction- 
ate, tendcr, kind, tjood, loyal, pa- 
triotic ; honcst, upright. 

plficeo, ere, ui, citum, v. intr. 
To please ; as impers., pldcet, It 
pleascs, seems right or proper. 

pl&cldns, a, um, adj. {ploeeo), 
Calm, gcntle, placid, peaceful, 

plftco, are, Svi, aium, t. tr. To 
qalet, soothe, calm, still. 

plftga, ae, f. (root plao- ; of. 
plango). A blow, stroke, istripe. 

plaga, ae, f. (rctot plao- or 
PLAC-, flat). A region, tract, dis- 

plftne, adv. (planut). Evenly ; 
clearly, distinctly ; wholly, entire- 
ly, qnite ; certainly, by all means. 

plango, ire, nxi, nctum, v. tr. 
(root PLAO- ; cf. plaga). To beat, 

plangor, oria, m. (plango). A 
striking, beating ; loud mouruing, 
wailing, lamentation. 

planities, ei, f. {planus). A 
plain, level ground. 

planta, ae, f. A spront, sprig, 
shoot, graft, scion. 

plftuns, a, tMi, acy. Even, flat, 

Plato, onis, m. A celebrated 
Orecian philosopher, the disciple 
of Socr&tes, the instrnctor of 
Aristotle, and fonnder of the Aca- 
demic sdiool of philosophy. 

Piftton, onis, m. One of Alex- 
ander's leaders. 

plando, gre, «t, tum, y. tr. and 



intr. To clap, strike; to ap- 

plaastrmn, %, n. A wagon» 
cart ; tbe constellation * Charle8's 
Wain,* or the * Great Bear.' 

plaasus, uSf m. {plaudo), Ap- 

Plaatas, f, m. T. Maccias 
Plautus, a celebrated Roman com- 
ic poet, a native of the Umbrian 
village Sarslna. 

plebs, plebii, f. The common 
people, the commons or common- 
alty, the plebeians (as opp. to 
the patricians, senators, and after 
the time of the Gracchi, to the 
knights) ; the populace, the lower 
ranks, the mass. 

plecto, ire, v. tr. (root plao-, 
strike; cf. plango, plaga). To 

Plei&des, umf f. The seven 
daughters of Atlas and PleitSne, 
who formed the constellation of 
the Seven Stars, or the Plei&des. 

plenus, a, um, ac^. (obs. pfeo, 
tofill). FuII, filled. 

pleramqne, adv. {plSrusgue), 
Usualty, for the most part, very 

plerasqae, rdquet rumque [very 
rare in sing.], adj. {plerua, a great 
many). Very many, most, the 

plfima, ae, f. The downy part 
of a feather ; a small, soft feather. 

plambam, », n. Lead. 

plurlmas, a, um, sup. of mul' 
tust adj. Mosc, very many. 

plus, pBris, comp. of mulhu, 
acy. More. 

plas, comp. of muUumf adv. 

plfivialis, «, acU. {pHtviua). 
Bainy, bringing rain. 

plfivias» a, um, adj. {piuo, to 

rain). Bainy, causlng or bringing 

pocfilam, t, n. (root po^, to 
drink). A drinking cnp, goblet. 

Poeas, antis, m. Son of Thau- 
m&cus, father of Philoctetes. 

poena, a«, f. Compensation, 
punishment, expiation, penalty; 
poenas dare, to pay the penalty, 
suffcr punishment. 

Poenlceas, a, um, adj. {Poe^ 
nus). Punic, Carthaginian ; po- 
mum, a pomegranate. 

Poenus, a, um, a^j. Punic, 

po€ta, ae, m. A poet. 

pdlenta, eui, f. Barley. 

pollens, ntis, ad^. {poUeo, to 
be strong). Strong, mighty, pow- 

pollex, icia, m. {poUeo, to be 
strong). The thumb. 

polllceor, eri, ttus sum, v. dep. 
(piro, Ueeor, to bid). To promise, 
make liberal offers. 

polUcItom, i, n. {poUieeor). A 
thing promised, a promise. 

poliuo, ire, ui, utum, r. tr. 
{pro, luo). To defile, pollute, 

polus, f , m. The pole. 

pomftriom, i, n. {pomum). A 
ftuit-garden, orchard. 

Pompeius, t, m. I. Quintns 
Pompeius Nepos, consul B. C. 
141 ; see note to line 19, page 275. 
II. Quintus Pompeius Kuflis, 
consul B. C. 88, with Liicius Sul- 
la; driven ont of Bome by his 
former fV^iend Salpicius, he soon 
rctumed with SuUa at the head 
of a powerflil army. SuUa went 
off to finish the Mithridatic war, 
and Pompeius was ieft to^vem 
Italy, bnt was soon afterwards 
disgracefhlly murdered by Cn. 



PompelnB Strabo, the father of 
Pouipeias Maguus. 

pomnm, t, n. A frnit of any 
kind (apples, cherries, nuts, flgs, 
eCc.) ; poeniceunif a pomegranate. 

pondos, iris, n. {pendo), A 
weight, burden, mass, load ; con- 
Bequence, importance, influence. 

pono, ire, pdsui, pdsitum, v. tr. 
To put, set, place, luy down ; to 
lay aside ; to found, establish ; to 
reckon, considcr ; to propose. 

pons, pofitis, m. A bridge. 

pontifex, icis, m. ( pon», fd- 
eio. Sec page 234, note to line 4). 
A Roman high-priest, a pontiff, 

poutlflciofi, 0, «m, a^j. (joon- 
ttfex), Pertaining to a pontifox, 

Pontins, t, m. I. C. Pontius 
Herennius, father of the Samnito 
general Gavius Pontius, who de- 
feated the Romans at the Caudine 
Forlts, B. C. 321. II. Titus Pon- 
tius, a Roman centurion, £imed 
for his strength. 

pontns, t, m. The sca, deep. 

pdples, Uis, m. The ham, 

poplllabllis, 0, adj. {pdpUlor). 

popiilaris, «, adj. (pdpulus). 
Pertaining to the pcople, agree- 
able to the people, popular. As 
Bubs., papHldris, is, m. and f. A 
couutryuiun, countrywoman, fel- 

poptilor, dri, dtus sum, v. dcp. 
{sjkflium), To lay waste, ravage, 
desolate, devastate ; to consume. 

popiilns, t, ro. A people; 
multitude, host, throng. . 

porcus, t, m. Swinc, pork. 

porrlgo, ire, rexi, rectum, v. 
tr. {por, for pro, r6go), To reach 

oat, extend, put forth, stretch 
out ; to offer, present. 

porro, adv. Onwards, fai-thcr 
on ; at a distance, afar off; again, 
in tum ; moreover, besides. 

porta, ae, f. A gate, door, en- 

portltor, oris, m. {porto). A 

porto, are, ovt, a^iim,Y. tr. To 
bear along, bear, carry, bring. 

portns, u^t m. (same root as 
porta), A liarlK>r, haven, port. 

posco, ^e, pdposcif V. tr. To 
ask for urgently, demand, beg, 
requcst, desire. 

possessio, onis, f, {possideo)^ 
Possossion, property. 

possldeo, erCf sedi, sessum, v. 
tr. (POT-, root of pdtis, sSdeo), To 
be ma.ster of, possess. 

possldo, dre, sedi, sessum, v. 
tr. (POT-, root of p^tis, sido), To 
tiike possession of, occupy. 

possum, posse, pdtm, v. irr. 
{pdtis,sum), To be able, have 
power, weight, or influence; I 
(tlion, he, etc.), can. 

post, adv. and prep. with acc 
Atier, beliind ; since. 

post-e&, adv. Aiterwards, here- 

poHtSrltas, diis, f. (postirus)* 

postSrus, a, um, comp. posti- 
rior, sup. postremus or postttmus, 
adj. {post), Coming after, next, 
following. As subs., postin, orum, 
m. Coming generations, posteri- 
ty ; in po&tdrum (sc. diem), to the 
foilowing day, next day. 

postis, is, m. A door-post, 

post-pono, ire, pdsui, pdsitum, 
V. tr. To put after, postpone ; to 
esteem less, disregard. 



post qiiain, conj. After, afber 
that, as 8oon as. 

postremo, ady. (postertu), At 
last, finally. . 

postttlatio, ont8, f. {poatHlo), 
A demand, reqaest. 

posttilo, drey avi, atum, y. tr. 
{posco). To demand, ask, reqaest, 
require, dcsire. 

JPostilmius, t, m. Spurias 
Postamius Albinas, consnl with 
T. Veturius Calvinus, B. C. 321. 

pdtens, tUis, part. See possum, 
As adj. Able, mighty, powcrful ; 
ruling OYer, master of; strong, 
efflcRcious, potent. 

pdtentia, ae, f. (pdteru). 
Might, force, power ; ability, au- 
thority, sway, influence. 

potestas, atis, f. (posmm), 
Power, authority, ability, control ; 
faculty, opportunity; offlce, ma- 
gistracy ; dominion, rule» empire, 

pdtio, oms. f. (poto^ to drink). 
A drinking, drink, draught, po- 

potior, u», adj. comp. of pdtis. 

potior, iri, pdtUus aum^ v. dep. 
(pdtie). To become master of, 
take possession of, get, acquire, 
obtain, reach, gain. 

pdtis, e [rarely declined in the 
positive], adj. Able, powerfal. 

pdtios, sup. pdtissime or pdttS' 
sfmum, adv. (pdtia). Rather, 
preferably, more; snp. pdiisH' 
mum, principally, chiefly, espe- 
cially, above all, most of all. 

prae, adv. and prep. with abl. 

prae-altns, a, um, &6j, Very 
high, very deep. 

praebeo, ere, m, itum, v. tr. 
iprae, hdbeo). To hold in front ; 
to reach outy proffer, offer, pre- 

sent; to grant, fhmish, display; 
8€, to show one's self. 

prae-cedo, ire, cessi, cessum^ 
V. tr. and intr. To go before ; to 

praeceps, cipftis, adj. (prae, 
caput). Headlong, hasty, rash» 
prccipitate; stcep, precipitoas; in 
praeceps, headlong; praecipttem 
ferri, to riish into the abyss. 

praeceptnm, i, n. (praeclpio). 
A maxim, irule, precept, direc- 

prae-cido, dr«, Mi, cisum, v. 
tr. (caedo). To cut off; brevi, to 
cut the matter short, in a word. 

prae-cipio, Hre, cepi, ceptum, 
Y. tr. (capio). To take beforehand ; 
to give rules or prccepts to ; to 
advise, admonish, wam, instruct, 

praeclplto, are, avi, aium, y. 
tr. (praeceps). To throw or cast 
headlong ; to precipitate ; in pcus., 
to hasten, harry on. 

praeclpous. a, um, adj. (prae, 
cdpio). Chief, especial. 

praeclare, adv. (praeclarus). 
Very cleariy ; excellently, admi- 
rably, very well. 

prae-clarns, a, um, adj. Very 
clenr, bright, beautiful, splendid; 
distinguished, remarkable, excel- 

prae-cordia, orum, n. (cor). 
The midriff; hence, by meton., 
the breast, heart. 

prae-cnrro, ire, cHcurri (cur" 
ri), cursum, v. intr. To ran be- 
fore, ontstrip, precede. 

prae-ciitio, Hre, cusai, cussum, 
Y. tr. (quOtio). To shake or wave 

praeda, a«, f. Booty, spoil, 
plunder, prey. 
prae-dlco, are, avi, aium, v. tr. 



(dkxf, to proclaim). To make 
public, relaite, state, declare, 

prae-dico, ircf dixi, dictum, y. 
tr. To s&y or mention before- 
band, predict, foretell ; to say, de- 
clare, state. 

prae-dttas, a, um, aO}. (do). 
Endowed or provided with, pos- 
sessed of. 

praedo, onii, m. A robber. 

praefectos, », m. {praeficio), 
An overseer, commander, gov* 

prae-fSro, ferre, iiHi, latum, 
T. irr. To bear or cany before, 
place before ; to prefer. 

prae-f Icio, ire, feei, feetum, 
V. tr. {fOcio). To set over, place 
in command of. 

prae-f ig^o» 8re, xi, xum, v. tr. 
To fix or fasten before. 

prae-liiceo, ire, xi, y. intr. To 
8bine forth, be bright. 

prae-mitto, ire, miai, mismm, 
y. tr. To send before. 

praemiom, t , n. {prae, gmo, in 
the orig. sense of to take). A re- 
ward, piize, profit, advantage. 

prae-p&ro, dret dvi, aium, v. 
tr. To get ready beforehand, pre- 

prae-pes, iftia, m. and f. (p^ 
to). A bird. 

prae-pono, gre, p6nd, pMHum, 
y. tr. To pat or set before or 
over, place flrst ; to prefer. • 

prae-postSrns, a, um, a4j. 
Beversed, inverted. 

prae-potens, rUis, acy. Very 
able or powerful. 

prae-rnptns, a, um, adj. {rum' 
po). Steep, abrupt, rugged, 

prae-sftgio, ire, ivi, v. tr. («5- 
ffio, to perceive keenly). To per- 
ceive beforehand, have a presen- 
timent ot 

prae-sftgns, a, um, a^j. («3- 
gu8, prophetic). Forebodiiig, pro- 

prae-scins, a, um, adj. {scio). 

prae-scribo, ire, psi, ptum, y. 
tr. To write before ; to order, ap- 
point, direct, command, prescribe. 

praesens, nti$, part. Sce prae^ 
aum, As a^j. Present, in pcrson ; 
prompt, efflcacious, powerful ; fa- 
vorlng, aiding, propitions. 

praesentia, ae, f. {praeseru). 
Presence ; power, efflcacy. 

prae-sgpe, m, n. {sepio), A 

prae-sertim, adv. {sgro, to 
join). Lit., put foremost; espe- 
cially, paiticularly. 

prae-sldinm, *, n. {sideo), A 
defence, protection, gnard. 

prae-signis, e, ac^. {aignum), 
Distinguisbed, remarkable. 

prae-stabliis, e, acy. {eto), 
Pre-eminent, distinguished, ex- 

praestans, ntia, part. See pra&- 
ato. As adj. Pre-eminent, supe- 
rior, excellent, distinguished. 

praestantia, ae, f. {praeatana). 
Pre-eminence, superiority, excel- 

praesto, adv. At hand, ready, 

prae-sto, Sre, atUi, antum and 
ataium, v. tr. and intr. To stand 
before ; to excel ; to perfonn, af- 

prae-stringo, ire, inxi, ictum, 
v. tr. To bind or tie np ; to com- 
press, close, restrain; to graze, 
touch ; to weaken, blunt 

prae-snm, eaae, fm, v. irr. To 
be bcfore; to preside, have the 
charge or command of ; to take 
the lead. 



prae-suo, ih^e, ui, tUum, v. tr. 
(«Mo, to sow). To sow over; to 
cover over. 

prae-tendo, Sre, diy tum^ v. tr. 
To strotch before, extcud, pre- 

praeter, prep. witli acc. {prae 
with snffix 'ters cf. inter,propter). 
Besides, oxccpt. 

praet6r-ea, adv. Besides, 

praetSr-eo, iref ivi (/i), Uum, 
v. iiT. To go or pass by or over; 
fo omit. 

praeter-fluo, ere, v. intr. To 
flow by or past. 

praetSritiis, a, tm, part. See 
praetSrco. As a4}. Past, depart- 

prae-teztns, a, «m, acy. {texo). 
Clothed with or wearing the tdga 
praetexta ; esp. tOga praetexta, ae, 
f. The outer garment bordered 
with purple, wom by the highcr 
magistrates, and fi*ee-bum chil- 
dren until they assumed the tdga 

praetor, orie, m. {prctef eo). A 
leadcr, head, commander, gen- 
eral; esp., a praetor, a Roman 
magistrate intrnsted with the ad- 
ministration of justice; praetor 
urbdnitSt one who tried cases be- 
twcen lloman citizens, whilst the 
praetor peregrinua prcsided over 
those betwecn strangers. 

prae-vias, a, um, adj. (ma). 
Goin.!? bcforc, lcading thc way. 

prdtum, t, n. A meaduw. 

pravuS) a, um, adj. ]6ad, per- 
vcrse, wicked, base. 

prSearius, a, um, adj. (pr^- 
cor.) Obtaincd by praycr, unccr- 
tain, depcndent on tho Avill of an- 

prScor, ari, atus aum, y. dep. { 

{prex). To pray, beg, cntreat, 

prShendo [prendo], ^re, di^ 
sum, V. tr. To talve hoid uf, grasp, 

prSmo, Sre, pressi, pressum, v. 
tr. To press, press down or out, 
sink ; to grasp ; to sit or stand on ; 
to pursue closely; to burden, 
load ; to check, arrest, stop ; to 
force in ; to lower ; to ovcrpower ; 
to cover. 

prStiosns, a, um, adj. {prg^ 
tium), Yaluable, precious ; dcar, 

prStinm, t, n. Worth, valne, 
price ; a prize, reward. 

prex, prgcis [in nom. and gen. 
sing. obsolete, most gen. in plur.], 
f. A prayer, rcqutest. 

pridie; adv. ( prae, dies). Tbe 
day bcfore. 

primarius, a, um, adj. {prir 
mu^), Of thc tirst rank, ciiief, ex- 
cellent, remarkable. 

primo, adv. {primus). At first, 
at the beginning, first. 

primum, adv. {primua). First, 
in the first place, in the begin- 
niug ; with ut, ubi^ etc., as soon as. 

primns, a, um, sup. of prior, 
acy. First, chief. 

princeps, cipis, a(^. {pHmus, 
edpio). First, foremost. As 6ul)S. 
m. Tho iirst man, cliief man, 

princlp&tns, us, m. {prin- 
ceps). Tho flrst place, pre-emi- 
nence, prefcrence. 

principium, i, n. {princeps). 
A beginning, origin ; principio, at 

prior, us, gcn. oria, snp. pri- 
mus, a(^. (same root aa prae, pro). 

prisciis, a, um, a^j. {prae, 



pro), Ancient, ol^, formcr, prc- 

pristlnas, a, umt aclj. (obs., 
pris ; ctprior)» Former, tmcietit. 

prins, 8op. prinio or primumy 
adv. {prior), Before, sooner; 
formerly, in former times ; prius- 
guam, bcfore tliat, before. 

privatas, a, um, part. Seeprf- 
ro. As adj. Pcrtaining to an In- 
dividoal, private. 

piivo, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
(privus, separate). To separate, 
bereave, deprive of ; to free, re- 
lease, deliver from. 

pro, inteij. Ohl ah! alas! 

pro, prep. with abl. For, just 
as, instead of, in favor of, bcfore, 
according to, conformably to. 

probe, adv. (pr&bus). Right- 
ly, well. • 

probltas, atis, f. (prdbus), In- 
tegrity, uprightness, honesty. 

probo, are, ari, o^t/m, v. tr. 
(prabus). To try, test; to ap- 
prove, considcr good or service- 
able ; to show, prove. 

prdbmm, t, n. Disgrace, tn- 
famy, shame, dishonor. 

probas, a, «m, adj. Oood, scr- 
viccable, upright, honest, excel- 

procaclter, adv. (prdcax, in- 
solcnt). Boldly, impudently. 

pro-cedo, Sre, ceasi, cessum, v. 
intr. To go forth, proceed, ad- 
vance ; to happen, turu out. 

procella, ae, f. {proccUo, to 
cast down). A storm, tempest. 

prdcSres, um, m. Cliicfs, no- 
bles, princcs. 

proceritas, atisy f. (procerus, 
high). Hcight, tullness. 

pro-clamo, are, dm, atum, v. 
intr. To cry out, vociferate. 

prd-clivis, e, a^j. {clivus). 

Steep, descending; inclined to, 
proue, liablc to. 

proclivlter, adv. {proc^s), 
Easily, readily. 

pro-creo, arct avi, atum, v. tr. 
To bring forth into existencc, pro- 

prdcal, adv. At a di.stance, a 
grcat way off, far, from afar. 

pro-cambo, Sre, cHbtd, cUbt' 
tum, V. intr. (root cub- ; cf. cHfjo). 
To fall forwards ; to sink down. 

pr5-carro, ire, cHcurri and 
curri, cursum, v. intr. To rush 

prodeo, ire, ti, ttum, v. irr. 
{prot eo). To go or come forth, 

prodltio, onis, f. {prodo). Be- 
trayal, treason. 

pr&-do, ire, didi, ditum, v. tr. 
To givc forth, hand down, trans- 
mit ; to publish, make known, re- 
late; to forsake, abandon, give 
up, surrender ; to betray. 

pro-duco, Sre, xi, ctum, v. tr. 
To lead or bring forth, draw out, 
protract, prolong. 

proeliom, t, n. A battle, com» 
bat, engagcment. 

pro-fanos, a, um, adj. (/a- 
num, a sanctuary). Profnne, ill- 
omened, wicked, godless. 

pro-fecto, adv. {facio). In- 
deed, actually, truly, surcly, ccr- 
tainly, doubtiess. 

pro-f Sro, ferre, tnU, Idtum, v. 
irr. To l>ring or carry out, bring 
forth ; to extcnd, cnlar;je ; to put 
oflf, defer ; to make known, reveal, 
allege, cite, mention. 

pro-flcio, 8re,feci,fectum, v. 
tr. and intr. {facio). To make 
way, cffect, accomplish ; to help, 

prof Iciscor, t, fectus sum, v. 



dep. {fadd), Orig., to make or 
put one's self forward ; to set out, 
depart, proceed or oviginate from. 

pro-nteor, crt, fessua sunif v. 
dep. {fateor), To confess openly ; 
to promise,. profess, announce 
one*s sclf. 

pro-f iigio, gre,fugh fUjitum, 
V. tr. and intr. To flee forth or 
from ; to run away. 

prof iigas, o, um, ac^j. {prdfu- 
gio), Fugitive, cxiled. 

pro-fundus, a, wm, adj. {fun- 
dus, the bottom). Dcep, pro- 
found. As subs., prdfundum^ t, 
n. Depth, abyss, the deep, the 

pro-gSnies, ei, f. (root gen-, 
produce). Descent, lineage, race, 

pro-grSdior, i, greasus sum, v. 
dep. ( grddior). To come or go 
fbrward, advance, proceed. 

pro-hlbeo, ere, uif Uumf v. tr. 
{habeo). To*hoId back, restrain, 
prcveiit, hinder ; to forbid. 

pro-Icio [pro-jicio], Sre, teci, 
iectumy v. tr. {iado). To throw 
forth ; to throw down or before. 

pro-inde, adv. Thercfore ; 
quasi, just as if. 

proles, iSf f. Offspring, pro- 
geny, race, posterity ; age. 

Promethides, 0«, m. The 
son of Pronietheuu, i. e., Deuca- 

]^r5-mIneo, cr<?, wi, v. intr. 
{mtneOf to jut). To stand out, 

promissam, t, n. {prdmitto). 
A promise. 

pro-mitto, ?re, misi, missumy 
V. tr. To ^nd forth ; to promise, 

promptus, a, um, a4j* {pro- 
mo, to bring forth). Ready, 

prompt, inclined, brave, actlye; 
easy, practicable. 

promptus, us [only in the abl.], 
m. (pro/?w, tobringforth). Readi- 
ness, facility ; in promptu esse, to 
be easy. 

pro-nnntio, are, avi, aium, v. 
tr. and intr. To make publicly 
known, proclaim, announce. 

pronns, a, ujn, adj. {pro), 
Leaning forward, stooping, bend- 
ing down; sctting, sinking, de- 
ciining; inclincd, disposed. 

propagatio, oms, f. {propago^ 
to propagatc). A propagating, 

propago, Inis, f. {propago, to 
propagate). Offspring, dcscend- 
ant; a set, layer (of a plant). 

prope, comp. prdpius, snp. 
proxime, adv. and prep. with acc. 
Near, near at hand, nearly, al- 

pro-pello, ire, piiU, pulsumy 
V. tr. To push forwards, roll 

prdpe-mddnm, adv. {mCdus). 
Nearly, almost. 

pro-pensus, a, um, adj. (pen- 
£^0). Inclined, disposed, prone. 

propSro, are, avi, dtum, v. tr. 
and intr. {prdpgrua). To hasten; 
to make or prepare with haste. 

propSrus, a, um, adj. Quick, 
speedy, hastening. 

propinqaltas, atis, f. {prdpiit- 
quua), Nearness ; rclationslup, 

prdpinqnns, a, um, a(^. {prd- 
pe). Near, neighborlng. As subs. 
Rclation, kinsman. 

propior, us, gen. oris, sup. 
proxitnua, adj. {prOpe). Nearer. 

propltio, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
{prdpftiua, favorable). To ap- 
pease, propitiate. 



pr5pii», oomp. of prOpet adr. 


prd-pono» ire, jXfndf pMtum, 
V. tr. To place or set before ; to 

prdpdsltmn, t, n. {pr^iwno). 
lutcntion, design. 

prdprins, a, tttn, adj. (Icfndr. 
witti pr6pe). One'8 own, speclal, 
pecaliaTy proper ; lasting, perma- 
nent, perpetual. 

propter, adv. and prcp. with 
acc. {prdpe, witli the BuflOx -^er). 
Kear, for, on acconnt of. 

proptSr-eft, adr. Therefore, 
for that canse, on tbat acconnt. 

prdra, ae, f. The prow. 

PrSreuB, et, m. A Tnscan 

prorsas, adv. (contr. fit>m ^pro- 
vernui). Alisolutely, entireiy. 

prd-sCqaor, t, cvtue sum, t. 
dep. To follow forth, accompany, 
attcnd ; to describe, trcat of. 

Proserplna, o^, f. The dangh- 
ter of Jnpiter and Ceres. 

pro-sllio, Ire, ui, less frcq. ivi 
(tt), V. intr. {sOlio). To leap forth, 
spring np. 

pro-specto, are, ovt, Sium, r. 
tr. To IooIk at, yjew. 

prosper and prospSras, a, 
tim, a^j. {pro, apero). Agreeable 
to one's wishee, favorable, fortu- 
nate; re«, prosperity. 

pro-splcio, hre, apexi, speetum, 
V. tr. and intr. {apgciOf to look). 
To look forward, look ont, pro- 
Yide for, foresee, descry, see in 
the distance. 

pro-sterno, gre, stravi, stra- 
tumy V. tr. To throw down, over- 
throw, prostrate. 

prd-snm, prodesee, prd/ui, v. 
irr. To be Bseful, do good, bene- 
fit, profit. 

pr6-tS90, gre, jci, etum, T. tr. 
To cover over, protect. 

pro-tSro, »re, trivi, trUum, T. 
tr. To tread linder foot. 

Proteas, ei, m. A sea-god 
who often changed his form. 

prd-tlnns, ndv. {tSnus). Im- 
mediately, forthwith. 

pr5-tnrbo, Sre, avi, atum, t. 
tr. To prostrate. 

prdTectns, a, um, part. See 
prdvgho. As a^j- Advanced. 

pro-TSho, gre, xi, ctu^, t. tr. 
To cany forward, advance. 

prd-Tenio, ire, reni, verUumf 
T. intr. To come forth, appear. 

pr5-Terbinm, t, n. {verbufn). 
An adage, a provcrb. 

pr5-Tldeo, ere, vidi, viaum, T. 
tr. To foresee, provide, fumish, 
take precaution. 

prdTincia, ae, f. (perh. prd^ 
vinco)., A province, office or pro- 
vince assigned to one. 

proTisio, onis, f. {provideo). 
Forethought, mode of providing 
against, precaution. 

prd^os, a, um, part. Seepro- 

prd-Toco, are, avi, Stum, y. tr. 
To call forth ; jto chaliengo. 

pro-TolTO, 9re, volvi, vOSitum,, 
V. tr. To roll along. 

proxime, snp. of prdpe, adT. 
Next, most recently, last. 

proxlmus, a, um, sup. of prd- 
pior, adj. Kearest, very near, 
next. As snbs. Next of kin, 
nearest relation, intimate, friend. 

prJidens, ntis, ac^. (contr. from 
providens). Skilled, experienced, 
practiscd in; sensible, prndent, 

priidenter, adv. j^prSdens)» 
CJantiousIy, prudently; skilfhUy, 



prudcntia, ae, f. {prudena). A 
foreseeing; good sense, practical 
jadgment, dibcretion. 

prnindsas, a, um, adj. {pru- 
ina, lioar-frost). Froety, rimy. 

pruniun, t, n. A plum. 

-pse {for -pte, the same root 
B8 pdtis), A pronominal snfflx. 

Psenddlus, i, m. * The Liar/ 
the title of a comedy of Plantas. 

PtdiemaeuB, i, m. The son 
of Lagns, one of Alcxander'8 
generals, to wbom Egypt fell, up- 
on the division of the Macedonian 

pnbesco, ire, hm, v. incep. {pu- 
bes, adalt). Te reach tbe age of 
pnberty ; to grow np, ripen. 

publlcns, a, um, acy. {papU- 
hte). Of or belonging to the peo- 
ple or state, public, common ; in 
pttbUco, in public view, in public, 

piidet, ere, ptuiuit and pndn- 
tum est, Y. impers. It canses a 
feeling of sliamo ; pHdet tne, 1 am 

pildor, oris, m. {pOdet). A 
sense of sbame, shame, modesty, 

pnella, ae, f. ipuer). A girl, 

pnellfiris, e, a4J- ipuetta). Girl- 
ish, maidcnly. 

pner, ^n, m. A boy, child. 

pn6rilis, e, a^j. {puer). Child- 
ish, boyish, yoathrtil. 

pnSrltia, ae, f. ipuer). The 
age of boyhood. 

pngna, ae, f. (kindr. with pug- 
nus). A iight, battle, contest. 

pngno, are, avi, aium, v. intr. 
( pugna). To fight, contend, giye 
battle, strive. 

pugnus, iy m. A flst. 

pulcher, ebra, chmm, comp. 

pulehrior, snp. pulcherrimus, a(^. 
Beaatifnl, handsume, fair, noble, 
bonorable, glorious. 

pulchrltudo, inw, f. {piUcher). 
Beauty, excellence. 

pnllus, a, um, ac^. Dark-col- 
ored, dusky, blacklsh. As sub8.y 
puUum, i, n. A dark-gray gar« 

pnlmo, onis, m. A lung. 

pnlso, dre, aoi, atum, v. tr. 
(flreq. of pello). To strike, beat. 

pulsus, a, tim, part. See peilo, 

pnlvSriilentus, a, um, acy. 
{ptdvis). Dusty, fuUof dast. 

pnlTlnus, t, m. A cushion, 
pillow (to sit or lie npon). 

pnlvis, iris, m. rarcly f. Dust. 

punlcens, a, um, ndj. {Puni- 
etts). Reddish, red, purple-col- 

Punlcns, a, um, at^. Punic, 

puppis, is, f. The stem of a 
ship ; by meton., a ship. 

pure, adv. {pHrus). Purely, 

purgamentnm, t, n. {purgo, 
to cleanse). That which is swept 
or washed off, offscourings. 

pnrptira, ae, f. Purpie. 

pnrpfirfitus, a, um, a^j. {pwr- 
pOra). Clad in purple ; as subs., 
a high offlcer at court, a courtier. 

pnrptireus, a, um, adj. {pur- 
para). Purple-colured, piirt)le. 

purns, a, um, adj. Clean, pure, 
nnstained, spotless, undcfiled ; 

piito, are, avi, atum, v. tr. (root 
pu- ; cf purus). To lop off, prnne ; 
to think, believc, deem, suppose. 

P^l&des, ae and t«, m. A son 
of the Phocian king Strophins, 
celebrated as the friend of Ores- 



pyiae, Srttm, f. A narrowpass, 
dclilc; Tauri^ tho pass between 
Capp<)docia and Cilicia. 

p^ra, ae, f. A faneral pile, 

Pfrftmufi, if m. A Babylonian 

Pfrois, eniia, m, The name 
of one of the stccdD of the sun. 

p^ropus, t, m. A metallic 
mixturc, gold bronze. 
' Pyrrha, ae, f. Daughter of 
EpimetheuSy and wife of Denca- 

Pynrhos, i, m. King of Epi- 

Pfthftgdras» ae, m. A cele- 
brated philosopher of Somos, 
about 5r50 B. C. ; he tanght in Low- 
er Iui\y, and was tbe founder of 
the Pytliagorean school of phi- 

Pythagdrens, a, um, acjj. {Pp- 
thdgdras). Pythagorean. As 
subs., Pyth&gdrhi, orum, m. The 
Pythagorcansy foUowers of Py- 


Q., abbreviation for Qnintns. 

qna, adv. {gui). Which way, 
where, anywhere, in what man- 
ner, as far as. 

quacnmque, adv. {quicum' 
gue). Wheresoever. 

qn&draginta, indecl. num. 
a4j. (prob. a contr. of quadra {de) 
cinta, i. e. * four tens * ). Forty. 

qn&dratus, a, um, adj. {gudd- 
ro, to square). Squared, square. 

quadriennium, i, n. {gttat- 
tuor, annus). A period of four 

qu&drlgae, arum, f. (contr. 

trom quadriiiigae, quattuorf »0- 
gum). A fonr-borse team. 

quadriitigus, a, um, Adj. {quat- 
tuor, iUgum). Pertaining to a 
team of fonr, four-horse. As 
subs., quadriiagi, orum, m. A 
foar-horse team. 

. qtiadringenti, ae, a, nnm. a4|. 
{quattuor, centum). Four hun- 

qn&driipes, gdis, ac^. {guat- 
tuor, pes). Four-footed. As sulis. 
A foor-footed animal, horse, 

qnaero, Sre, sivi (tt), sUum, y. 
tr. To ask, inquire, seelc, search 
for ; to seelc in vain, miss. 

qnaeso, ire, ivi, v. tr. (old 
forra for guaero). To seek; to 
beg, pray, bcseecl), entreat. 

quaebtio, onis, f. {quaero). An 
inquiry, invcstigation ; a public 
investigation, trial, suit ; a special 

quaestor, oris, m. (contr. from 
quaealtor, from quaero). A quaes- 
tor, a Roman magistrate, who, af- 
ter the kings, had charge of the 
public revenues. 

qualis, e, a(]j. {quia). Of what 
sort, kind, or nature; as correL 
of talis : as. 

quam, adv. (^t). In cxcla- 
mations and questions : how, huw 
much; after comparatives : than, 
as ; with superlatives it cxprcsses 
the highest possible degrce, as, 
quam plurimas copiaa, as many 
forccs as possible ; poat diem ter^ 
tium quam, the thiid day after 

quam-quam, conj. Thongh, 
although ; and yet, ncvertheless. 

quam-vis, adv. and conj. {vd" 
h). As much as you wili, how- 
ever much, althoagh. 



qnando, ady. and conj. At 
what time, wlien, at any timc, 
whenevcr ; Bince, because. 

quantas, a, um, adj. {quum). 
How great, as much as, as ; witiii 
the snp., the greatest possilile. 

qnfi-propter, adv. For what, 
wherefore, on which account. 

qnartos, a, t/m, ord. num. a^j 
(quattuor). Fourth. 

qnasi, adv. As if, as it were, 

quft-tSnus, adv. How far. 

qaater, num. adv. ( guattuor). 
Four tiraes. 

qu&terni, 00, a, distrib. num. 
a^. {quattuor), By fours. 

quatio, ^re, — , quas8um, y. tr. 
To strike, shatter, shake. 

qaatrlduum, i, n. {quattuor, 
tUes), A space of four days. 

quattaor [qu&tuor], indocl. 
nnm. adj. Fonr. 

-quS [always afflxed to the 
word to which it belongs], conj. 
And ; -que repeated or with a cor- 
responding et, both — and. 

quem-ad-mddum, adv. In 
what manner, how ; with aic, ita, 
etc., just as, as. 

queo, ire, ivi (ii), l^tm, y. irr. 
To be able. 

quercus, ua, f. An oak. 

qnerella, 00, f. {quihror), A 

qnSror, », questtu tum, v. dep. 
To complain, lament, bewail. 

qui, quae, quod, rel. pron. 
Who, which, what, or that ; also 
an interrog. adj. pron. Who? 
which? wtiat? As indef. a^). 
pron. with #1, nt»i, ne^ etc., -qui, 
^quae or -jMa, -quod. Any. 

qui, adv. {qui). How. 

quia, conj. (old neat. plor. of 
qui). Becausc. 

quicqnid. Sce qtdaquia. 

qui-cnm. an old form of the 
abl. quo with cum. 

qui-cumqne, quaecumque^ 
quodcumquey indef. pron. Who- 
ever, whosocver, whatever, what- 

qnidam, qttaedamt quoddam or 
subs., quiddam^ indef. pron. A cer- 
tain one, somehody, something. 

quldem, adv. Indeed, truly, 
at least, certainly ; ne-quidem, not 
even ; ai quidem, as, since. 

quies, etia, f. {quiesco), Rest, 
quiet, repose. 

quiesco, 8rei quiein, quietuffii 
V. intr. To rest, repose, keep 
quiet ; to remain neutral. 

quiete, adv. {qui&us). Calmly, 

quietus, a, um, adj. {quieeco), 
Calm, quict, peaceful, nndis- 

quin, conj. {qui, ne for non), 
That not, but that; quin etiam, 
nay evcn. 

qui-nam, qtiaenam, quodnam, 
interrog. ac^. pron. Which, what, 

Quiactius, t, m. The name 
of a Roman gins. See Oincinna' 
tu8 and Fldmtninus, 

quincnnx, uncia, m. {quinqne, 
uneia, a twelfth). A quincunx. 

quini-deni, ae, a, distrib. num. 
ac^. {qiHni, by fives). Fifteen each. 

qninquaginta, indecl. nnm. 
adj. Fifty. 

quinqne, indecl. num. a^j. 

quinqnennium, t, n. {quinque^ 
annus). A period of fivc years. 

Quintus, t, m. A Boman prae- 

quintus, a, um, ord. nam. &dj, 
{quinqtte), Fifth. 

qoippe, adv. and coi\}. {quia. 



•#m). Certainlr» to b6 sure, for- 
Booth ; with emm, etgnitn, etc., for 
indeed, since in fact. 
qaippiam. See quispiam, 

qnis, qaae, quid, interrog. 
sabft. pron. Who ? which ? what ? 
As indef. subs. pron. nsaally ailcr 
«», fiMi, ne and num -guis, -gua or 
-91MM, -qmd. Any one, any. 

qnis-nam, quaenam\ quidnam^ 
intcrrog. snbs. pron. Who, which, 
what, pray ? 

qnispiam, quaepiam^ quod- 
fdam^ and subs. quidpiam or quic- 
piam, indcf. pron. Any one, any- 
body, anything, any, some one, 
something, some. 

qoia-qnam, quaequam, qwd- 
quam or quicquam [no plur.], in- 
def. pron. Any one, anything, 

qnis-qne, qu€iequef quodque^ 
and Bubs. qtddque or quicque, in- 
def. pron. Each, every one, every- 

qnis-quis, — , quodquod, and 
subs. quidquid or quicquid [rare, 
except in the forms quiaquia, quid' 
quid, qmcquidf quoquo], indef. 
pron. Whoever, whatever. 

qni-vis, quaevie, quodvie, and 
8ub6. quidvie, indef. pron. (vdlo). 
Who or what you please, any 
whatever, any one, anything. 

qnd, adv. (qui), Whither, to 
what place, where, to what cnd. 

qno, conj. (qw). That, to that 
end, in order that ; quo minue, by 
which the less, in order that not, 
that not, from. 

qno-ad, adv. As.long as, un- 
til ; bow far, as far as. 

qnd-circ&, conj. For which 
renson, wherefore. 

quo-cnm, the abl. of qui with 
the prep. cum, \ 

qnod, coi\j. (qui). Becanse, 
thnt, in that, as rcspects that, as 
to what ; though, althongh ; now, 
but ; quod ai, now if. 

qno-modo [or separately qn5 
mddo], adv. (yta, mddua). In 
what mimncr, how. 

qnondam, ndv. (for quom, i. o. 
quum- or cum-dam), Formerly, 
once on a time. 

qndniam, coi\). (quom, l, e. 
eum, iam), Since, whereas. 

qndqne [placed after the em- 
phatic word], conj. AIso, too. 

qnd-quo, adv. Whirhersoever. 

qnorsum [qnorsus], adv.(^, 
versw). To what place, wliither, 
to what, to what end or purpose. 

qudt, indecl. a^. How many, 
as many as ; all, each, every. 

qndties [qndtiens], adv. 
(qudt). How often, how many 
tunes, as often as. 


rftbies, c», f. (r<K6to, to rave). 
Bage, madncss, frenzy. 

rftcemlfer, gra, irum, ac^. (r<|. 
chnua, a cluster, firo), Cluster. 

rftdio, are, avi, atum, v. tr. and 
intr. (rOdius). To shine, beam, 

r&dins, t, m. A spolce of a 
wheel ; a beam, ray. 

radix, icis, f, A root, the low< 
er part of an object, the foot 01 
hottom of a hill ; a radish. 

rado, 9re, si, sum, v. tr. To 
scrapc, brash along, graze. 

ram&Ie, is, n. (ramus), Twig, 

ramns, t, m. A branch, bongh. 

rapax, acis, ndj. (rdpio). Grasp- 
ing, greedy, rapacious. 



rftpIdnSf A, um, a^. {rdpio), 
-Fierce, consnming, swifc, rapid. 

r&piua, ae, f. {rdpio). Pillage, 
robbery, piander. 

rftpio, Sre,pui,ptum, v. tr. To 
seize, or carry oflf, hurry away, 
Beize iipon ; to tear. 

rapto, are, avi, atum, y. tr. 
(freq. of rdpio). To seize and 
carry off, hurry away. 

raptor, dris, m. {rapio). A rob- 
ber, plunderer, ravisher. 

raptnm, », n. {rdpio). Plan- 

rftras, a, um, a^). Far apart, 
scattered, thin ; rare, uncommon, 
extraordinary, remarkable ; in 
phur., few. 

rastmm, i [in plar., rcutri or 
rastra], n. {rado). A rake, mat- 

r&tio, onis, f. (reor). Reason, 
course, mode, method, manner, 
way, regard. 

r&tis, is, f. A raft, float ; ves- 
sel, bark. 

r&tus, a, um, part See reor. 

rS- or rSd-, inscp. prep. Back, 
again, against ; sometimcs equiva- 
lont to the £ng. un-, di»-. 

reapse, adv. (contr. A:om re 
and eapse, i. e. ea with the sufflx 
-pse). In fact, in reality. 

rfibellis, e, acy. (rdbello, to re- 
Yolt). Insurgent, rebellious. 

r6-cSdo, ire, eesti, eeamm, v. 
intr. To retire, withdraw, retreat, 
go biick or away ; to abandon. 

rScens, ntis, ac^. Fresh, re- 
cent, young, vigorous, new. 

rficept&cfilam, t, n. {ricepto, 
to rcceive). A place of refuge, 

rSceptos, t», m. {rSctpio), A 

rS-cIdo, #r«, dcii», ca&um^ y. in- 

tr. {cOdo). To fall back, recoil; 
to be reduced. 

rS-cingo, Sre, — , ctum, v. tr. 
To ungird, loosen. 

rS-cIpio, ire, cepi, ceptum, v. 
tr. {cdpio). To tiike or get back, 
regain) recover; to admit, accept, 
receive ; ee ridpire, to retreut, re- 

rS-cItO, * are, aci, alum, v. tr. 
{dto, a freq. of cieo). To rcad 
out, recite, rcpeat from memory. 

rS-clttdo, ire, si, mm, y. tr. 
{claudo). To unclose, open. * 

r6-cognosco, ire, ndci, nUum, 
y. tr. To know again ; to recog- 
Dize, examine, look over, inspect. 

r6-condo, Sre, didi, ditum, v. 
tr. To pat back agoin ; to hide, 

r6-cdqno, Sre, coxi, ^octum, v. 
tr. ■ To cook or buil over again. 

rgcordatio. onis, f. {ricordor). 
Recoilcction, remembrance. 

rS-cordor, ari, Stus mm, y. 
dep. {cor). To tliink over, call to 
mind, remember, recollect. 

recte, adv. {rectua). Rightly, 
correctly, properly, saitably, well. 

rector, oris, m. {rgffo). A iead- 
er, guide, mler, govemor, helms- 

rectns, a, um, a4j. {rgffo), 
Drawn in a straight line, stndglit, 
apright, right; correct, proper, 
jast, vlrtnoas, noble, good. As 
snbs., reetum, t, n. That which 
is right, good, virtuoas ; rectitude, 
yirtae. ^ 

rfi-cQbo, are, v. intr. To lie 
backwards, recline. 

rS-cnmbo, ire, cObui, v. intr. 
(root cuB- ; cf. accumbo). To lie 

rS-cllpfiro, Sre, Svi, atum, y. 
tr. {capio). To get again, reooyer. 



rO-curro, gre, curri, y. Intr. To 
ran back ; to return. 

rS-cnrro, a/v, dvi, Siumt t. tr. 
To bend or tnrn back ; recurvatae 
Widae, winding. 

rd-cnrvus, a, tim, adj. Bent 
backy • crooked, winding, encir- 

re-ca80, are, dvi^ dtum, r, tr. 
(causa). To declincr reject, re- 
fuse, be reluctant or unwilling. 

rSd-. See r6-. 

rSd-&mo, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
To love again, return love for 

red-do, gre, dtdi, dtium, v. tr. 
To give back, rcHtore, give, offer, 
retnm ; to give up, deliver, relin- 
quish, yield, resign; to impart, 
give, rcnder ; to make, produce. 

rSd-eo, ire, ivi (u), Uum, v. irr. 
To go or come back, retum ; to 

rSd-Igo, gre, egi, actum, v. tr. 
{dffo). To bring or drive back; 
to rednce. 

redlmio, fre, U, Uum, v. tr. 
To encircle, gird, crown. 

rSdltus, ua, m. {rideo). A re- 

rSd-dleo, ere, w, v. intr. (dfeo, 
to be fragrant). To be fragrant. 

rS-dQco, 9re, xi, ctum, v. tr. 
To lead or bring back ; to con- 
duct or accompany one home (as 
a mark of respect) ; to bring or 
rednoe to some conditions. 

rSd-ando, dre, dvi, dturh, v. in- 
tr. {unda). To flow back, flall 
back, redonnd, overflow. 

rS-fercio, ire, ai, tum, v. tr. 
{farcio, to stuff'). To fill up, 

re-f6ro, ferre, rBtUli {rett-), 
rgldtum, V. irr. To bear, carry, 
bring or give back ; to tell, repeat, 

report ; to repay, retnm ; to refer, 
ascrilie ; to tura ; to reply. 

re-fert, fetre, tnlit, v. impers. 
{res, firo). It matters, concems, 
is of importance. 

rSfertas, a, um, part. See r^ 
fercio. As adj. Filled, crammed, 

r6-fIcio, 9re, feci, fectum, v. 
tr. {fdcio). To make again, make 
anew, restoi-e, rebuild, repair ; to 
re-appoint, re-elect; to recrait, 

rS-flecto, gre, xi, xum, y. tr. 
To bend or turu back. 

refrigerfitio, onis, f. {rifrl- 
ffi^ro). A coolin;;, coolness. 

rS-frigSro, dre, dvi, dtum, t. 
tr. {frigua). To make cool or 
cold, cool off. 

rS-fiigas, a, um, adj. {fOgio), 
Receding, vanishing. 

rS-falgeo, ere, fulei, v. intr. 
To glitter, glisten, shine. 

regaiis, e, a^j. {rez). Kingly, 
royal, regal. 

regia, ae, f. {regiue, sc dd- 
mue). A palace, castle, court. 

rSglmeu, inia, n. {rigo). A 
guiding, direction ; a rudder. 

regina, ae, f. {rex). A queen. 

rfigio, onia, f. {r^go), A re- 
gion, district, country. 

regias, a, um, adj. {rex). Roy- 
al, kingly, princely. 

regno, dre, ou, dtum,y. tr.and 
intr. {regnum). To rule, govem ; 
to domineer, reign, hold sovereign 

regnam, t, n. {rex). Rule, 
royal powcr, kingdom, dominion, 
sovereignty, despotism, tyranny. 

rSgo, gre, xi, ctum, v. tr. To 
stretch ; to guide, conduct, direct ; 
to rule, govern ; to control, have 
the supremacy over. 



re-Icio [-jlcio], grey ieci, iec- 
tumt V. tr. {idcio). To throw back 
or off; to reject. 

rS-labor, i, psus sunif y. dep. 
To glide, sink or fall back. 

rg-lang^aesco, Sre, gvi, v. in- 
cep. {langueOf to be faint). To 
grow languid or faint again. 

rS-Iaxo, are, aci, cUuniy v. tr. 
To widen, anloose ; to loosen, un- 
bind, free. 

r6-16vo, are, ari, atumy v. tr. 
To lift np, raise; toabate, ligbt- 

rS-IIgatio, onis, f. {Ifgo), A 
binding up, tying up. 

rellgio, onis, f. Belief in and 
reverence for thc gods, piety, re- 
ligion ; religious scruple, rcligious 
awe, scrupulousness ; worship. 

rell^iosas, a, um, adj. (ri- 
Ugio). Pious, devout, religious. 

rS-lIgo, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
To bind back, bind fast, fasten. 

rS-linquo, Sre, liqui^ lictum, 
V. tr. {Unquo, to leavc). To leave, 
relinquish, forsake, abandon, de- 

rSJIquiae, drum, f. {riUnquo). 
The leavings, remains, rclics, 

rSlIqans,a,um,adj. {riUnquo), 
That is leffc, remaining. As subs., 
riliquumy i, n. Bemainder, re- 
mains, remnant. 

rS-luctor, dri, dtus sum, v. dep. 
To struggle against, resist. 

rS-maneo, ere, mansi, mansum, 
V. intr. To remain, continue, cn- 

rS-mSdinm, i, n. {mideor). 
Cure, remedy. 

remlginm, i, n. {remex, a row- 
er). A rowing ; oars, oarsmen. 

rS-mlniscor, t, v. dep. (root 
MBN- ; cf. m&nini), To recollcct, 

rSmissio, onis, f. {rgmitto), 
Abatement, leaving off, remission. 

rSinissns, a, um, part. See rg- 
mitto. As adj. Slack, rclaxed; 
mild, gentle, indulgent, cheerful, 

rS-mitto, 6re, misi, missum, v. 
tr. and intr. To send back; to 
loosen, slacken ; to retum, re- 
store. • 

r6-mdlior, iri, ittis sum, v. 
dep. To press, push, or move 
back or away. 

rS-mollesco, gre, v. incep. 
{molUs). To become soft aguin, 
soften, mclt. 

r6-mdror, dri, dtus sum, v. 
dep. To stay behind, iin«er, loi- 
ter ; to obstrnct, hinder, dclay. 

rS-m5veo, ere, moci, mdtum, v. 
tr. To move or draw back; to 
set aside, put away, remove. 

remanSratio, onis, f. {rdmti' 
nSror, to repay). Recompense, 
repaying, reward. 

remns, i, m. An oar. 

rS-nldeo, ere, v. intr. (prob. 
for rS-nUeo). To shine back ; to 

rg-novo, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
To renew, repair. 

reor, reri, rdtus sum, v. dep. 
(kindr. with res.) To think, 
deem, judge. 

rS-pagula, orum, n. pao-, root 
of pango, to fasten). Bolts, bars, 

rS-pandus, a, um, a^). Bent 

rSparabllis, e, a(^. {rSparo). 

rS-paro, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
To make fresh preparations for ; 
to renew, restore. 

rSpastlnatio, onis, f. {rSpa»' 
tXno, to trench). A trenching. 



T6*pello, 9re, rtpHK {repp-), re- 
jntbum, V. tr. To drive back, re- 
palse, repel, rcfute. 

repente, udv. {rSpent, sudden). 
Suddenly, nnexpectedly. 

rS-percfitio, ire, cussi, cuasum, 
T. tr. To drive back; to caase 
to rcbound ; to reflect. 

r6-pdrio, ire, ^piri {repp'\ 
ripertuofi, v. tr. (root per-; cf. 
apgrio), To flnd, meet with ; to 
flnd again ; to invent, devise. 

rS-pSto, ire, pgtivi, pitHum, y. 
tr. To seck again ; to rcvisit ; to 
repeat, renew ; Muapiria, to fetch, 

rS-pleo, ere, evi, Uum, v. tr. 
(ol)8. pko, to fill). To fiU again, 

rC-pdno, 9re, pdmi, pdeftum, 
Y. tr. To put or lay back or away. 

rC-posco, »re, y. tr. To de- 
mand back. 

rS-prShendo [prendo], 9re, 
di, 8um, r, tr. To blame, cenfiore, 

rS-prlmo, ire, preeei, preaaum, 
T. tr. {primo), To press back, 
keep back, check, curb, restrain. 

rS-pfidio, are, dvi, atum, v. tr. 
{rg/Jitdium, a separation). To cast 
off, put away ; to r^ect, refuse. 

rS-pnSrasco, ire, t. incep. 
{ptier). To become a boy again. 

rSpugnanter, adv. {ripuffno). 
' Unwillingly, with repugnance. 

r6-pag:no, are, avi, atum, t. 
Intr. To fight against, oppose, re- 
sist; to be inconsistcnt, contra- 
dictory, or incompatible with. 

repnlsa, ae, f. {ripello). De- 
nial, refusal. 

rS-quies, eti» [dat. sing. and 
all plur. cases wanting], f. Rest, 
repose, relaxation, recreatlon ; 

rS-qniesco, ire, quiSvi, quio' 
tum, v. incep. To rest, repose. 

rS-qniro, ire, sim, aitum, t. tr. 
(quctero). To seck for sgain ; to 
look after ; to ask, inqnire after. 

res, rH, f. A thing. affah: ; cxs- 
cnrrence, cTont ; action, deed, ex- 
ploit, undertaking ; business, mat- 
ter; situation, aise, circumstan- 
ces, condition ; rea pubhca, the 
commonwealth, state ; reefamiU- 
aria, private property. 

r6-86co, are, cui, ctum, t. tr« 
To cut oflf ; flki vivum, to cut to tbe 

rS-sSro, aire, avi, atum, t. tr. 
{airo, to join). To unlock, open, 
tcar open. 

rS-senro, are, Svi, aium, t. tr. 
To lay up, reserre; to save, pre- 

. rS-sIdeo, ere, aedi, t. intr. {si^ 
deo). To sit, sit down ; to remain 
behind, remain, be left. 

r6-sido, ire, aedi, t. intr. To 
sit down; to settle, subside» 

rS-sUio, ire, aflui, t. intr. («A- 
lio). To leap or spring back ; to 
shrink, contract. 

rS-sisto, ire, sttU, t. intr. To 
stand back, stand still ; fo oppose, 
resist, withstand. 

r6-solTO, ire, aolvi, adUUum, y. 
tr. To untie, loose, open ; to sep- 
arate, release. 

re-specto, are, avi, atum,, 
and intr. (freq. of respicio). To 
look back repeatedly ; to lookat; 
to care for, regard, respect. 

re-splcio, ire, exi, ectum, t. tr. 
and intr. {spicio, to look). To 
look back at ; to look to, at, or for. 

re-spondeo, ere, di, sum, v. tr. 
{apondeo, to pledge one*s self), 
Topromise; to answer, repJy. • 



, responsam, », n. (retjMndeo), 
An answer, reply, response. 

res-pabllca. See res, 

re-stltuo, ire, ui, Btum, v. tr. 
{statuo). To put or 8ct ap again ; 
to restore, rebuild, revive. 

re-sto, arc, »<««, v. intr. To 
vitlistand, resist, opposo; to be 
left, remain. 

restricte, adv. (reHringo, to 
tighten). Closely, strictly, ex- 

rS-sumo, ire, mpsi, mptum, v. 
tr. To take back or again ; to re- 

rS-stipiiiiis, a, «m, a4|. Bent 
back, lying on one*8 back. 

rS-snrgo, «r«, surrexi, swrrec- 
tum^ V. intr. To rise again. 

r6-tardo, are, dvi, atum, v. tr. 
{tairdo, to hinder). To returd, im- 
pede, hinder. 

r6-tego, ire, xi, ctum, v. tr. To 
ancuver, open. 

rS-texo, Sre, xui, xtum^ v. tr. 
To unweave, unravel. 

rS-tlneo, ere, ui, tenium, v. tr. 
(Uneo), To hold back, keep back, 
retain, restrain, keep, preserve, 
hold fast, save from destmction. 

r6-torqaeo, ire^ si^ tum, v. tr. 
To tarn or cast tiack or away. 

rS-tr&ho, iren xi, ctum, v. tr. 
To draw back, withdravjr ; to call 

r6trd, adv. * Backwards, back, 

r6trd-Tersas, a, um, adj. (ver- 
to). Tamed back or backwards. 

r^-vello, gre, velli, vtilsumy v. 
tr. (vello, to pluck). To pull or tear 
out, off, or away ; to scparate, re- 

rS-verbero, are, avi, atum, v. 
tr. To beat or drive back, repel. 

rS-verto, ire, ti, v. intr. and 

r8-vertor, t, «t« swn,Y. dep. 
Totum or come back; to retura. 

rSvdcabllis, e, adj. (rMco), 
That may be recallcd, revucable. 

rS-voco, are, avi, dtum, v.' tr. 
To Cdll back, recall; to draw, 
fetch back, or restore ; to regain, 
recover ; to apply, refer. 

rS-volvo, Sre, volvi, vdlutum^ 
V. tr. To roll back ; rivdluta est, 
fell back, sank back. 

rex, regis, m. (rigo). A king. 

Rhenns, t, m. The Rhine. 

rhindc^ros, otis, m. A rhino- 

Rhodftnns, t, m. The Rhone. 

Rhodope, es, f. A mountain 
range in Thrace. 

Rhodopeins, a,um, a4j. (Rhd- 
dape), Rhodopeian, Thracian. 

Rhosaces, is, m. A Persian 

rictns, tM, m. (ringor, to open 
wide the mouth). Oaping, dis- 
tcnded jaws. 

rideo, ere, n, sum, v. tr. and 
intr. To laugh, smile; to laugh 
at, ridicule. 

rlgeo, ere, v. intr. To be stiff 
or numb; to stiffcn, bristle np, 
stand on end. 

rlirosGo, gre,' rtguif v. incep. 
(rfgeo), To grow stiff, stiffen, 
harden, become rigid. 

rlsrldns, a, um, a^j. (rigeo), 
Stiff, hard, inflcxible. 

rlgo, drcj dci, dtum^ v. tr. To 
wet. water; to lead or conduct 

rlgor, oris, m. (rfgeo). Stiff- 
ness, hardness. 

rlgraas, a, um, adj. (rigo), Wa- 
tered, well-^atered. 

rima, ae, f. Cleft, crack, fis- 
sure, chink. 

ripa, ae, f. A bank of a river. 



liras, ui, m. (rUUo), A langh- 
Ing, laoghter, langh. 

rlte, adv. {ritua). Rlghtly, fltly, 
duly, well; according to cnstom 
or usasre. 

rltns, tu, m. A religious usage 
or ceremony; a rite, usage, cns- 
tom, manner. 

nvns, e, m. A brook, rivnlet 

rdbigo, iniSf f. Rnst. 

rdbnr, dria, n. A hard kind of 
tree or wood, oak-tree, oak ; hard- 
nesB, Btrength, vigor, might, pow- 

rdbiMtas, a, tim, a^j- {robur). 
Firm, solld, stnrdy, robuBt. 

rdg&tns, us, m. {rdgo), Re- 
qnest, snit, entreaty. 

r5go, are, ors, atum, y. tr. To 
ask, question, reqnest. 

rdsrns, t, m. A funeral pOe. 

Roma, ae, f. Rome. 

Romaniis, a, um, &dj. (Roma), 

roro, are, avi, atum, t. tr. and 
intr. {rot). To let fiill, drop, or 
distil dew ; to drop, trickle, drip. 

ros, rdri$, m. Dew. 

r58a, ae, f. A rose. 

rcMtmm, t, n. {rdelo, to gnaw). 
A beak; plur., roHra, orum, n. 
A stage for speakers and the place 
aI)ont it in the Forum, so called 
from bcing adorncd with tho 
beaks of the ships taken from the 
Antiates, B. C. 337. 

rdta, ae, f. A wheel ; by me- 
ton., a Ciir, chariot. 

roto, are, avi, atumj t. tr. and 
intr. {rdta). To tum, rcvolve. 

riibeo, ere, bui, v. intr. {rHber). 
To 1)0 red: 

riiber, broi brum, adj. Red. 

riibesco, 9re, hui^ v. incep. (rO- 
heo). To become red ; to redden. 

rfibetnm, i [only plural], n. 

riidena, nH$, m. A rape, cord» 

rttdis, e, a^j. Uuwronght, 

ruga, ae, f. A wrinkle. 

rugoaas, a, um, ac^. {ruga). 
Wrinkled, shrivelled. 

roina, ae^ f. {nio), Fall, de- 
struction, min, death, calamity. 

ramor, oria, m. Unanthentir 
cated report, hearsay, mmor ; rep- 
ntation, fame. 

rampo, 9re, rUpi, rupium, ▼. 
tr. To bnrst, tear, rcnd ; to burst 
asunder, force in pieces ; to force 
apassage; tohreak. 

rno, ire, rui, rHtum [fht. part. 
rtHturua], v. tr. and intr. To rnsh, 
rush on, rush down, fall. 

rfipes, is, f. A rock, cliff. 

Rupllias, i, m. I. Fub!ins 
RnpUius Lupus, consul with C. 
Popiliiis Laenas, B. C. 132. II. 
Lucius Rupllius, a brotber of tho 

rurlcdla, ae, m. and f. {nta, 
cdlo). That tills tlie gronnd, that 
lives in the conntry, mstic, raraL 

rursns and rnrsum, adv. (con- 
tr. fh)m rSvernu) On the other 
hnnd, again, anew. 

ma, rurit [plnr. only in tho 
nom. and acc.], n. Theconntry; 
lands, flelds, farm, estnte. 

rnstlcfitio, oni», f. {rueticor, to 
live in the country)*. Living in the 
conntry, country life ; agriculture, 

ru8tlcns, a, um, a^j. (ritf). 
Fertaining to the country, rnstic, 
rnral ; as snbs., rueticus, t, m. A 
conntryman, mstic, peasant. 

Rfitllius, t, m. Pnblius Rtlti- 
lins Rufus, consul B. Q, 105 ; an 
orator, jnrist and historian. 

rfitllus, a, um, a^j. Red, gold- 




S&bini, orum, ra. The Sabines, 
an ancient Italian people adjoin- 
ing the Latins. 

Sabinas, a, umf adj. Sabine. 

s&billnm, i, n. Sand. 

8&cer, craj crumf &dj. Dedi- 
cated or consecrated to a divinity, 
sacred, tioly, hallowed. 

8&cerdo8, otis, m. and f. {s&cer, 
do). A priest, priestess. 

s&cerddtium, t, n. {sOcerdos), 
The sacerdotal offlce; pricsthood. 

8&crlflciam, t, n. {adcriffco, 
to sacrifice). A sacrifice. 

8&crI18?ns, a, um, adj. (sOcer, 
Ugo). Impious. 

sacrnm, i, n. {sOcer). A holy 
or sacred thing, a religious act, a 
sacrifice ; plur., sacred rites, reli- 
gious worship, religion. 

saecfilnm, «', n. (perh. ftom 
a§co). A generation, age, period 
of a inan's life ; an indefinitel^ 
longperiod, century. 

saepe, adv. Often, firequently. 

saepS-nfimSro, adv. Often- 
times, time and again. 

saepes, saepio. See sep-. 

saevio, ire, ii, itum, v. intr. 
{saevua). To l>e fierce ; to rage. 

saevns, a, um, adj. Raging, 
Airious, ferocious; ficrce, cruel, 
savage, violent, terrible, fright- 

s&gitta, ae, f. An arrow. 

sal, adUa, m. Salt. 

8&Iignns, a, um, a^j. {adUz, a 
willow-trce). Of willow, willow. 

S&iinator, oris, m. I. Caius 
Livius S&iinator, naval command- 
er in the war against Antidchus 
the Oreat, and consnl B. C. 188. 
II. liarciis liviiis S&Iiaator, con- 

sal B. C. 219, with Lucius Aemt- 
lius Panllns. 

s&lio, ire, t» rarely ii, tum, 
V. tr. and intr. To leap, spring, 
bound, jump. 

saltem, adv. (a contr. of sdlU' 
tem, salus). At least, at all events. 

saltns, U8, m. {salio). A leap- 
ing, leap, spring; a woodland, 
forest ; a mountain pass. 

s&labrltas, atie, f. {saWbria^ 
healthful). Healthfulness. 

s&Iubrlter, adv. {aaMSbrie, 
healthful). HealthfuIIy. 

s&las, utia, f. {ealvus, safe). A 
sound or whole condition, health, 
welfare, prosperity, safety, help, 

s&lnt&ris, e, a^j. {sahts). Per- 
taining to well-being, healthftil, 
salutary, beneficial, advantageons. 

s&lato, are, dvi, atum^ v. tr. 
{salus). To greet, wish health, 
pay one*s respects to, salute. 

Samnis, Uis, adj. Of or be- 
longing to Samnium, a conntry 
of Italy near Latium; Samnite. 
As subs. A Samnite. 

S&mos, t, f. An island on the 
coast of Asia Minor opposite Eph- 
Ssus, famed as the birthplace of 
Pythagdras, and for its worship 
of Juno. 

S&mdthraces, um, m. The 
Samothracians, inhabitants of Sa- 
mothrace, an island off the coast 
of Thrace in tho Aegean 8ea, fa- 
mous for the mystic rites of the 

sancio, ire, xi, ctum, y. tr. 
(kindr. with sOcer). To make sa- 
cred or inviolable; to establish, 
appoint, ordain; to confirm, rati- 
fy, sanction. 

sanctns, a, um, adj. {saneio). 
Rendered sacred, sacred, inviola- 



ble ; pare, holj, pions, jast, tt^ 

•Aiie, ndy. {sSnua, whole). Tni- 
\y, fndecd, certainly» to bc snre. 

sangalneiis, a, um, aaj. (san- 
ffuu). Of blood, bioody, blood- 

«aniriiis» tni»t m. Blood. 

s&piens, ntist a^). («tfptb, to be 
wiae). WiM. Afl snbs. A wise 

s&pienter, adv. itajnen»), 

s&pientia, oe, f. {§dpiena). 

sarclna, ae, f. {wareio, to re- 
pair). A barden, pack. 

sarcfilam, i, n. {sario, to hoe). 
A light hoe. 

Sardes, ium, f. Sardis, the 
▼eiy ancient capital of Lydia, on 
the Pactolns, the residonce of 

sarmentnm, »*, n. {aarpo, to 
catoir). Twigs, light hranches. 

s&t, adv. Enoagh, Bufflciently. 

s&telles, itis, m. and f. A life- 
gnard, attendant. 

s&tietas, aHs, f. {sdti»). A snf- 
fidency, abnndance, satiety. 

s&tio, are, avi, ahtm, ▼. tr. {aO- 
tia). To fiil, satisfy, sate, glnt, 

s&tis, indecl. a4j.andad^. Sof- 
ficient, enongb ; comp. adtiu», bet- 
ter, fitter. 

s&tnm, », n. {airo, to sow). 
Standing com, crop. 

sfttnr, Hra, arum, adj. {sOtia). 
Fall of (food), sated, fat 

s&tfirltas, atiSy f. {sdtur). Fnl- 
ness, plenty, abandance, reple- 

Sfitornins, a, um, &6j. {Satur- 
fNtf). Qatamian. 

Sfttnmns, •» m. Satam. an 

old Italian god, bnt laterldentt- 
fied with tho GreelK Kronos, 8<m 
of Urftnns and Oaea, and as snch 
the father of Jnpiter, Neptane, 
Plato, Jano, Ceres, and Vesta; 
hc was dethroned by his cliildren 
and plnnged into Tart&ras. 

sfttns, a, um, part. {siro, to 
sow). Sprnng from, dcsoended 
from. As snbs. Son, daagfater, 

sfttns, us, m. {s8ro, to sow). A 
planting, sowing. 

S&tl^ri, orum, m. The Satyrs, 
attenUants of Bacchns ; bat liiter 
representcd by the poets as a kind 
of wood-deities, rcsembling apes, 
with two goat*B feet, and ▼ery las- 

sancias, a, um, a^j* Woand- 
ed, hnrt. 

saxens, a, um, adj. {saxum)^ 
Of rock, rocky, stony. 

saxnm, t« n. A roclc, stone. 

scaena, ae, f. The stage (of a 

8caeT51a, ae, m. See Mueius, 

scando, ire, di, sum, ▼. tr. and 
intr. To climb, moant. 

scSISrfitns, a, um, a4j. {scB^ 
lus). Impious, wicked, accnrsed. 

8c6lns, iris, n. A wicked or 
impions action, evil deed, crime. 

sceptrnm, e, n. A sceptre. 

scientia, ae, f. {scio). A know- 
ing or being skilled in,^ knowl- 
edge, science, skill. 

sclllcet, ad^. {sd, impcrative 
of scioy and IXcet^ lit., know, it is 
permitted). Of course, evidently, 
certainly, sarely, donbtless, for- 

scindo, h^e, setdi, scissum, ▼. 
tr. To tear, cat, rend, cleave.- 

scio, Ire, seivi (u), scftum, T. 
tr. To iimw, onderstand pereeim 



Scfpio, oms, m. The name of 
a celebrated fiimily in the ffms 
Comelia, I. Cnaeus and Publias 
Scipiunes, two brothers, the for- 
mer commanding the army in 
Spain early in the second Punic, the idtter (father of Africa- 
nns Maior) at the battle of Tici- 
nns, and froni B. C. 217 with his 
brother in Spain, wliere they were 
both slain in an en<;agcment 
against the Carthnginians, B. C. 
211. Cato Maior, ix. 29 ; xx. 75 ; 
xxiii. 82. II. Pnblius Comelius 
Seipio Africanus Maior, the son of 
Publius Scipio, who fell in Spain, 
grandfather, by adoption, of Sci- 
pio AtJricanus Minor; he finished 
the second Punic war by the de- 
cisive battle of Zama, B. C. 202 ; 
he died B. C. 185. Cato Maior^ v. 
13; vi. 19; xvii. 61 ; xxi i. 82. 
IIL Put)lius Cornclius Scipio, 
the elder son of Nu. II., althouitrh 
of feeble health, was distinguished 
for his learning, and espccially for 
his knowledge of Greck history ; 
he was the adoptive father of No. 
IV. CaioMaior, xi. 35; xxiii. 82. 
IV. PnbliuB Scipio Aemllianus 
AfricanuB Minor. See pp. 228- 
232. V. Publius Conielius Sci- 
pio Nasica Corcttlum. See note to 
line 8, page 286. Cato Miior, xiv. 
60 ; LaeHus, xxvii. 101. VI. Pub- 
lius Comelius Scipio Nasica Sera- 
pio, the son of No. V. See note to 
line 12, p. 258. Laeliu8, xii. 41. 
In the plnral, ScipioneSf um, m. 
Men like Scipio or the Scipios. 

scisco, SrCt acivi^ scUuint v. tr. 
(incep. of 9cio), To decree, or- 

scite, adv. {acUus, skilful). 

scitain, t, n. {jsciaco), A witfy 
or acute saying, a clever thongllt. 

scdpfllas, f , m. A projecting 
point of roc*k, clifF, crag. 

scorpius [-os], », m. Tlie 
Scorpion, one of the signs of the 

scortiun, e, n. A harlot. 

scriba, ae, m. {scribo). A sec- 

scribo, «rtf, psiy ptuniy v. tr. To 
write, compose. 

scr ntor, ari^ atus sum, v. dep. 
(scrut&f trasb). To search (cven to 
the rags) ; to examine thorough- 


Scfthia, ae, f. Scythia, the 
geneial name of the unknown re- 
gions of tlie north of Europe and 
Asia beyond tho Black Sea. 

se- or sed-, insep. prep. denot- 
ing 1). separation or division ; 2). 
a reversal of the signification of 
the root. 

sS-cerno, gre, o eri, cretum^ y. 
tr. Lit., to sitt apart ; to separate ; 
to distinguish. 

sfico, are, cui, ctum, v. tr. To 
cut, cut off, cut through. 

sectus, a, um, part. See eSco. 

se-cum, i. e. eum with ae, 

sScnndnm, prep. with acc. («d- 
gruor), After, behind; according 

secnndns, a, um, ndj. {siquor), 
Following the first, sccond; fa- 
voring, propitions, fortunate ; rea, 
prosperity; secundo aeetu, with 
the tide ; eeeundo amne, down the 

ttScfiris, ie, f. {eico), An axe. 

seciirltas, atis, f. {serunui). 
Frcedom f^om care, unconcera, 
safcty, sccurity. 

se-curus, a, um, a^. {cura), 
Free firom core, nnconcemed, 
easy, qniet, composcd ; fice from 
danger, safe, sectire; serene, 
cheerfUl, bright 



sCcvt, comp. §Sehti, adr. (prob. 
froin tico), Otherwisc, differently. 

86d, conj. But, yet. 

sSdeo» ire, iidi, aessum, T. intr. 
To sit. 

sSdefl, itt f. (»gdeo). A seat, 
position, condition ; a dwelling- 
place : residence, alxxle ; temple. 

aSdile, is, n. {sitleo). A seat, 
bench. cliair. 

aSdltio, onis, f. {»e, do, i. e., a 
putting apart). Scdition, matiny. 

sS-dQco, ire, xi, ctum, t. tr. 
To witlidraw, sct aside. 

•edactaa, a, um, part. See «e- 
dueo. As a4). Remote, distant. 

sedlUaB, a, um, a^j. {sideo). 
"BvLsy, sealous, careful, attentive. 

seges, itia, f. A comficld; 
Btanding com ; a crop. 

segnia, e, adj. Slow, tardy, 
dilatory, slugi^ish, inactive. 

aella, ae, f. {tideo). A seat, 

sSmel, adT. Once, a single 

aemen, itUe, n. (for termen, 
firom siro). Seed. 

sS-met. See -mei. 

semesas, a, um, ac^. {eemi, 
half, ido, to eat). Half eatcn. 

SSmir&mis, idis, f. The queen 
of Assyria, consort und sucxxssor 
of Ninus. 

semper, adT. Always, eTer. 

semplternus, a, um, aOj. 
{eemper), Evcrtasting, perpetual, 
imperishable, etemid. 

aSnfttor, ori», m. (sen-, root 
of »in*tx). A senator. 

aSnfttns, u», m. (sen-, root of 
»hiex). The council of the eiders, 
the Senate or supreme conncil. 

sSnecta, ae, \. {sinex). Oldage. 

senectas, iUi», t. {»inex). Old 

sSnesco, ire, nui, t. incep. ($9- 
neo, to be old). To grow old, be- 
como aged. 

sSnez, »ini», comp. »inior, snp. 
supplied by nuu^wm» nStu, adj- 
Old, aged. As Bubs. An old per- 
8on ; tiniore», the old mcn, the 

sSni, ae, a, diatrib. num. a^. 
{»ex). Sixeach; forMx; six. 

senilis, e, acU. {»inex). Per- 
taining to old people, aged, senile. 

senior, u», a(]y. See »inex, 

sJtniam, t, n. {»ineo, tobeold). 
The feebleness of age, decline, de- 
cay, debility; peevishness, mo- 
roseness ; Texation, grief, tronble. 

sensim, adT. {»entio). Slowly, 

sensns, u», m. (»entio). Sense, 
pcrcepiion, fceling, judgment» 
emotion ; plur., the senses. 

sententia, ae, f. {»entio). Opin- 
ion, thoiight, judgment, sentenco, 
purpose, Tote. 

sentina, ae, f. Bilge-water. 

sentio, ire, »i, »um, t. tr. To 
disceni by the senses, feel, hear» 
see, etc; to perceive, notice, be 
sensible of, think, jndge. 

se-pftro, are, avi, atum, T. tr. 
To disjoin, sever, part, separate. 

sSpSlio, ire, in {ii), uUum, T. 
tr. To inter, bury. 

sepes, i», f. A hedge, fcnoe. 

sSpio, ire, p»i, ptum, T. tr. (a^ 
pe»). To surround with a hedge ; 
to fence, enclose, surronnd. 

se-pono, ire, paetd, pdaituntf 
T. tr. To put or place apart or 
aside; to pick out; to remoTe, 

septem, indecl. num. acU. 

septlmas, a, um, ord. niuiL 
acy. {»eptem). Seventh. 



tieptiiaginta, ind^cL niim. a4j. 
{teptem), Seventy. 

sSpalchram, i, n. (tgpSlio). A 
toinb, sepulchre, gi*ave. 

sepnltnpa, ae, f. (agpglio), A 
barial, sepultare, interment. 

sSqnor, », ciUtts tum, y. dep. 
To furiow, attend ; to come after, 
ensue, succeed; to pursue; to 
comply with, conform to ; to aim 
at, strive for. 

sSra, ae, f. {aSrOf to join). A 
bolt, bar. 

sSrSnns, a, um, adij. Clear, 
bright, cloudless. 

S^riphins, a, um, a^j. {SSri- 
phut, a small rocky Island in the 
Aegean Sca, reckoned among 
the Cyclftdes). Of Seriphus, Sc- 
riphian. As subs., Siriphius, i, 
m. A Seriphian. 

serins, adv. comp. of sero. 

Berius, a, um, a^j. Grave, se- 
rious, eamest. 

sermo, onit, m. (tSro, to join). 
Common discourse, talk, conver- 
sation, rumor, speech, language. 

sero, adv. {tirus). Late. 

aero, Bre, tevi, tOtum, v. tr. To 
80W, plant; to prodnce, bring 

serpens, ntit, m. and f. {terpo). 
A creeping tliing, snake, serpent ; 
as a constellation, * The Serpent.' 

serpo, gre, pti, ptum, v. intr. 
To creep, crawi ; to move imper- 
ceptibly ; to prevail. 

serra, ae, f. {tico). A saw. 

sertnm, t [nsually plur.], n. 
(tgro, to join). A wreath of flow- 
ers, garland. 

serns, a, um, adj. Late, too 

senrfttor, Sris, m. {tervo). A 
preservef," deliverer. 

Senllins, •*, m. See AhiUa* 

servio, ire, ivi (n*), itum, v. in- 
tr. {servus). To serve ; to be de- 
voted or subject to ; to have re- 
spect to or care for. 

servltinm, t, n. (servus). Ser- 
vitude, subjection. 

servltns, iUis, f. {servus). Ser- 
vitude, slavery, bondage. 

servo, dre, dvi, dtum,Y. tr. To 
preserve, retain, keep, cherish ; to 
save, deliver ; to watch, guard. 

servns, t\ m. A slave. 

s6-se, reduplicated form of $g. 

sen. See tive. 

sSverltas, dtit, f. {tgverus), 
Gravity,.8ternne88,jitrictness, rig- 
or; seriousness. 

sSverns, a, um, a^j. Serions, 
grave, strict, stcm, harsh. 

8ex., abbreviation for Sextus. 

sex, indecl. num. ac^. Six. 

sexaginta, indecl. num. ad^. 
{tex). Sixty. 

Sextns, i, m. A Roman prae- 

sextns, a, um, ord. nnm. a^}. 
{tex). Sixth. 

sl, conj. If ; ti quidem, as. 

sibllns, t, m. plur., tibila, 
orum, n. A hissing. 

sic, adv. Thns, so. 

Sicftnia, a«, f. Sicily. 

siccltas, dtit, f. {ticcus), Dry- 
ness, dronght ; firmness, solidity. 

sic«o, dre, dvi, dtum, v. d*. 
{siccus). To make dry, dry np ; 
to dry, drain. 

siccns, a, um, a4j* Dry, snl- 

Slceiis, idis, f. a4)- Sidliam 

Slcfilns, a, um, acU. Sicilian. 

slc-nt, and sic-fiti, adv. As, 
just as, 80 as. 

sido, ere, sidi, t. intr. (klndr. 
with siSdeo). To sit down, settle, 



Slddniiu, a, iim, a4). (Sidofiy 
the mother-city of Tyre). 8klo- 

sidiu, irist n. A constellation, 
Iteavenly body, star, pianet; the 
aky, heavens ; weuthcr. 

•Igillani, t, n. (dim. of jt^- 
num). The image in a seai-ring, 

sigDlflcfttio, onit, f. {ngtafi- 
ro). Indication, expresgion, sign, 

signlfleo, ore, art, a^t<m, t. tr. 
{tignum, f&cio), To show by 
«igns; to show, point out, Indi- 
cate, intimate. 

signo, ore, ooi, atwn^ y. tr. 
{ngimm), To roarlL; to maric 
with a stamp, coin, stamp; to 
mark ont or off. 

signom, t, n. A mnrk, token, 
tign, Bignul ; military standard, 
ensign ; image, device ; a sign in 
the heavena, oonstellation. 

•aentinm, t, n. («lieo). Silence, 

Silenus, t\ m. The tntor and 
constant attendant of Bacchus, 
represented as bald-headed, with 
short homs and a flat nose, as 
drunken, lasdvious, and monnted 
on au ass. 

ftllens, n<M, part. See Hleo, 
As a4). Still, quiet, silent. As 
subs., tXlentea, the dead ; rex ti- 
ientum, i. e. Plnto. 

slleo, ere, eihd, t. intr. To be 

sHex, ieie, m., rarely f. A hard 
Stone, flint. 

Silva, ae, f. A wxkk), forest 

silvesco, ire, y. incep. ifilva), 
To grow or mn wild ; to mn Jq 

silvestris, e, acg. (niva). 
IFoody, wil4. 

slmlliB, #, a4j. LSke» similar. 

stanllltndo, inie, f. {eimiUMy. 
Likcness, resemblanoe, similitnde. 

Slmdnldes, t«, m. A oelebra» 
ted lyric poet and philosopher of 
the islftiid Ceofl, opposite the pro- 
montory Sunium in Attfca. 

simplex, icie, a^j. {simel, p^ 
co, to fokl). Simple, uncompound- 
ed, nnmixed; open, fhink, art- 
less, ingenuous, honest, sti-aight- 

simpllcltas, aft«, f. {eimpiexy, 
Artlessness, innocence. 

slmnl, adv. Togcther, at the 
same time. 

stannl-ae, adv. As soon as. 

slmfilacmm, t, n. («rml/t«). 
An image, a likcness ; a pbantom, 
shade; avisionary form. 

slmiliatio, onie, f, {HnUUo), A 
feigning, shamming, feint, £ftlse 
pretence, deceit, simnlation. 

slmJiio, are^ aoi, aium, t. tr. 
{HndUe), To imitate; to feign, 
pretend, simulate. 

sin, coi\}. («i, ne). Bntif, ifon 
the contrary. 

sincerns, a, um, a4j. Clean, 
sonnd, whole, genuine; nncoi:- 
rapted, unblemished, pnre, un- 
spotted, chaste. 

slne, prep. with abl. Withont. 

singiili, aet a [in the sing. onlj 
ante- and post-classical], distrib. 
num. a^j. One each, one by one, 
separate, single^ individual. 

slnister, tra, trum, acy. Lefk, 
on the left. 

slno, ire, eivi (tt), Htum, t. tr. 
(prob. another form of tiro), To 
let, lay, or put down ; to snffer, 
allow, permit; in poM., to lie, be 
buried. Ov. ii. 327. 

slnno, Sre, Sot, atum, t. tr. {si^ 
fim). To wiuid^ curve, bow. 



tHnnn, ua, m, A cnryed snr- 
foce, corve ; the hanging fold of 
tbe npper part of the toga, fold ; 
ihe bosom, lap. 

Slp^lns, t, m. I. A monntnin 
on the frontiers of Lydia and 
Phryiria. IL A 8on of Ni5be. 

si-quis or si-qai, siqua, siquid 
or aiquod, indef. pron. If any 
one, if any, if 'anythinsr. 

Sirenes, tm, f. The Sirens, 
vho, according to the myth, were 
bird» with the faces of virgins. 
Tbey liyed on the soathem coast 
of Italy, where, with their sweet 
Toices, they enticed ashore those 
who were sailing by, and then 
killed them. 

Sisocostas, i, m. An Indian. 

sisto, Bre, gtiH, atOtum, v. tr. 
and intr. (a rednplicated form of 
the root sta-). To cause to stand ; 
to ^t, put, place, stay, finish, end ; 
to stand ; to land. 

^Sis^has, t, m. Son of Ae<V 
los, king of Corinth, famons for 
his cnnning and robberics. He 
was killed by Theseus. His pun- 
ishment in the infemal regions 
was to roll a stone up hill, which 
constantly rolled back again. 

sltis, t«, f. Thirst. 

sltas, a, «m, part. See Hno. 
As a^j. Lying, sitaated. 

sltos, ua, m. {Hno). The site, 

si-¥e, or sea, conj. 0tif;8ive 
— sive, whcther — or. 

sm&ragdos, t, m. and f. A 
transparent precioas stone of a 
bright green color, iucluding not 
only the emerald, bnt the beryl, 
jasper, malachite, etc 

sobrias, a, um, a6}. (perh. $e, 
ebnua), Suber, not drank. 

sdcer,A^', m. A &ther-in«knr. 

Sdcietas, atisy f. (sdcius), Fel- 
lowship, association, commnnity. 

socio, arct avi, atum, v. tr. {sd- 
cius). To join or unrte together; 
to associate,accompaTiy. 

socias, t, m. {sddus, a^.). A 
sharer, partner, ' companion, as- 
sociate, ally, confederate. 

socias, a, um, adj. Sharing, 
partjiking, associated, allied, con- 

Socrates, is, m, The celebra- 
ted Orecian philsopher, who, on 
groundless charges, was pnt to 
death by the Athenians B. C. 399. 

sddftlis, t«, m. and f. A boon- 
companion, comrade. 

sodalltas, atis, f. {sddaUe). 
Fellowship, society, club. 

Sogdiftna (sc. rSgio), ae, f. A 
region in the north of Persia, be- 
tween tlie Oxus and the Jaxartes. 

Sogdiani, orum, m. The in- 
habitants of Sogdiaua. 

s5l, solis, m, The sun ; the 
god of the sun. 

sdlftcium, t, n. {sdlor). A con- 
solationj comfort. 

sdlea, ae, f. {sdbtm). A sandal. 

s51eo, ere, sdHtus sum, v. semi- 
dep. To be wont, be accustomed. 

sdlldas, a, um, adj. {sdlum.) 
Firm, dense, comp sct, solid. 

sdlltftrius, a, ttm, adj. {solus), 
Alone, loncly, solitary. 

solltado, inis, f. {solus). Lone- 
liness, solitude, desert, wilder- 

sdlltas, a, um, part. See sdleo, 
As adj. Wonted, usnal, habitual. 

sdlium, t, n. (perh. sideo), A 
soat, chalr of state, throne. 

sollemnis, e, adj. {sollus, i. e. 
totus, annus). Appointed, solemn, 
festive ; nsual, ordinary, costom- 



•oUera, Hs, a4). («oOim, i. e. 
idtust ara). Cleyer, dexterous, 
ingenions, inventive. 

sollertia, ae, f. {soUert). Skill, 
shrcwdneAS, adroitness. 

solllclto, Sre, aci, atum, v. tr. 
{aolUcttut). To arge, solicit, en- 
deavor to persaade; to disqaiet, 
molest ; to incite, tempt, instigate. 

solllcttfido, im8, f. {aolkcituM), 
XJneasiness of miod, anxiety, so- 

«olllcltits, a, um, acy. (sollus, 
1. e. toiuM, deo). Agitated, dis- 
turbed ; anxioas, solicitoas, troa- 
bled ; cauRing disquietade. 

Sdlon, onit, m. A famoas 
Atlienian iuwgiver, onc of Uie 
sevcn safTcs of Greece. 

sdlor, ari, atu» aum, v. dep. To 
corafort, console, solace. 

sdlam, t, n. Eartli, soil, land, 
ground, country, base, foundation, 

sdlam, adv. {tolua). Only, 
merely, alone. 

solas, a, um, gen. adlius, dat. 
toK, acy. Alone, only, solitary. 

boIto, gre, aolvi, edlutum, v. tr. 
Tu loose, undo, untie, set free, 
loosen, release ; to pay ; to dis- 
pel; to render feebie or power- 

somnlcttlosas, a, um, adj. 
{eomnut). Drowsy, sleepy, slug- 

somnns, t, m. Sleep. 

sdnltus, ut, m. {sdno). A din, 
noise, sound. 

s5no, are, ui, itum, v. tr. and 
intr. To sonnd, resound; to ut- 

sdnns, t, m. {tdno). A sound. 

Sdphocles, it and t, m. A 
celebrated Grecian tragic poet, 
who lived at Athens B. C. 495-406. 

s5pio, ire, im {%%), Uum^ ▼. tr. 
To put to sleep, cause to sleep. 

sopor, arit, m. (kindr. with 
topio). A heavy sleep, lethargy. 

sordldns, a, ym, adj. {sordeo^ 
to be dirty). Dirty, uncleail, 
filthy; mean, base, low, despica- 

sdror, oris, f. A sister. 

sors, tortit, t. Lot ; prophecy ; 
destiny, fate ; condition. 

sortior, iri, itus tum, v. dep. 
{tort). To receive by lot. 

Sp., abbreviation for Sptlrins. 

sp&do, ofiit, m. A eunuch. 

spargo, ire, ti, tum, v. tr. To 
spread, strcw/ scatter, sprinkle, 
bespatter; to distiibnte, spread 

sparsns, a, um, part. See 

spatior, ari, aiut tum, v. dep. 
{spaiium). To walk abont, or 

s£:atiosas, a, um, adj. {tpO- 
tium). Of great extent, extensive, 

sp&tiam, t, n. A space, room, 
distance, interval; course; race- 
course; period; size, dimension; 
time, Icisure, opportunity. 

spScies, H, f. {tpicio, to look). 
The look, appeai^ance; shape, 
mien. figure ; show, seeming, sem- 

spSciosns, a, um, adj. {tpih- 
ciet). Showy, beautiful, spleudid, 

spectftbllis, e, a^j. {specto). 
Worth seeing, notable, remark- 
able, admirable. 

spectactilani, t, n. {specto), 
A show, siglit, spectacle. 

spectfttns, a, um, part. See 
specto. As acy. Tried, tested, 
proved ; respected, estoemed. 



specto, are^ Svi, Sium, T. tr. 

(freq. of spSciOf to look). To look 
at, gaze at, bebold, watcb, ob- 
serve ; to try, test ; of locaiities : 
to look, lie, face, be situated to- 
wards any quarter. 

spSctilor, ari, attis sum^ v. 
dep. {s/jictlia, a look-uut). To 
watch, observe. 

spScas, U8 and t\ m., f., and n. 
A cave, cavern, chasm. 

Spercheis, idis, a^J. f. Of or 
Ijelonging co the Spercheos, a river 
of Thessaly rising on Mt. Pindus. 

sperno, ire, sprevi, spreittm, v. 
tr. To despise, contemn, r^ect, 

spero, are, aci, a(um, t. tr. 
To hope, trust, expect. 

spes, spSi [wants g^., dat., and 
abl. plurdl], f. {spero). Hope ; 
object of hope, expectation. 

spiceus, a, um, adj. {spicum), 
Consistiiig of ears of corn. 

splcam, i, n. An ear (of 

splna, a, f. A thom; back- 
bone, spine. 

spineos, a, um, adj. {spina). 
Of thoras, thorny. 

spira, of, f. A coil. 

spiritns, us, m. {spiro). Breath, 
life, spirit, soul. 

splro, are, dri, Sium, v. tr. and 
iiitr. To breathe, blow. 

spissns, a, um, adj. Thick, 
close, dense. 

splendeo, ere, t. intr. To 
fihine, gleam. 

splendesco, gre, dui, t. incep. 
{splendeo), To become bright, or 

splendlde, adv. {spleru^dus). 
Brightly, brilliantly, nobly. 

splendldos, a, um, adj. {tplen- 
deo), Brigbt, biilliant, splendid. 

splendor, orie, m. {spkndeo), 
Brightness, brilliancy, lustre, 
splcndor; raagnificence, snmptu- 
ousness ; honor, dignity. 

spdlio, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
{spdUum). To strip, rob, plunder, 
deprivc, despoil. 

spdliam, t, n. The skin or 
hide of an animal strippcd off; 
booty, prey, spoil. 

sponda, <p, f. The frame of a 
bedstead, sofa, etc. 

spontis, sponte [only used in 
gen. and abl.], f. Of one's own 
accord or free will, voluntarily. 

spretns, o, um, part. See 

spiima, ae, t. {spuo, to spit). 
Foam, froth, spunie. 

spnnio, are, ari, atum, T. tr. 
and intr. {spuma). To foam, 

spjimlger, ira, grum, &6j. {spu- 
ma, giro). Foaming. 

spnmdsnH, a, "tim, a^). {epu- 
ma). Full of foam, foaming. 

sqn&leo, ere, ui, t. intr. To 
be stiff or rough ; to be filthy. 

sqaalldns, a, um, adj. {squo' 
leo). Dirty, lilthy, neglected. 

squalor, oris, m. {squaleo)» 
Stiffness, roughness, fonlness. 

sqn&ma, ae, f. (kindr. witb 
squdleo) A scale. 

squftmlger, ira, h-um, ac^. 
{squdma, giro). Scaie-bearing, 

sqaftmosas, a, um, a^j. {squd' 
ma). Covered with scales, scaly. 

stabllis, e, a(^. {sto). Firm, 
steady, stable, steadfast, unwaver- 

st&bHItas, dth, f. {stabiUs). 
Steadfastness, firmness, stability. 

stftdiam, i, n. A stade, a dis. 
tance of 125 donble paces, or 625 



Ronum feet, eqnal to 006.75 Eng- 
lish feet, Fomething less than an 
ei^'lith of au Engitsh mile; arace- 

stafCDO, are, Sti, atumy v. tr. 
and uitr. (stagnum), To sCagnate ; 
to Ije «vcrflowed. 

etagnom, t. n. {sto). A plece 
of BCaiiding watcr» pool, swamp, 

st&tiiii» adT. isto). Forthwith, 

st&tio, onU, f. itto). A post or 

St&tiii8, t, m. See CaeetUu». 

8t&ti¥ua, a, um, adj. {tto). Be- 
longing to statiuns or quarters ; as 
subs. atatita, orum, n. A station- 
ary ciimp where an army halts for 
a lonff time. 

st&tQO, dre, in, utumf v. tr. 
(sto). To put, piace, decide, de- 
termine, flx, appoint. 

st&toa, a, um, &dj. {siMto). Set, 
appointed, «tated. 

st&tas, u», m. {eto). Condi- 
tion, sitaation. 

stella, ae, f. A star. 

stellfttos, a, «m, a4j. {tteUa). 
8et with stars, sparkling, glitter- 

stercdro. Sref ari, atum, t. tr. 
{stercus, dang). To dung, ma- 

sternis, e, a4]. Sterile, nn- 

sterno, ire, atrSin, itratum, v. 
tr. To spread ; to strew, sciitter ; 
to prostrate, overthrow ; to cover, 

Stgslchdms, «, m. A Greek 
lyric poet of HimSra, a city in 

stillo, Sre, aci, Sium, v. tr. and 
intr. {stilla^ a drop). To drop, 
trickle, distlL 

stlmfllo, Sre, Sti, Stwm, ▼:. tr. 
{ettmiaue). To ronse up, spar on, 

stlmfiloH, t, n. A goad ; incen- 

stipendiam, t, n. («/</», a ^tft, 
pendo). Tax, triiiute; pay, ftti- 
pefid; military service, time of 

stipes, itit, m. Tlie stock, 
tnmk of a tree. 

stipo, Sre, Svi, Stum, v. tr. To 
crowd together, surround, en*- 

stlpllla, ae, f. (dim. of at^fea). 
Sto.k, stem, blade, straw, stublile. 

stirps [stirpes, stirpis], •», f., 
somctimes m. Stock, family, lin- 
eaffe, oi&pring, progeny ; a shoot, 
spront, 8tem; source, origin. 

stlva, 00, f. A plough-liandle. 

sto, stSre, ttgti, ststum, v. intr. 
Ta stand, stund erect, stand still; 
to continne. 

Stftlcas, a, um, ac^. Of or be- 
longing to the Stoic philosophj, 
or to the Stoics, Stoic As saba. 
A Stoic. 

strftmen, Ims, n. {stemo). 
Straw, littcr. 

strftmentora, t, n. {stemo). 
That which serves for spreading 
or iittering, straw, litter. 

strenne, adv. ' {stremius). 
Promptly, qnickly. 

strenuns, a, um, a^j. Brisk, 
prompt. active. 

strSpItns, us, m. {stripo, to 
ratrle). A noise, din, clashing. 

strideo, ere, di^ or strido, ire, 
di, V. intr. To hiss, creak, whistle, 
rattle, etc. 

stridtilas, a, um, at^y. {atrideo). 

stringo, 9re, strinad, strietum, 
T. tr. To draw tight, to graze, 



toacli lightly; to draw, an- 

stractfira, a«, f. (struo). A 
bnilding, erection, structare. 

structas, a, t<m, part. See 

strao, 9ret xi, ctum, Y. tr. To 
malse, build, constrnct; to pile; 
to arrange ; to heap np, accamu- 
late ; to get ready, prepare. 
^ Strfmoo, 6ni», m. A river in 

stfideo, ere, u», y. tr. and intr. 
To be eager or zealous ; to busj 
one*8 seif with ; to strive after. 

stQdidse, adv. {atndiosua). 
Eagerly, carefully. 

stfididsus, a, tm, a^j. (atit^ 
dium). Eager or anxioas fur, 
fond or studions of. 

studium, i, n. {atndeo). Zeal, 
eaj;ei*nc88, fondness ; study, effort, 
pains ; object of one'8 eagern^ss 
or inclination ; pursuit. 

staltltia, ae, f. {stuUus). Fool- 
ishness, folly. 

stoltas, a, ttiti, acy. Foolish, 

stfipeo, ire, w, t. tr. and intr. 
To be astonished, stnpefied, con- 
founded, stanned; to stop in 

stfipram, •', n. Debauchery, 

St^gias, a, um, adj. Belong- 
ing to tlie Styx, or lower world, 
Stygian, infemal. 

Styx, ygit and ygoSf f. A river 
in thc infcmal regions by which 
the gods swurc. 

Suada, ae, f. (suadeo). The 
goddess uf persuaslon. 

suadeo, ere, «i\ sum, v. tr. and 
Intr. To advise, urjre, ret omnicnd. 

saasor, oria, m. {auddeo). Ad- 
Tiser, coansellor, advocate. | 

safiTls, e, acy. Sweet, pleasant, 
agreeable, delightfnl. 

safivltas, atia, f. Sweetness, 
pleasantncss, agreeableness. 

sfib, prep. with acc. or abl. 
Under, beneath, at, in, at tbe foot 
of, duriTig, towards, near the time 
of ; in composition : nnder, inclnd- 
ing the ideas of inferlority, dim- 
inution, secrecy, substitution ; up, 
from below, neai, closeiy. 

sob-diflricllis. e, a^j. Some- 
what difflcult. 

sab-do, €Ufre, dHdi, ditum, y. tr. 
To put, place, or lay ander; to 

aob-dfico, 9re, xi, ctum, y. tr. 
To draw fh>m nnder; to take 

sfib-eo, fre, u, Uum, t. irr. To 
go undor; to advance, enter; to 
come up from beneath ; io occnr, 
come into the mind of ; to under- 
go, endure; to follow, sncceed. 

sfib-Igo, ire, igi, actum,y. tr. 
{Ogo). To bringnnder ; to snlxiae. 

sfib-iode, adv. From time to 
time, frequently. 

sfiblto, adv. {aalatu»). Sad- 

sfibltas, a, um, ac[j. {eitbeo), 
Sndden, hasty, unexpected. 

sob-Icio, [-jlcio], gre, iSei, 
iectum, v. tr. To throw or place 
under; to make sabject; to 
proropt, sng^est. 

sablatas, a, um, part See auf" 
firo and toUo. 

sab-l6TO, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
To lift up frum beneath ; to sap- 
port ; to mitigiite. 

sublimis, e, a4|. High,Ioft7, 
aloft. As snbs., aublime, ia, n. 
Hcight, thc nir. 

sub-mlaistro, are, aoi, atum^ 
T. tr. To famish, afford, sappJy. 


snb-mitto, ire, mUi, tnutum, 
T. tr. To let down, sink, lower. 

sab-mdFeo, ere, movi, mdtum, 
T. tr. To move or drive ofF or 
away ; to ward off. 

stibdles, ia, f. Ot&pring;, stock, 

sab-sSqaor, t, ctHua mm, t. 
dep. To loUow clobe after, sac- 

sab-sido, ire, eedi, eeeaum, t. 
intr. To settlc down, sink bock, 
iall, subside. 

sab-siftto, Bre, sHti, t. tr. and 
intr. To stop ; to halt. 

rabter, prep. with acc. and 
abl. («06). Bcluw, Ijcneath, under. 

flabter-fU^io, ire, fuffi, v. tr. 
and intr. Tu flce, escapc, avoid. 

sabtillter, adv. {subtili», fine). 
Minutcly. p irticularly, acutely. 

sob-vSllio, ire, veni^ ventumt 
T. intr. To come to one*8 aid; 
to aid, relieve, obviate, remedy. 

saccSdo, ire, esn, essum, t. tr. 
and intr. isub, cedo). To go be- 
low ; to follow after ; to come in 
the place of ; to sacceed ; to resnlt 

sacceodo, ire, di, aum, t. tr. 
(aUb, root can-, whence candeo). 
To kindle f^om below ; to light. 

saccessor, oris, m. {euccedo). 
A successor, follower. 

soccessas, u«, m. {succedo). A 
happy issiie, success. 

saccidia, ae, f. {succido, to cut 
off). A fliti-h. 

succingo, ire^ nxit nctum^ t. 
tr. {sttiby cingo). To tuck up, gird. 

saccresco, «r<?, v. intr. {sab, 
cresco). To increase, rcplenish 

saccambo, Hre^ cHbui, cHbitumt 
T. uitr. {sHb, cabo). To foll or 
sink down, yield, saccumb. 

saccarro, Mre, eurri, eurmn^ 
T. intr. {sHb, curro). To run U» 
the nid of, help, assist, relieve. 

sacctltio, ire, cussi, cussum, t. 
tr. {sub, quAtio). To fling aloft, 
toss up. 

siicus, t, m. {sugo, to snck). 
Jaice,'8ap, moiKtnre. 

sado, are, avi, atum, t. tr. and 
intr. To sweat. 

sador, bris, m. {sudo). Sweat, 

suffero, ferre^ euetnli, sublS^ 
tum, V. intr. {sitb, fhro). To hold 
ap, support, su{itain ; to bear, en- 
dure, suffer, withstnnd. 

saffou d o, ire, fudi, fueitm, t. 
tr. {sHb, fundo). To overspready 

saffra^iam, t, n. A Toting- 
taWlct; vote, decision, judgment. 

sni, sibi, se, pers. prou. Him- 
sclf, hcrself, itself, thcmselves. 

sulco, are, dvi^ atum, t. tr. 
{sulcus). To furrow, plough. 

salcas, t, m. A furrow. 

salphar. Uris, n. Salphnr. 

Sulplcias, t,' m. P. Sulplcias 
Rufus, born B. C. 124 ; tribnne of 
the peuple B. C. 88 ; at first an 
aristocrat, but aftcrwards, break- 
ing with his paity, he joined the 
Marian faetion, and was put to 
death by order of Sulla. 

sam, esse, fui, t. irr. To be, 
exist; with an inf. following: it 
is possible, permitted, etc. 

samma, ae, f. {summus). The 
amoiint, sum, perfection, whole, 
the entire amount. 

summus, n, um, snp. of aOijp»' 
rus, adj. Hlghest, greatcst. As 
subs. summum, i, n. The highest 
part, summit. 

silmo, ire, sumpsi, sumptum, T. 
tr. {sOb, imo, in the orig. sense of 



to take). To take, assnme, pnt 
on; to receiye; to use» employ, 
consume; to cboosef select; to 
incnr; to suppose, afflrm, main- 

stipellex, lectiliaf f. (prob. sU- 
per, ISgo), That which is laid 
upon the surface of the ro<)m, etc., 
as opposed to fixturcs. House- 
hold utensils, stuff, furniture. 

stiper, adv. and prep. with acc. 
and abi. Moreover, above ; upon, 
over, above, on top of. 

sliperfitor, on$f m. {sUpiro), 
A conqneror. 

sifperbe, adv. {jsitperbua). 
Haughtily, proudly. 

sfiperbia, a«, f. {sHperhts), 
Pride, hanghtiness, arrogance. 

stiperbus, a, t/m, adj. {aHper), 
Hanghty, insolent, proud. 

sfipSr-inlcio [-injlcio], ^c, 
ieci, iectum, v. tr. To throw upon. 

sfipSrior, ua, &dj, See sHpSnu. 

sQperne, adv. {aHpemuaf tliat 
is above). From above. 

sllpSro, are, avt, atum, v. tr. 
and intr. {ai^er), To go over ; to 
cross ; to overcome ; to surpass, 
excel ; to go beyond or past, sur- 
mount, mount above ; to exceed, 
be abundant, abonnd; to be left 
over, remain, survive. 

sQper-sSdeo, ere, aediy aeaaum, 
V. tr. and intr. To forbear, re- 
frain, dcsist fW)m. 

siiperstes, ftia, adj. {aUper, 
ato). Remaining, surviving. 

sliper-snm, esae^fui, v. irr. To 
be ovcr and above, be left; to 

sQpSros, a, um, a^. comp. aU~ 
pSrior, sup. aUpremua or aummua, 
a4j. {aUper). Over nnd above, that 
is above, high. As subs., ai^^, 
orum, m. The gods above. 

sfiper-T&c&neus, a, um, a^J. 

{vOcutta), Over and above what is 
necessary, superfluous; opera,done 
at leisure liours. 

siiper-vdlo, dre, avi, atum, y. 
intr. To fly over. 

siipinns, a, um, a^j. {aHb), 
Bent b:ick ; snpine ; manua, with 
the pairas upward. 

snppSdlto, dre^ dvi, dtum, v. 
tr. and intr. To furnish, give, sup- 
ply ; to be in store. 

snpplSmentnm, i, n. {attppleo), 
A fllling up, a recruiting, recruits, 
a re-enforcement. 

snppleo, ere, evi, etum, v. tr. 
{aUb, obs. pleo, to fillj. To fiil up ; 
to people. 

snpplex, iciaj a^). {sUb, pHcOy 
to fold). Bending the icnee, hum- 
bly hegging, snppliunt. 

snppllcinm, i, n. {supplex), 
Properly, a lcneeling down, either 
as a suppliant or to receive pun- 
ishment, a punishment, penalty. 

snppllco, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. 
and intr. '{supplex), To bcg hom- 
bly, beseech, implore. 

snppdno, ^e, pOaui, pdaitum, 
y. tr. {aUb, pono). To put, place, 
or set under. 

sfiprft, adv. and prep. with acc. 
Atwve, upon, beyond. 

supremns, a, um, a^j. See aU- 

surgo, Sre, aurrexi, aurrectum, 
y. tr. and intr. {aiA, rHgo). To 
lift or raise up, to rise, appear, be- 
come visible. 

sus, auia, m. and f. A swine, 

Snsa, orum, n. The capital of 
Susiana, on account of its mild 
climatc the winter residence of the 
Persian kings. 

susclpio, ire, cepi, ceptum, v. 
tr. {aHb, capio). To take or catch 
up ; to support, sostahi ; to under- 



take, fncor, enter vpon, conraiit ; 
to snhmit to, nndergo, Buffer. 

soscItOy dref aviy afumt v. tr. 
(j«6, freq. of cieo). To stir np, re- 

siifipectos, a, um, part 8ee 
ttuptcio, As a4j. Mistnifited, 
BUtfpected, BnspiciouB. 

saspendo, §re, di, $utn, t. tr. 
(«06, petido). To bang ap, suspend. 

saspeDsa», a, um, part. {sum- 
pendo), Left in unoertainty, kept 
in BuBpeoBe. 

sospicio, onit, f. {gutpfcor). 
Mistrust» distruBt, suspicion. 

sosplcio, ire, exi, ectum, y, tr. 
and intr. («06, epido, to look). To 
look np at ', to raise tho tliotiglits 
up to; to respect, esteem, honor; 
to look under, mistrnst, suspcct. 

sosplcidsos, a,um, tidj. (ms- 
ptcio). Mi>trn8tful, snspicious. 

SDspIcor, ari, Stus aum («ti*- 
picio). To mistrust, Buspect. 

sosplrioni, i, n. {euepilro, to 
Bigh). A sighing, sigb. 

sostento, are, aoi, aitum, t. tr. 
(fh;q. of «Mffneo). To snpport, 
Bustain, endure, hear. 

SDstlneo, ere, tinui, tenium, t. 
tr. (««6, tineo), To huld np; to 
snst iin, withstand, bear up ; to 
benr, endnre, sopport; to hold 
back, chcck. 

sostiili. 8ee mfflhro and toUo, 

stisnrro, are, t. tr. and intr. 
To whisper. 

soos, a, um, rcflex. a^j. pron. 
{iui). His, her. or its own, their 
own ; proprr, fit, appropriate. 

Snnpdsiom, t\ n. * The Ban- 
qnet of Philosophers, ' the title of 
one of the works of Xenophon. 

Sfngphebi, drum, m. *The 
Fellow-yooths,' a title of a com- 
edy by CaedliuB StatiuB. 

8f ria, ae, f. L A reglon of 
Asia ; in a narrow sense, the coan- 
try lyin^; bctween Palestine and 
Cilicia ; in a wider Fcnse it inclndes 
also Phoenici:), Palestine, Mcso- 
potamin, Babylonia aud Assyria. 
II. Assyria. 

T., abhreviation for TltuB. 

t&beiia, ae, f. (dim. of tabiOat 
a board). A Toring-tablet, liailot. 

t&beo, ere, t. intr. To waste 
away, l)e consumed. 

t&bern&ctllam, i. n. {tabema^ 
a hnt). A tent. 

t&bes, M, f. {tabeo). A wasting 
away ; corruption, Tcnom, poison. 

t&besco, ire, bui, t. incep. 
{tabeo). To melt away. 

t&bom, t [ouly in nom., aee. 
and abl. sing.], n. Biack gore. 

t&cltaraas, a, um, acy. (MdP- 
tus). Silent, noiseless. 

t&cltos, a, um, part, {t&ceo, to 
be silent). As a4J. Silent, still, 
noiseless, mute. 

tactos, ut, m. {iango). The 

taeda, ae, f. A torch, mar- 

Taen&rios, a, um, a^). Per- 
taining to TaenSxus, a promon- 
tory of Laconia, near which was 
a cavei-n fnbled to bc the entrance 
to the infernal regions. 

T&f^Ds, t, m. The Tagus, a 
river in Lnsitania, now the Tajo. 

t&lftria, ium, n. {talue, the 
ankJe). Winged sandals. 

t&lentom, t, n. A talent; a 
weight or a snm of ihoney. The 
Attic talent is osually computed 
as representing about $1000. 



liUis, e, acy. Snch. 

talos, i, m. The ankle, ankle- 
bonc; an oblongdie rounded on 
two sides and marked on the other 

- tfim, adv. So, so mnch ; follow- 
ed by qnain, as. 

tam-dio, adv. So long. 

t&men, coi\j. {idm), HoweTcr, 
nocwithstanding, nevertbeless, 

tam-qaam, adv. Jost as, just 

T&nfiis, it and idis, m. A river 
in Scythia, now tlie Don, 

tandem, adv. {tam andthe de- 
monstrative snffix -dem), At iast, 
at length. 

tango, Sre, tittgi, tactum, y. tr. 
To tonch, reachy enter; to move, 
affect, impress. 

Taut&lis, idia, f. The dangh- 
ter of Tantftlus, i. e. Nidl)e. 

Tant&lns, »', m. I. A king of 
Phrygia, son of Jnpiter, father of 
Pelops and Nidbe, and grand- 
father to Atrens and Thyestes. 
Ue was admitted by Jnpiter to the 
feasts of the gods ; but having dis- 
closed their secrets, he was sent 
fur pnnishment to the infemai re- 
gions where he was placed up to 
his chia in water under an over- 
hanging fmit tree, both of which 
retreated whenever he attempted 
to satisfy his hunger and thirst. 
A rock also was suspended over 
liim, which ever threatened to fall. 
II. A son of Ni5be. 

tanttUos, a, um, a4j. (dim. of 
tatUm), So little, so smali. 

tantom, adv. {tantm). So 
much, so greatly ; only, merely. 

tantus, a, um, adj. {tdm). So 
grcot in amount, extent, valne, 
degree, etc ; so mnch. 

tarde, adv. {tardua), Slowly, 

tardns, a, um, adj. SIow, tar- 
dy, sluggish ; dull, heavy, stupid. 

T&rentinos, a, «m, a^}. (Td- 
rentum), Tarentine. 

T&rentom, i, n. A townof 
Ix>wer Italy foanded by the Lace- 

Tarqnlnins, », m. Tarqnlnias 
Sfiperbns, thc last king of Rome. 

Tarsns, -os, t, f. The capital of 
Cilicia, on the Cydnas. 

Tart&ros, -os, t, m., in the 
plur. Tartdra, orum, n. Tartftr 
rus, the lower world. 

Tartessii, orum, m. Thein- 
habitants of Tartessus, a town on 
the southcm coast of Spain. 

tauros, t, m. A buU. 

Tauros, t, m. A liigh moan- 
tain range in Lyeia. 

Taygete, es, f. A daaghter of 
Atlas, ope of tlie Pleiftdes. 

tectom, t*, n. {tigo). A roof, 
house, shelter. 

te-cum, the abl. of tu with eum 

tSglmen, tSgfimen, and teg- 
men, (nt«, n. {tigo), A covering, 

tSgo, gre, xi, ctum, v. tr. To 
cover, hide, conceal, shelter, pro- 

tS^ttmen. See tigimen, 

TSI&mon, dm«, m. An Aiigo- 
naut, the son of AeS^ns, brother 
of Peleas, and father of Aiax and 

tellns, urit, f. (akin to terra). 
The earth, ground, land, countiy ; 
as a goddess : Tellus, Earth. 

t§Iam, t, n. Properly, any mis- 
sile weapon ; afterwards, in gen- 
eral, any weapon with which one 
attaeks an enemy, a dart, javelin. 



tSmfirftriaii, a, um, adi. {tim- 
ire). Acddental ; CHBaal; rasb, 
liC4*dle8s, inconHiderate. 

temere, adv. By chance, rasta- 
ly» hcedles8ly; withoat gronnds, 

tSmCrltas, SHSf f. {tgmgre). 
Chance, accident; rashness, hced- 
lessnc88 ; indiscretiun. 

t§mo, oniSt m. A pule of a car- 
riage, cart, etc. 

tempSraDtia, m, f. {tempirOf 
to combine in dae propoition). 
Moderation, temperance, sobriety, 

tempCries, ei, f. {fempgro, to 
comljinc in duo proportion). Tem- 
peraturc. . 

tempestas, atia, f. {temptta). 
Time, wcutlicr, storm, tempest. 

tempeativItaR, atis, f. {tempes- 
Uvfis). Seasonableness, appropri- 
ate qaality or charnctcr. 

tempestirns, a, um, acy. {tem^ 
pcstas). Timcly, appropriace, sea- 
sonable, full-grown. 

templom, t\ n. (root tek-, cat). 
A temple, sanctuary. 

tempto, Sre, ari, aium, v. tr. 
(freq. of tendo). To test, prove,. 
try ; to attempt. 

tempns, Oris, n.(root l^x-, cnt). 
A portion of time, timc ; opportu- 
nity, temporary ndvantage ; in the 
plur., times, circumstjinces, sea^ 
Bons ; temples (of thc head). 

temQlentas, a, t<i7i,adj. Drunk, 
drnnlcen, intoxicatcd. 

tSnax, acis, acy. {tineo). Hold- 
ing f tst, tenabioas. 

tendo, 8re, tetendi, tensttm and 
tentum, v. tr. and intr. To stretch 
ont, strain, stretch, spread; to 
direct, aim ; to strive to reach, 
direct one*s course. 

tSnSbrae, arum, f. Shades, 

darkness; the dimness of a 

tSnSbrOsas, a, um, a^. {tinS- 
brae). Bark, gloomy. 

tSneo, ere, td, tum, v. tr. and 
intr. To hold, keep, possess, oo- 
cnpy, reach ; to hold one's coarse 
towards, stecr for. 

tSner, ira, grttm, adj. Soft, 
delicatc, tender, young. 

tSnor, oris, m. {tineo). An un- 
interruptcd course, career, tenor. 

tentns, a, um, part. See tendo. 

tSnnis, e, acy. Thin, fine, slen- 
dcr, narrow, slight, poor, mean ; 
subtile ; trifling, insignificant. 

tSnas, prcp. with abL As far 
as, up to. 

tep6-f&cio, 9re, feei, factum^ 
V. tr. {tepeo). ' To make lake- 
warm or tepid ; to warm. 

tSpeo, ire, v. intr. To be luke- 
warra or tepid ; to be warm. 

tSpIdas, a, um, adj. {tgpeo), 
Lukewarm, warm. ' 

tepor, oris, m. {tipeo). A gen- 
tle warmth. 

ter, num. adv. {tres). Three 
timcs, thrice. 

tSrSbro, Sre, avi, atum, v. tr. 
{tgrebra, a borer). To bore, pierce. 

TSrentiftnns, a, um,adj. (7^ 
rentius). Of Terence, occurring in 
the poet Terence. 

TSrentins, t, m. M. T6ren- 
tius Afer, a celebrated comic poet. 

tergeo, ere, or tergo, ire, rsi^ 
rsum, V. tr. To wipe off or clean. 

tergnm, t, n. The back, rear. 

tergns, dris, n. The back, 

termlno, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
{termintis). To bonnd, limit, dr- 
cnmscribe, deflne, determine. 

termlnns, t, m. A boundary, 
bound, limit. 



terni, aet a, dfstrib. nnm. a^. 
Three each ; for trea^ tria: three. 

tSro, ft*e, trivif tritum, v. tr. 
To rub, wear, graze, grind. 

terra« ae, f. The carth, land ; 
as a goddess, Terra, Earth. 

terrenas, a, um, acfj. {terra). 
Of earth, earthy, earthen. 

terreo, eref m, itum^ v. tr. To 
terrify, fri^hten. 

terribllis, e, adj. (terreo). 
Frightful. dreadful, terrible. 

terrlgSna, ae, m. and f. {terra, 
gigno). Earth-born. 

terror, ori«, m. (terreo). Ter- 
ror, an object of fear. 

tersus, a, um, part. See tergeo. 
As adj. Clcan, neat. 

tertios, a, um^ ord. nnm. a^j. 
{trea). Tbird. 

tessCra, a«, f. A die for play- 

testa, a«, f. A piece of baked 
earthenware, sherd, potshcrd. 

testlmdiiiam, », n. {testis). 
Evidence, testimony, proof. 

testis, t«, m. and f. A witness. 

testor, art, atu* sum, v. dep. 
(teetis). To testify, show ; to call 
upon or invoke as witness. 

Tethys, yo#, f. Wifo of Ocea- 
nns, mother of the sea-nymphs 
and river-gods ; by mct., the sea. 

Tenthrantens, a, um, adj. Of 
or belonging to Teuthras, a king 
of Mysia ; Mysian. 

texo, ire, xui, xtum, v. tr. To 
weave, plait, braid. 

textnm, », n. (texo), /L web ; 
fabric, cloth. 

Th&is, idis, f. I. A famous 
courtesan of Athens. II. A c&ar- 
•cter in one of Terence'8 plays. 

th&l&mos, t, m. A bed-cham- 
ber; a marriage-bed ; by meton., 
maniage, wedlock. 

theStmm, t, n. A ^eatre ; by 
meton., a theatrical audience, as- 

Thebae, arumy f. The capital 
of Boeotia, founded by Cadmus. 
, Thebais. icUs, f. (Theba^), A 
Theban womun. 

ThSmis, idis, f. Danghterof 
Urftnus and Oaea, th« goddess of 
justice and prophecy. , 

ThSmistdcles, t and t«, qi. A 
celebrated Athenian oonmuuidQr 
and statesman. 

Thermodon, on^M, o^ ArivQr 
of Pontus. 

Thermopflae, anun, f. A 
famous defile of Mount Octa. 

thesanrns, t, m. A treasare ; 
a treasury. 

Thessalas, a, tim, a^j. Thes- 
si^Iian. As sabs. A Thessaiian. 

Thisbe, m, f. A ]](abylonian 

thdrax, ads, m. Abreastplate, 
corselet, cuirass. 

Thracius, a, t<m, a4). (Thrax). 

Thrax, acisy m. A Thracian, 
inhabitant of Thrace. 

ThreiGias, a, t<m, adj. (TAitax). 

Thybris, w and idie, m. A 
poetic name of the Tiber. 

thyrsaSft, m. . A staff twined 
round .with ivy and vine-shoots, 
bome by Bacchus and the Bac- 
chahtes ; the Bacchic staff, thyir- 

Ti., abbreviatlonforTlberiag. 

tibia, ae, f. Ashin-bon&^pipe, 

tiblcen, inis, m. (^{&ta, cdno). 
A piper, flutist. 

tignam, t, n. A beam. 

tlgris, is and idis, m. and f. A 
tiger, tigi-ess. 



tHia, ae, f. The Undcn or lime- 

tlmeo, ire, w, t. tr. and intr. 
Tu fear, dread, be afhiid of ; to be 

tlmlde» adT. iUnadiui). Fear- 
ftilly, timidiy. 

tlmldiis, a, tim, a4j. {Hmeo), 
Tiroid, afraid, fearful. 

Tlmdliis. See Tmolui, 

Tlraon, oniit m. A celebrated 
misanttirope of Athens. 

tlmor, on>, m. {Hmeo). Fear, 
dread, alarm, anxietjr, apprehen- 

tinyo [tingiio], Ire, nzi, netum, 
T. tr. To wct, moisten, bathe; 
to dye, color, tinge. 

TlrSsias, ae, m. A celebrated 
blind sootbsayer of Tliebes. 

Tlrldfttes, is, m. Thetreas- 
nrer of the Idng of Persia at Per- 

Tiririithiiis, a, «m, ai^j. Of 
or belonging to Tiryns, a town 
in Argulis, where Hercttlcs was 
brought np ; Tirynthian. As snbs. 
The Tirynthlan, i. e. Hercttles. 

Tltan, anie, m. I. A Titan, a 
child of Ur&nns and Oaea. II. 
An appellation of the snn-god, as 
son of the Titan Hyperion. 

Tltftnins, a, um, a4). {Tttan). 
Titanian. As snbs. HUania, ae, f. 
I. Pyrrha, as descendant of the 
Titan lapetns. II. LatOna, as 
daughter of the Titan Coeus. 

Titftnis, uUs, f. iman). La- 

Tlthdnns, t, m. SonofLaom- 
Sdon, a favorite of Anrora. 

titillfttio, onia, t {tUiOo, to 
tickle). A tickling, titillation. 

tltfibo, are, Sm, dtum, v. tr. and 
intr. To stagger, totter, reel. 

tlttUiis, t, m. A title ; title of 
honor, honor, rcnown. 

Tltns, •', m. A Roman prae- 

TmdlQS, t, m. A monntain iu 
Lydia in which the Pactolus rises. 

t6gik,ae,t{tggo), The toga, a 
garment wom by a Roman citl- 
sen in time of peace. 

tdierftbnis, e, adj. (^dftro). En- 
dnrable, passable, tolerable. 

tdlCro, dre, avi, atum, t. tr. 
(kindr. with tollo). To beor, en- 
dure, sustain. 

tollo, ire, BUitUH, eublatum, t. 
tr. To lifl np, elevate, exalt ; to 
remove, take away; to take ofl; 
carry off; to abolish, abrogate, 

tondeo, ere, tdtondi, tonsumf 
V. tr. To shear, cut, clip. 

tdnltrns, ue, m. {tCno, to thnn- 
der). Thunder. 

tonsns, a, um, part See tondeo. 

tormentnm, t, n. {torqtseo). An 
en^ne for liurling^missiies. 

torpeo, ere, ui, v. intr. To be 
stiff, numb, or torpid. 

torqneo, ere, torai, tortum, t. 
tr. To turn, wind, fling, hnrl; 
to rack, torment. 

torreo, ere, ui, tostum, t. tr. 
To dry or bum ; to parch, bake, 
roast, scorch. 

tortllis, e, a^. {torgfueo), 
Twisted, winding. 

tortndsos, a, vm, acy. (tortue). 
Winding, tortnous, crooked. 

tortns, a, um, part. See tor- 
queo. As a(^. Twisted, crooked. 

tdrns, t, m. Conch ; marriage 
bond ; a bier. 

torrus, a, um, at^. WUdy 
fierce, grim. 

tostns, a, um, part. See torreo. 



tot, indecl. a^j. So many. 

totldem, indecl. a4j. {tdt). 
Jusc so many, just as many. 

totiens, or tdties, adv. (tdt), 
So ottcn. 

tdtus, a, um, gen. totius, dat. 
toti, adj. Tiie whole, all, entire, 

trabs, trdbis, f. A beam, tim- 
ber, irec. 

tractabllis, e, a^j- (tracto). 
Pliant, susceptible, tructabie. 

tracto, dre, dcif dtufn, v. tr. 
(frcq. of traho). To handle, treat, 
deal witli, investigatc, discnss. 

tractus. u8f m. {trdho). Tract, 
extent, courso. 

tr&clo [transdo], ire, didi, t^ 
tum, y. tr. {trans, do). To give 
ovcr, consign, transmit; to give 
ap, deliver; to commit, confide; 
to rclate, rccount; to betray; to 

tr&duco, ire, xi, ctum, v. tr. 
(trans, duco). To lead, bring, con- 
duct across or over ; to spend, pass. 

trftgoedia, as, f. A tragedy. 

tr&ho, Bre, xi, ctum, v. tr. To 
draw, drag, carry off, out, or 
away ; to attract, influence ; to take 
on, assume, dcrive, acquure; to 
draw in ; in exemplum, to take. 

trftlcio [trajlcio], ire, ieci, 
iectum, v. tr. {trana, idcio). To 
tlirow over ; to pierce ; to convey 
across ; rejlex., to cross. 

trames, itia, m. {trdmeo, to go 
acros.s). A, path. 

tranqoillltas, dtia, f. {tran- 
quillus). Tranriuillity, calmness. 

tranqnillus, a, um, adj. Quiet, 
C2\lm, stiil, tranquil; uudisturbed, 
composed, serenc. 

trans, prep. with acc. Across, 
over, beyond; in comp., over, 
across, through, beyond. 

trans-eo, ire, ii, ttum, v. Irr. 
To go or pass over, cross over ; to 

trans-f 8ro, /crr^, tali, Idtum, 
V. irr. To carry or convey frora 
one place to another; to transfer ; 
to remove, transport. 

trans-f igo, 8re, Jixi, Jixum, v. 
tr. • To thrust througli, transtix. 

trans-ftiga, ae, m. and f. 
{fitgio). A deserter. 

trans-Igo, irc, eji, actum, v. 
tr. {dgo), To drive through; to 
bring to an end ; to transact. 

transltus, us, m. {tranaeo). A 
passage, transition. 

trans-mitto, Bre, misi, missum, 
V. tr. To send. carry, or convey 
through or acro^s. 

trans-no, [tr&no], dre, dvi, 
dtum, V. tr. and intr. To swim 
across or over. 

trScenti, ae, a, num. adj. {tres, 
centum). Threc hundred. 

trSmSbnndas, a, um, adj. {tri- 
mo). Trembling, quivering. 

trfimisco, Bre, v. incep. {trimo), 
To bcgin to tremble; to tremble 

trSmo, ire, ui, v. Er, Eiiid iTitr« 
Totremble; to quakc or cj-Liuihia 

trSmor, oris, m. {trSmo). A. 
quaking, quivering, tirumbliug; 
dread, terror. 

trfimiilus, a, um^ iidj. {irimo), 
Quivering, tremblin^. 

trSpIdo, dre, dti, iihtm, v. tr. 
and intr. {trgpidus}. To iMiFtlo 
about anxiously ; to l>e iii ii srato 
of agitation or aiarm ; to irciuble. 

trgpldus, a, umi, aiIJ (pmbi. 
trgmo). Ajfitated, a n \ io rii*, treni* 
bling, alarmed. 

tres, tria, gen. triu/n, num« *' 



tiibtf1«s, f , ra. A tare. 

trlbiinfttas, us, m. {trfbunui). 
The offlce of tribune, tribuiicship. 

trlbfinns, t. m. {tribu*, a tribc). 
A tribune. 

trlbno, ire, ui, tUum, y. tr. {tri- 
huSf a tribe). To assign, impart, 
allot, bc8tow, iriye, grant; to 
ascrlbe ; to yicld, concede, allow. 

trlc^Imns, a, um, ord. num. 
mi^. {triffinta). Thirticth. 

trl-cnspis, idist a^. Three- 
pointcd; three-tincd. 

tri-dens, utis, ac^. Three- 
pronged. As eubs. m. A three- 
tined 8pear, trident. 

tridnani, t, n. {tres, diea), The 
space of thrce days, three days. 

trlfldns, a, um^ Adj. {ter, 
fndo). Three-cleft, three-forlsed. 
. trlf^inta, indecl. nnm. a4|. 
{tres). Thirty. 

Trlnftcria, ae, f. Sicily, so 
callcd from its three promon- 

Trlnfteris, idia, a^j. f. Sicilian. 

tridnes, um^ m. The plough- 
Ing oxen ; the constellation of the 

trlplex, tcist a^J. (<«r, pkcOf to 
fold). Threcfold, triple. 

triste, adv. {tristie). Sadly, 
gorrowfully ; tristiua euratOur, 
with more difficulty. 

tristis, e, adj. Sad, moumfhl, 
gloomy, dismal, painful, disagree- 
ablc ; pecylsli, morose. 

tristltia, ae, f. {tristis). Sad- 
ncss, giicf, sorrow; moroseness, 
gloominess, severlty, sternness. 

trl-snlcns, a, um, adj. Thrce- 
deft, thrce-forkcd. 

tritlcens, o, wm, a^j. {triticum, 
wheat). Of wlieat, wheaten. 

Trlton, dnis, m. A son of Nep- 
tune, a sea^god. 

Trltania, as, f. Minenna. 
Tritdnis, idis and idos, a4J. 

Belonging to Minerva, Tritonian. 
Ab subs. f. Eqnivalent to Tri- 
tonia, i. e. Minerva. 

trltns, a, um, part. See tgro, 
As a4j* Beaten, common, fib- 

' trinmpho, are, am, atum, r. 
tr. and intr. {triumphus). To 
hold or celebrate a triumph; to 
trinmph ; to exnlt. 

trinmphos, t, m. A trinmph. 

Troia, ae, f. Troy, a clty of 

TrSiftnas, a, tim, a^j. (TVdta). 

trdpaenm, t, n. A trophy, 
sign or token of victory. 

trlfcido, are, aol, atum, y. tr. 
{trux, savage, eaedo)» To cnt to 
pieccs ; to sloy cruelly, butcher. 

Trticftlentos, t, m. The title 
of a comedy by Plantus. 

tranco, are, dci, Stum, t. tr. 
{truneus, a(y.). To mutiiate ; to 

trancns, t, m. The stem, stock, 
or trunk of a tree ; the trunk, the 

trnncos, a, um, ary. Dismem- 
bcred, cut oflf, stripped (of branch- 

to, tui, pers. pron.» Thon. 

tfiba, ae, f. A trumpet. 

Tnbero, onis, m. Q. Aclins 
Tub^ro, an opponent of Ti. Omc- 
chns. Sce note liiie 3, page 256. 

Tiidlt&nns, t, m. I. M. Sem- 
pronius Tadltauus, consul with 
C. Claudius Ccnto, B. C. 240.- II. 
P. Sempronius* Tddttanus, consul 
with M. Comelius Cethegns, B. 
C. 204. 

tueor, eri, tuitus, and rarcly 
tuttts, sum, Y. dep. To look at, 



see, coDsider, contemplate ; to 
look to, defend. 

tiigjiriuiii, t, n. (%o). A hut, 
cot, cottage. 

Tuliius, t, m. The name of a 
Roman gens. See CicSro, 

tum, adv. Thcn, at that time ; 
moreover, besides. 

tiimeo, ere, v. intr. To swell, 
bc Pwollen. 

tumesco, Sre^ tUmui, y. incep. 
{tUmeo). To beprin to swell. 

tiimlilo, ore, dvi, atum, v. tr. 
{tUmHlus), To bury, inter. 

tiimultus, tM, m. (tUmeo). Up- 
roar, tumuit. 

. tiimiilus, t, m. {tHmeo). A 
raiscd heap of earth, a mound, 
hillock, a sepulchral mound. 

tunc, adv. (^um, with the em- 
phatic sufflx -ce). Then, at that 

tiinlca, ae, f. An under-gar- 
mcnt wom by the Romans of both 
sexcs, a tunic. 

turba, ae, f. A crowd, tumult, 
commotion ; a large number ; the 
entire population, Ov. i. 186. 

turbo, drej dvif dtumt v. tr. 
(turba). To disturb, confuse ; to 
agitate, excite. 

tnrbo,irni>, m. A whirlwind, 
hurricane ; whirl, twist. 

tnribiilum, t, n. (ttu). A ves- 
sel to burn incense in, a censer. 

Tnrpio, dnia, m. See Ambf' 

tnrpis, e. a^j. Ugly, unsightly, 
unseemly ; shameful, disgraceftil, 
base, infamous, dishonorable. 

turpltudo, inie, f. {turpia). 
TJ^lincss, unsightliness ; baseness, 
disgrace, dishonor, infamy, turpi- 

turris, t«, f. A tower ; a cafitle, 
palace, citadeL 

tus [thns], turia, n. Incense, 

Tuscus, a, um, adj. Of or be- 
longingto the Tuscans; Lydian, 

tHtela, ae, f. (tiitor, to defend). 
Defence, charge, care, protection. 

tut5, adv. {tuius). Safely, with- 
out danger. 

tutus, a, um, a^j. (tueor). Safb, 
protectcd, secure, out of danger. 

tnus, a, um, adj. pron. (tu). 
Thy, thine. 

Tyaneins, a, tm, adj. Of or 
belonging to Tyana, a town of 

tympannm, t, n. A drum. 

Typhoens, ii or eos, m. A 
giant struck with lightning by 
Jupiter, and buried under Mount 

tyrannus, t, m. A king, mler, 
sovereisn, monarch. 

Tyrins, a, um, adj. Of or be- 
longing to Tyre, a famous mari- 
time and commercial city of the 
Phoenicians, celebrated for its 


iiber, iria, adj. Rich, fertile, 
abundant, plentiful, productive, 

iibi, adv. Where, when. 

libl-que, adv. Wherever, any- 
where, everywhere. 

udtts, a, um, acjj. Wet, moist, 

ulciscor, t, uUua sum, v. dep. 
To avenge one's self on, take 
vengeance on, avenge. 

ullus, a, um, gen. ulUua, dat. 
tiUi, adj. (contr. fvom unUlutp 
tmus). Any, any one. 



nlmiis, t, f. An elm, elm tree. 

nlna, oe, f. The elbow ; benoe, 
by meton., the arm. 

oltSrior, ua, gen. 9na, mip. «A 
Hmus, acy. (obs. ulMt ))eyond). On 
the fartber sfde of, bcyond, fjEuther 
dtstant, moro remote. 

«Iterins. 8ee uitirior and 

nltlmns, a, vm, nip. of tiftAr- 
or, acy. Tbe most remote, ex- 
trcme, last ; earliest, eldest, flrst ; 
hlghest, greatest, wont; ad ul- 
Hmum, At last. 

nltio, dnia, f. {ulcUeor). A tak- 
Ing Tengeanoe, Tengeanoe, re- 

nltor, om, m. {vleiteor). A 
punisber, aTenger. 

nltrft, comp. uUiriua, aAr. nnd 
prep. wlth acc. (t^e). Asndv. Bc- 
yond, fhrther, more, besides. As 
prep. On the faither side of, be- 

nltro, adT. («/fe). To the far- 
ther gide, bcyond, besidcs, mure- 
ovcr ; of one*s own accord, volun- 
tarily ; uUro et eitro, on this side 
and on that, to and lh>, mutn- 

fillfl&tna, ua, m. {ahilo, to 
howl). A howling, shrieking. 

nlva, ae, f. Scdge. 

nmbllicna, t, m. The navel. 

nmbra, ae, f. A shade, shadow; 
a shade of the departed, ghost; 
imnge, semhlance. 

nmquam, adv. (contr. from 
unum, quam,). At any time, ever. 

n^|l, adv. {unua). At the samc 
time with, in company, together. 

nncns, a, «m, adj. {uncua, a. 
hook). Hooked, crooked, curved, 
bent, barbed. 

nnda, m, f. A wave; water, 
flood, sea. 

nnde, adv. {(pdy old formevndei 
cf. aU'Ctmde). Whcnce, from 
what place, by what means. 

nndScim, indecl. nnm. adj 
{umut dieem) Eleveh. 

nndeclmna, a, um, ord. nnm. 
a4}. {undieim). Elevcnth. 

nndMcesImns, a, um, ord. 
nnm. a^j» {undMffinti, nineteen). 

nndl-qne, adv. {unde). From 
all parts, on all sides. 

nngnis, ia, m. Anail, claw, 
talon, hoof. 

nnglfla, oe, f. {unguia). A claw, 
talon, hoof. 

Anlcus, a, um, a<]j. {unua), 
One and no more, only, sole, es- 

nnlversns, a, tim, a^j. (untM, 
verto). AII together, all taken 
collectively, whole, entire, gen- 
eral, aniversal. 

jinns, a, tHn, gcn. uniua, dat. 
tm>, num. adj. One, alone. 

nnns-quisque, undguae^e, 
unumquodque, indef. pron. Any 
one, 8omo one. 

nrbs, urhia, f. A city, town. 

nrgeo [nrgueo], ire, urai, v. 
tr. To press, force, drive ; to op- 
press, weigh down, bnrden; to 
foliow up, pnsh forward, urge on. 

urna, ae, f. A water-jar ; um. 

uro, ire, uasi, uatum, v. tr. To 
bum, burn up. 

uslt&tns, a, um, adj {usitor, to 
use often). Usnal, customary, or- 

nspiam, adv. At, or in any 
place, anywhere, somewhere. 

nsque, adv. Every step, all 
the wa3', right on, continuously, 
constantly ; all the while, as long, 
or as far as, even, nntil. 

nstns, a, um, part. See tiro. 



llsura, ne, f. (iitor). A nslng, 
nse ; intcrest, usury. 

OHurpo, are, dvi, atum, y. tr. 
(contr. from U9ti8f ru{m)po, to 
break tbe usits of another). To 
get possession of, acquire, ohtain ; 
to practise, exercise ; to cberish. 

ususy U8f m. {iUor). Use» ex- 
pcrience, advantage, enjoyment, 
nced, intercourse, fiimiliarity, in- 
timacy ; usu venire, to occur, hap- 

Qsus, a, um, part. See iUor. 

ttt or Ifti, adv. and conj. Like 
88, just as, as, after that, so soon 
88, bow, since, wbcn ; as cory.f 
tbat, in order tbat. 

ut-cumque, adv. In what way 
soever, bowsoever, howcver. 

Qter, u/rtff, ro. A bng or bottle 
made fh>m an animal's bide, a 

If ter, tra, trum, ^en. Htriusy dat. 
4Uri, acy. Wbetber of tbe two, 

fiter-que, iUrdque, iUrumque, 
gen. iUriusque, adj. Botb tbe one 
and tbe othcr, both, eacb. 

fitSrns, i, m. Tbe womb. 

hter-vis, atrdvis, iUrumvie, in- 
def. acy. pron. {vOlo). Wbicb of 
tbe two yon will, eitbcr of tbe two. 

fiti. Seeti^. 

fitHis, e, aclj. (iUor). Usefbl, 
serviceable, advantagcous. 

utllltas, atis, f. (utUis). Use- 
fnlness, advanta^e, profit, service. 

fitl-nam, adv. Ob tbat! I 
wish tliat ! would that ! 

fitl-que, adv. At any rate, 
certainly, therefore. 

fitor, t, U8U8 8um, v. dep. To 
use, avail one'8 self of, employ, 
eivioy, practise, exercise ; to Ije 
familiar or intimate with ; to bave, 
bold, find. 

ntpdte, adv. As, as being. 

fitrimqne, adv. (iUerque). On 
botb sides. 

fitrum, adv. (itter). Whetber. 

uva, ae, f. A bunch or cluster 
of grapes (or of any tmit). 

uxdrius, a, um, adj. (uxor, a 
wife). Pertahiing to a wlfe. 

vacca, ae, f. A cow. 

vftco, dre, dvi, dtum, v. tr. To 
be empty, void, or vacant ; to be 
free or exempt f^om; to laek, 
want ; to bc at or to bave leisure. 

Tftcnns, a, um, a4j. [v&co). 
Empty, clear, free or exempt 
fh>m, devoid of, witbout; dis- 
engoged, at leisnre. 

v&dlmonium, i, n. (vae, a 
suretv). Bail, security. 

v&do, §re, v. intr. To go, rusb. 

v&dnm, t, n. Shoal, ford. 

vaglna, ae, f. Sheath, sbell, 
bull, busk. 

vagrio, ire, ivi (ii), itum, v. intr. 
To cry, squall. 

vai;or, ari, dttte eum, v. dep. 
(vdf/us). To stroll a)x)ut, roam. 

vftsrus, a, um, a^j. Roaming, 
wandcring, fligbty. 

valde, adv. (vdlsdus). Vcry 
much, cxceedingly, 6tron<;ly. 

v&lens, entis, part. Sco valeo. 
As adj. Strong, stout, vigorous, 
powcrful, mighty. 

v&leo, ere, ui, itum, t. intr. 
To be well, boalthy, or strong ; to 
be able or capable; to avail, be 
successful ; vale oTvaleas, in Icave 
takin^ : farewell, adieu. 

Y&ierius, t, m. M. Vai?rins 
Corvus, consul six tlmes, B. C. 
348—299; according to Livy, he 



leoeiTed the raniAineof Conms, 
or RaTen, from the fact that a 
nven as^isted him in a comhat 
with a Oallic warhor. He died 
aboat 271 B. C. 

Tftl£UI4o, tou, t {vdleo). Stale 
of health, healtb; ill-bealth. in- 

Tftilde, adT. {vdiidua). Very 
much, exceedingly, strongly. 

T&lldu8, a, um, adi. {vdleo). 
Strong, 8toat, powerful. 

Tallia, M, f. Valiey, Tale. 

Talliini, t, n. {vailus, a stul^c). 
A rampart, fortification. 

TalTae, antm, f. {voko). The 
leaves, folda, or TalTea of a door, 
a folding-door. 

T&nltas, Stis, f. (vanua). Vain 
show, emptinesa, Tanity, ostenta- 

Taniia, a, tim, a4j* Empty, 
Toid, vacant; delusiTe, ground- 
less, idle, anmeaning, Tain. 

T&por, oris, m. Steam, exha- 
lation, Tapor ; warmth, heat. 

T&rietas, atis, f. {variw). Dif- 
fcrencc, diversity, variety. 

Tarias, a, um, acy. Spotted, 
party.colored, variegated ; di- 
TcrFC, changeable, yarious. 

Tas, rom, plur. raaa, orum, n. 
A vcssel, dii>h, furniture. 

TaKto, aret art, atumf t. tr. 
(vastus). To lay waste, devastate. 

Tastos, a, tim, a^j. Waste, 
desert, desolate; ravo^ed, dcvas- 
tated ; vast, enormons, immense. 

Tates, t«, m. and f. A sooth- 
saycr, propliet ; poet, bard. 

Tatlclnor, ari, atiis aum^ t. 
dep. (vatea^ cano). To wam as a 
prophet; to sing or teach as a 

Te, an enclitic conj. (by apoc6pe 
^or vel). Or. 

TSliSmens, tUi», ac^. (prob. r«, 
a particle implying negation, and 
meru), Furious, violent, ardent^ 

Tehementer, adT. {vMmene), 
Eagerlj, ardentiy, impctaously, 
Tiolently, Tehemently. 

T6ho, ire, vexi, vectum, t. tr. 
and intr. To bear, convey, carry, 
airry along; pass. vihi, to ride, 
sail, travel, etc 

t6I, coiy. {vdh). Or, either, 
even; vel — vel, eitber — or; with 
the sup., it denotes the highest 
po6.«ibIe dejrree. 

Telfimen, tnie, n. (velo). A 
cuver, garmcnt ; veil. 

TeUas, 8ria, n. {vetto, to pluck). 
A flcece ; bide, pelt, 

Telo, aref avi, atum, t. tr. (re- 
htm, a covcring). To cover, en- 
Tclop, hide. 

veloeltas, atis, f. {velox). Ra- 
pidity, swiftness, speed. 

Teloz, ocia, adj. Swift, flect, 

Telam, t, n. A covering, cur- 
tain; asail. 

Tei-nt, or TSl-fiti, adv. As, 
like as, evcn as, just as, as if. * 

TSna, ae, f. Vein, pulse. 

Tenabfilnm, t, n. {venor), A 

TSnatio, onis, f. {venor). A 
hunting, chase. 

Ten&tns, us^ m. (renor). The 

TSndlbllis, e, ac|j. (vendo, to 
sell). Salable ; agreeable, accept- 
able, popular. 

Tendltatio, dnt«, f. {vendttOt to 
try to sell). A specions display, 
a boasting. 

TSnenlfer, Sra, grum, adj. (rg' 
nenum,firo). Poisonous, venom- 
ous, oontaining poison. 



TSnennm, t, n. A drug, poison. 

vSnerabllis, «, adj. {vgneror), 
Worthy of respect, reverend, ven- 

vSnSror, ari, atua sum, t. dep. 
To worBhip» adore, venerate. 

vSnia, otf, f. Indulgence, favor, 
forhearanoe, forgiveness. 

vSnio, ire, teni, vetUtim, t. Jntr. 
To come. 

v€nor, arif attta »umf v. dep. 
To hunt, chase ; pres. part. vc- 
nantee, ium, as subs. m. Hunts- 

ventus, t, m. Wind. 

ver, rem, n. Spripg. 

verber, iris, n. A scoarge, 
lash ; a stroke. 

verbSro, are, avi, atumj v. tr. 
{verber). To beat, smite. 

verbum, », n. A word, saying, 

vere, adv. (rerus). Truly, in- 
deed, verily, accnrately, in f «ct. ' 

vSrecundia, ae, f. {vBrecun- 
dua, modest). A natural scnsc of 
shame, modcsty ; respect, venera- 
tion, leverence. 

yCreor, ert, ttus aum, v. dep. 
To rcgard reverently; to fear, 
Btand in awc of. 

Yer^niae, arum, f. (vergo), 
The Fki&des, the Seven Stars. 

Yer^Inins, t, m. A ftiend 
and intimate companion of Lae- 

vergo, «re, v. tr. and intr. To 
tum, verge, incline. 

verlslmllis, e, ndj. (renu, stm' 
tlis). Like the truth, probable. 

verltas, atis, f. {verus). Truth, 

vernns, o, t<m, a4j. {rer). Per- 
taining to spring, spring, vemal. 

vero, adv. (rert/j). In trnth, in 
flAct, to be surc ; but, however, in- 

verslcfilns, t, m. (dim. of ver- 
8us). A little line or verse. 

verso, ore, art, atumt t. tr. 
(frcq. of verto). To turn, wind, 
kecp turning, roll, whirl about ; to 
dlsturh, Tcx, molest, annoy. 

versor, ort, atus, sum^ v. dep. 
i^erto). To dwell, live, rem.iin, 
be; to 1)6 circomstanced or hitu- 
atcd; to occupy or busy one'B 
self, be engaged in anytliing. 

versus, prcp. with acc. To- 

versns, a, t<m, part. See verto. 

versus, t», m. {verto). A 
verse, line. 

vertex, tm, m. {verto). Eddy, 
whirl ; summit, top ; hend, crown. 

vertiiTO, tnti, f. {verto). A 
turning or whirling around. 

verto, Bre, ti, sum, v. tr. and 
intr. To turn; to chanire, trans- 
form ; as refiex., vertor, to tura or 
inclinc one's sclf. 

vernm, conj. {verus). Truly, 
just so ; bnt, but indced, yct. 

verns, a, um, a(\). Tme, real, 
sincere, just. As snbs. verum, t, 
n. Thetruth. 

vescor, i, v. dep. To eat, 

vesper, Sris and Bri, m. ETe, 
evening, eventide. 

vespgra, ae, f. The evening. 

vester, tra, trum, n(lj. pron. 
{vos). Yonr, yonrs. 

vestlbfilnm, t, n. Fore-court, 

vesti^inm, t, n. {vestiffoX A 
footprint, foot-track, footstcp ; 
sole of the foot, trace, mark, ves- 

vestlgo, are, avi^ atum, v. tr. 
To tbllow in the track of ; to seek 
or searrh after. 

vestio, fr«, ivi (ti), Uum^ t. tr, 
{vesiis), To dress, clothe, deck. 



▼estiSi M, f. A carment, cloth- 
Ing, carpct, tapestry. 

▼estitns, «f, m. (vesHo), Dress, 
clothin^'. clothcB. 

vj^terrlmus, a, um, Sce vHiu. 

▼Sto, dre, uif ttum, v. tr. To 
forhid, prohibit, hindcr, refose. 

▼ettfliis, a, «m, a4j. (dim. of 
vituM). Little old, old. 

Vetfiriiiii, 1, m. T. y^ttrins 
CalvinuB, cunsul with Sp. Pos- 
tumina Albinus, B. C. 320. 

▼etUM, iris, comp. rare, sap. 
vOemmuM, adj. Old, ancient 

▼etnstas, Stis, f. {riitta), Age, 
antiquity, ancient times. 

▼Stastus, a, um, ad^. {vihu). 
Old, nncient. 

▼exfttio, oniSt f. (vexo). A vio- 
lent movement, hardship, distress. 

▼exo, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
(fi-cq. of viho). To shakc, annoy, 
tronhle, molest, vex. 

▼ia, ae^ f. A way. road, path, 
passage, journey. 

▼ifttlcam, i, n. (via). Travel- 
lin^ money, provision for a jour- 

▼i&tor, oris, m. {via). A travel- 
]cr; a snmmoner, apparitor. 

▼Ibro, are, aoi, atum, v. tr. and 
Intr. To l>randish, sliake, agitate ; 
to launch, hnrl ; to qniver, glitter. 

▼Icinia. ae, f. {ricinua). Neigh- 
borhood, neighbors. 

▼Iclnus, a, um, ac^. {ricua). 
Neighboring, near. As subs. A 

▼Icis. a ^en. [nom. wanting; 
vicem, vice; plnr. nom. and acc. 
vlces, dat. and abl. vidhiui]. Al- 
temative, chan^, fortune, con- 
dition ; in vicem, [invicem], and m 
vices, by turns, mutually, in tum. 

▼Icisslm, adv. {vicis). On the 
other hand, In tum. 

▼fci88ltQdo,fmff, f.(orm). In- 


▼ictor, oria, m. {vinco), A con- 
qncror, victor. 

▼ictoria, ae, f. {victor), Vic- 
tory ; as a proper name, thc god- 
dess Victory. 

▼ictrix« icia, ac^. f. {victor). 
Conqnering, victorious. 

▼ictus, Mff, m. (rivo). Food, 
nonrishment, snstenance. 

▼icns, i, m. A street, a village, 

▼Ideilcet, adv. {video, Ucet). 
Clearly ; of conrse, forsooth. 

▼Ideo, ire, vidi, visum, v. tr. 
To sce pcrcei ve, under&tund ; pass. 

▼Ideor, eri, visus sum, gcn. as 
V. dep. To be scen ; to seem, ap- 
pear; to seem good, right, or 

▼ietns, a, um, n4j. {vieo, to 
bend). Wrthcred, shrunken. 

▼Igeo, ire, ui, v. intr. To be 
lively or vigorous; to flourish, 
thrivc, bloom. 

▼I^il, ilis, acy. {viffeo). Awake, 
wakcftil, on the aleit, watcUfnl. 
As snbs. A sentincl. 

▼Igllantia, ae, f. {vigtlo). 
Wakefulness, wntchfulness. 

▼Igllax, acis, aclj. {vigilo), 

▼Isrllia, ac, f. {vigil), Wake- 
fulness, sleeplessness, watching. 

▼Iglio, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
and intr. {vigil). To wutch, be 

▼Iginti, indecl. num. acy. 

▼I?or, oris, m. {vigeo), Vigor, 
activity, force. 

▼iiis, e, adj. Of small price, 
paltry, cheap, vile, mean, worth- 
less } cura vilior, of less impor- 



Tilla, acy f. A country-seat, 
farm, villa. 

villdsns, a, um, acy. {viUus, 
shaggy hair). Sha^fry. 

vimen, tnis, n. {vieo, to plait). 
A pliant twig, CNiier, withe, flexi- 
ble stem. 

Tinftcens, t, m. (vinum). A 

Tinftrins, a, tim, a4J* (vinum). 
Pertaining to winc, wine. 

Tincio, ire, vinxi, vinctumt v. 
tr. To bind, fetter ; to surround. 

Tinclnm, », n. See vincillum. 

Tinco, drtf, vici, victum, v. tr. 
To oonqner, overcome, subdne, 
vanqulKh ; to surpass, exccl, prc- 

vincillnm [vinclnm], «', n. 
(vincio). A band, bond, fettcr, 

vindex, icis, m. and f. A pro- 
teotor, avenger. As acy. Aven- 

vindlco, Sre, avi, atum, v. tr. 
(vindex), To lay claim to; to 
avenge, revenge, punish; to de- 
liver, set free. 

vinea, ae, f. (vinum). A vine- 

vinStnm, t, n. (vinum). A vine- 

vlndlentia, ae, f. {vlndlentus, 
drunk). Wine-bibbing, intoxica- 
tioii from wine. 

vlnum, t, n. Wine. 

vidla, ae, f. A violet. 

vidlentia, ae, f. {vidlentua). 
Tiolcnce, vehemcnce, ferocity. 

vidlentns, a, um, adj. (vidh). 
Tiolent, impetuons, Airious. 

vidlo, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
(vis). To ii\jure, dishonor, pro- 
fane, violate. 

vipSra, ae, f. (contr. from vf- 
vipira, vivtu, pdrio). A viper. 

vlpSrens, a, um, a^j. (vipira). 
Of a viper or serpent, snalcy. 

vir, viri, m. A man, husband, 

vlrago, inia, f. (virgo). A fe- 
male warrior, heroine, virago. 

vlreo, ere, v. intr. To be green ; 
to flourish. 

virga, ae, f. A twig, sprout ; a 
wand, staff." 

virglnens, a, um, a^j. (vir^). 
Maidcnly, virgin. 

virgo, inis, f. (vireo). A maid- 
en, a virgin. 

virgnltnm, t, n. (virgala, a 
small rod). A bush, shmbbery, 
thicket, copse. 

vlrldis, e, acy. (vireo). Green, 
fresh, yoathf^l. 

vlrldltas, atie, f. (viridie). Ver- 
dure, greenness, fireshness, vigor. 

vlrilis, e, sudj. (vir). Manly,- 
iirm, bold, spirited. 

vlrltim, adv. (vtV). Man by 
man, to each man separately. 

virtns, iitis, f. (vir). Oood 
quality, courage, bravery, excel- 
lence, worth, virtue. 

virns, t, n. Polson, vims. 

vis, vis fgen. and dat sing. 
rare], f. Force, strength, vio- 
lence ; plur. virea, ium. Strength, 
power; forces. 

ViscelUnns, t, m. See Ca#- 

viscns, grie [mostly plnr.], n. 
The inwards, the viscera (the 
nobler parts, the Inngs, liver, 
etc, as well as the ignobler, the 
stomach, etc. ; the flesh. 

viso, ire, visi, visum, v. tr. and 
intr. (freq. of vitieo). To look at 
attentively; to view, behold; to 
go to see, visit 

visns, us, m. (video). A see- 
ing, sight; vision, appearanoe. 



vlta, ae, f. (Hro). Llfe. 

Ti tAllii, «, acy. (rito). Oforbe- 
longing to llfe, vltiU; tita, L e. 
tnie life. 

Tltio, Sre, art, Sium, y. tr. (rl- 
Hum), To Ji^nre, cormpt, infect. 

Tltidse, adv. {vftioaus). Faulti- 
ly, corroptly, defectlTelj, badly. 

vltidaoa, a, um, adj. {^vUiumy 
Faalty, defectiye, deprayed, oor- 

Titis, M, f. (prob. vieo, to plait). 
A Tine, grape-vine. 

Tltiam, i, n. Vice, defect, 

Tito, ore, aet, ahm, t. tr. and 
intr. To avoid, shnn, evade. 

TltfilDS, t, m. A calf. 

Tlttip<irfttio, dntf, f. {vUi^aro). 
A blaming, censaring, censnre, a 
cliari^ against. 

Tltfi|>dro. ar$f art, atum, v. tr. 
{vUium, pdro), To blume, cen- 
Bure, disparage, find faalt with. 

TlT&riom, t, n. {vivut). A park, 
an encloeure in which game is 

Tlvlrfidiz, ictff, f. (rirtcff, r&- 
dix). A layer or catting having a 
root, qulck-set. 

Tivo, dre, vixi, victum, t. intr. 
To live ; to last, endure. 

Tivns, a, um, a^). (rii^o). Alive, 
liviiig; natural, unwronght; ad 
virum, to the quick. 

Tiz, adv. Withdifflcalty.hard. 
ly, ficarcely. 

Tobiacum, abl. plnr. of tu, 
with tho prep. eum appended. 

Tdc&lis, e, &6j. (roar). Vocal, 

t5co, are, avi, atum, v. tr. {vox). 
To call, name, summon, invite ; to 
implore, snpplicate. 

YdcdniiM, a, um, a^j. Voco- 

Tftl&tas, tcff, m. {vdlo). Flight 

Tdllto, are, avi, atum, v. intr. 
(freq. ot vdlo, 1). To ily to and 
fro, flit uhout. 

Tdlo, are, dvi, Stum, v. intr. 
To fly, hasten, speed along. 

Tdlo, velle, rdlut, v. irr. To 
wish, desire, be willing, choose, 
will; toorder; togrant. 

Tolt, archaic form for vult. 

jdlfibllis, e, a4j. {volvo). Roll- 
ing, coiling. 

Tdltteer, crie, ere, acy. {vdh, 1). 
Flying, winged. 

Tdlficris, tff, f., and ntely m. 
{vdktcer, 8c. alee). A bird. 

Tolfimen, rntff, n. (ro/ro). A 
whirl, reYolotion. 

Tdlnnt&rins, a, um, a^J. {v»- 
btntas). Of one'8 own free will, 

Tolnntas, Sti», f. {vdh, 2). In- 
clination, will, wish, choice, de- 

Tdlnptas, Stia, f. {vdUipe, pleas- 
antly). Pleasore, eigoyment, de- 
light (l)oth sensnal and spiritaal). 

Tolfito, Sre, Svi, atum, v. tr. 
(freq. of volvo). To roU over; 
to ponder, meditate opon. 

toIto, ire, vohi, vdluium, v. 
tr. To roll, tom aroond, revolve, 
tomble, plonge. 

T5mer, iris, m. A ploogh- 

Tdmltns, tfff, m. (rAno). A 
throwing op, vomiting. 

Tdmo, ire, ui, ttum, v. tr. and 
intr. To throw up, vomit; to 
pour forth. 

T5r&go, (ntff, f. {vdro, to de- 
voor). An abyss, chasm, whirl- 

T5tam, t, n. {vdveo). A vow; 
a wisb, desire, hope. 

Toveo, ire, vovi, votum, v. tr. 



To vow, consecrate, devote, dedi- 
catc ; to wisb, desire. 

vox, vocia, f. (vOco), A voice, 
cry, uttcrance, word, speech, song, 

Yulcanius, a, tim, a(^. Fer- 
taiiiing to Vnlcan, Vulcanian. 

Yulcanns, t, m. The god of 
6re, 8on of Jupitcr and Jnno. 

vulgaris, e, adj. {vulffus), Of 
or belonging to the great mass, 
gcncral, ustial, ordiuary, com- 
monplace, vulgar. 

vulgo, adv. {vulgua), Com- 
monly, gcnerally. 

Tulgo, are, avi, atum, v. tr. 
' {v%ilgus), To spread abroad ; to 
publish, divulge, make known. 

Tolgns, t, n. The great mass, 
the people, throng, crowd; tbe 
common soldiers. 

TUlnSro, are\ avi, atum, v. tr. 
{vtUnus). To wonnd. 

Talnos, iria, n. A wound. 

Tultus, t», m. (prob. vdlo). An 
expression of conntenance, the 
countenance, visage, looks; air, 
mien, expression, aspect. 


Xanthns, t, m. A river of 

XSnocr&tes, u, m. A ccle- 
bratedphilosopher, a disciple of 
Flato, and native of Chalcedon. 

Xendphon, ontisy m. A cele- 
brated Grecian historian and phi- 
losopher, a pupil of Socriltcs and 
leader bf the Greeks in the retreut 
of the 10,000. 

Xerxes, t«, m. Xerxes, son of 
Darlus Hystaspis, king of Persia. 

Zeno, onist m. The fonnder 
of the Stoic school of philosophy, 
a native of Citium, in Cyprus. 
He fiourished about 275 B. C. 

zSphyros, t, m. The west- 

zdna, <u, f. A ghdle ; a circlot 
belt, zone. 



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AMONQ THE BRIGANDS. IQmo. lUustrated. $1.50. 
Completiug Thb Youno Dodgs Club Sebies. 3 vols. 
IUustrated. Per vol., $1.50. 



Prof . DeMiUe'B books are noted f or their abundant hainor as weU as f or 
BtirriDg adventures and usef ul inf ormation. 

MISS THISTLEDOWN. 18mo. niustrated. $0.75. 
LITTLE GRANDFATHER. 18mo. lUustrated. $0.75. 

lustrated. Per vol., $0.75. 







*< Lif e and Nature are as charming in small editions, and sonietJmeB 
moie^ than in large ones ; and, if Dotty and Prudy were not the pictures 
of infantile good humor and kitten wit, we hanUy know where to look f or 
such things." — Bo%Um Poit.